全氟和多氟烷基化合物(Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances,PFASs)作为一类人工合成的化学物质,在食品接触材料中被广泛使用。越来越多的研究表明,食物可以作为PFASs的载体,使PFASs进入人体,在血液和器官中积聚分布,从而导致各类健康问题。本文对PFASs的危害及在食品中的污染研究进行了概述,综述了PFASs在饮用水、乳及乳制品、肉类、蛋类、水产品及果蔬等食品中的污染情况,分析了PFASs通过大气、水源、土壤等进入食物的途径,总结了PFASs对人体的危害:导致心肌发育毒性、使细胞膜病变和改变人体胆固醇水平。在此基础上,提出了减少食品中PFASs的应对措施。减少食品包装中PFASs的过度使用,寻找新的PFASs替代物,减少PFASs经食品摄入,正成为我国食品行业亟待解决的问题。
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances(PFASs)are widely used in food contact materials as a class of synthetic chemicals. Increasing studies have shown that food can be used as a carrier for PFASs,allowing PFASs to enter the human body. The PFASs can be accumulated and distributed in the blood and organs,thus leading to a variety of health problems. In this paper,the research progress on the harm of PFASs and their contamination in food was reviewed. The pollution situation of PFASs in drinking water,milk and dairy products,meat,eggs,aquatic products,fruits and vegetables are summarized. The pathway in which PFASs entered food through the atmosphere,water,and soil is analyzed. Moreover,the hazards of PFASs to humans are summarized as follows:Leading to myocardial developmental toxicity,causing cell membrane lesions,and changing in human cholesterol levels. On this basis,the countermeasures for reducing PFASs in food are proposed. They are becoming urgent problems to be solved,including reducing the overuse of PFASs in food packaging,finding new substitutes for PFASs,and reducing the intake of PFASs through food.