Variation in the Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Sphallerocarpus gracilis Stems and Leaves among Different Harvesting Time

Shihan BAO Yuying HE Chun WANG Wenna MA Xuebing WANG Xiangyu SUN Tingting MA

鲍诗晗,何玉英,王纯,等. 不同采收期黄参茎叶化学成分及生物活性变化[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(7):27−42. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030315
引用本文: 鲍诗晗,何玉英,王纯,等. 不同采收期黄参茎叶化学成分及生物活性变化[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(7):27−42. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030315
BAO Shihan, HE Yuying, WANG Chun, et al. Variation in the Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Sphallerocarpus gracilis Stems and Leaves among Different Harvesting Time[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(7): 27−42. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030315
Citation: BAO Shihan, HE Yuying, WANG Chun, et al. Variation in the Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Sphallerocarpus gracilis Stems and Leaves among Different Harvesting Time[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(7): 27−42. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030315

不同采收期黄参茎叶化学成分及生物活性变化

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030315
详细信息
  • 中图分类号: TS201.1

Variation in the Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Sphallerocarpus gracilis Stems and Leaves among Different Harvesting Time

More Information
    Corresponding author: 马婷婷(1987−),女,博士,副教授,研究方向为:食品新资源开发,E-mail: matingting@nwafu.edu.cn
  • 摘要: 本文分析了不同采收期黄参茎叶(SLSG)的化学成分及生物活性变化,以期为该资源的进一步开发利用提供新信息和科学建议。结果表明对于SLSG中的大多数营养物质,其在秋季采收样品中的含量高于春季采收样品,在次年采收样品中的含量高于同年采收样品。通过体外模拟消化发现,SLSG对于大部分矿物元素有较好的释放率。SLSG对氨基酸的释放率,尤其是色氨酸、甘氨酸、脯氨酸和谷氨酸(约为6%~11%),略低于其他营养物质。L7G和A7O是SLSG中主要的酚类物质,并且在模拟血清吸收中检测出48%~55%的总酚和40%~47%的单体酚。SLSG具有良好的抗氧化能力、α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制作用及体外保肝作用。多酚类物质和氨基酸是这些生物活性功能的主要来源。采收期T4的大多数指标测定结果最优,包括Ca、Zn、Cu、Se、Na、P、酚类物质含量,抗氧化能力,α-淀粉酶及α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制作用等。上述结果加深了对SLSG化学成分及生物活性的认识,并且为该资源的进一步开发利用提供了新信息和科学建议。
  • Figure  1.  The flow chart of the digestion experiment

    Figure  2.  Changes in the mineral elements of S. gracilis stems and leaves with different harvest time during in vitro GI digestion

    Notes: (A):K, (B):Mg, (C):Ca, (D):Fe, (E):Zn, (F):Cu, (G):Se, (H):Mn, and (I):Na and P. Different lowercase letters showed significant differences among different harvest time at P < 0.05; different capital letters showed significant differences among the different digestion phases at P < 0.05; Different lowercase and capital letters of Table 1, Table 2, Fig.3Fig.5 had the same meaning with Fig.2.

    Figure  3.  Changes in the polyphenols of S. gracilis stems and leaves with different harvest time during in vitro GI digestion

    Notes:(A):TP;(B)HPLC chromatogram of the SLSG samples;Peak 1 L7G, peak 2 A7O, peak 3 A7OI-1, and peak 4 A7OI-2. (C):L7G, (D):A7O, (E):A7OI-1, (F):A7OI-2.

    Figure  4.  Changes in the antioxidant ability of S. gracilis stems and leaves with different harvest time during in vitro GI digestion

    Notes:(A):DPPH; (B):ABTS; (C):ORAC; (D):FRAP.

    Figure  5.  Changes in the inhibitory effects of S. gracilis stems and leaves harvested at different time on α-amylase and α-glucosidase during in vitro GI digestion

    Notes:(A): α-amylase;(B): α-glucosidase.

    Figure  6.  The hepatoprotective effect in vitro of S. gracilis stems and leaves harvested at different time during in vitro GI digestion.

    Notes: (A) Cell viability and (B) AST, ALT and AKP activities of BRL hepatocytes injured with CCl4 (X ± SD; n = 5). Different letters in the same column showed significant differences among different groups (P < 0.05).

    Table  1.   The essential amino acid content in the SLSG samples harvested at different time during in vitro GI digestion (g/100 g DW)

    Amino acidHarvest timeRawOralStomachSerumColon
    LysT1389.23 ± 17.09dA98.29 ± 5.98cD122.31 ± 7.44cC249.39 ± 10.21dB37.48 ± 2.09dE
    T2798.12 ± 24.88bA211.28 ± 12.09aD277.48 ± 14.09aC509.09 ± 34.13bB65.98 ± 3.48bE
    T3443.28 ± 28.09cA112.09 ± 8.11bD149.09 ± 10.49bC301.28 ± 15.28cB44.57 ± 3.14cE
    T4844.09 ± 30.12aA212.19 ± 10.09aD287.09 ± 22.47aC568.09 ± 34.87aB72.09 ± 4.75aE
    TrpT120.09 ± 0.98dA1.81 ± 0.22dC2.03 ± 0.12dC2.98 ± 0.23dB0.98 ± 0.09dD
    T235.11 ± 2.11bA3.09 ± 0.09bD3.48 ± 0.18bC4.43 ± 0.32bB1.23 ± 0.12cE
    T327.12 ± 2.22cA2.33 ± 0.18cD2.87 ± 0.19cC3.48 ± 0.21cB1.42 ± 0.11bE
    T440.98 ± 3.09aA3.57 ± 0.13aD4.01 ± 0.33aC5.78 ± 0.34aB2.38 ± 0.18aE
    PheT1387.09 ± 17.09cA122.98 ± 8.09cD287.49 ± 21.09cB245.98 ± 11.78dC67.49 ± 4.78cD
    T2757.12 ± 26.09bA233.18 ± 21.09bD572.38 ± 34.78bB500.98 ± 23.76bC109.09 ± 7.87bD
    T3400.12 ± 18.89cA134.28 ± 12.09cD309.17 ± 16.09cB275.09 ± 13.87cC75.98 ± 6.76cD
    T4819.29 ± 44.09aA264.31 ± 18.09aD617.09 ± 34.09aB566.97 ± 13.09aC130.98 ± 11.67aD
    MetT1156.49 ± 7.28cA75.41 ± 2.43cD80.98 ± 3.21cC89.37 ± 4.58cB10.48 ± 0.78cE
    T2178.12 ± 10.24bA92.38 ± 3.22bD98.87 ± 3.09bC112.48 ± 5.09bB14.37 ± 1.09bE
    T3177.48 ± 5.98bA95.42 ± 3.19bC99.86 ± 3.28bC118.41 ± 6.54bB19.47 ± 1.15aD
    T4193.09 ± 5.55aA102.38 ± 2.98aD106.65 ± 2.34aC130.28 ± 3.45aB14.64 ± 1.34bE
    ThrT1344.29 ± 20.38dA118.22 ± 7.09dC93.27 ± 4.09cD140.38 ± 10.53dB44.37 ± 2.48bE
    T2631.04 ± 28.47bA199.47 ± 10.44bC167.59 ± 9.09bD248.87 ± 14.57bB72.48 ± 4.33aE
    T3398.09 ± 28.38cA139.09 ± 8.48cC100.23 ± 5.68cD166.47 ± 8.58cB38.47 ± 2.09cE
    T4703.47 ± 30.98aA238.48 ± 12.49aC201.37 ± 12.45aD287.47 ± 17.28aB77.47 ± 4.33aE
    IleT1231.09 ± 14.28dA37.18 ± 2.38cD48.38 ± 2.98dC76.49 ± 4.09dB23.09 ± 2.38cE
    T2381.42 ± 22.89bA65.48 ± 2.22bD79.48 ± 3.88bC122.39 ± 8.77bB39.48 ± 2.43aE
    T3288.48 ± 17.28cA57.58 ± 4.09cC55.48 ± 2.09cC107.09 ± 5.09cB27.33 ± 1.98bD
    T4443.09 ± 23.22aA78.09 ± 2.47aD97.28 ± 3.89aC139.48 ± 7.04aB39.48 ± 3.09aE
    LeuT1412.38 ± 14.48dA159.09 ± 10.44dD277.38 ± 20.45dC337.09 ± 18.39dB39.47 ± 1.09cE
    T2676.71 ± 32.09bA239.01 ± 19.42cD429.09 ± 25.58bC534.06 ± 22.98bB65.58 ± 2.98bE
    T3588.47 ± 17.38cA218.48 ± 17.09cD377.98 ± 30.75cC467.14 ± 23.09cB69.48 ± 3.21bE
    T4748.58 ± 30.41aA288.47 ± 17.34aD453.47 ± 22.49aC609.48 ± 19.38aB85.42 ± 3.92aE
    ValT1409.33 ± 30.09dA105.58 ± 5.48dD132.09 ± 4.58dC158.49 ± 8.59dB40.09 ± 3.28cE
    T2681.42 ± 38.98bA189.48 ± 7.09bD223.41 ± 9.28bC287.57 ± 14.28bB58.49 ± 3.09bE
    T3499.58 ± 28.31cA129.24 ± 5.44cD174.28 ± 10.49cC208.92 ± 20.48cB60.91 ± 3.98bE
    T4808.21 ± 43.28aA217.42 ± 9.48aD248.97 ± 8.98aC338.56 ± 23.41aB89.47 ± 5.58aE
    TEAT12349.99 ± 121.67dA718.56 ± 42.11dD1043.93 ± 63.96dC1300.17 ± 68.40dB263.45 ± 16.97dE
    T24139.06 ± 185.7bA1233.37 ± 75.66bD1851.78 ± 99.97bC2319.87 ± 123.90bB426.70 ± 25.39bE
    T32822.62 ± 146.53cA888.51 ± 58.67cD1268.96 ± 79.06cC1647.88 ± 93.14cB337.63 ± 22.42cE
    T44600.80 ± 210.74aA1404.91 ± 73.07aD2015.93 ± 107.04aC2646.11 ± 118.86aB511.93 ± 34.86aE
    Note: SLSG: Stems and leaves of Sphallerocarpus gracilis; TEA: Total essential amino acids. Table 2 was the same.
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    Table  2.   The nonessential amino acid content in SLSG samples harvested at different times during in vitro GI digestion (g/100 g DW)

    Amino acidHarvest timeRawOralStomachSerumColon
    TyrT1701.27 ± 10.09bA187.28 ± 8.98aD204.48 ± 10.09bC298.76 ± 13.29aB89.87 ± 4.38bE
    T2725.17 ± 28.81abA199.21 ± 13.09aC211.28 ± 18.28abC309.97 ± 22.09aB92.09 ± 3.09bD
    T3737.09 ± 28.47aA209.18 ± 15.48aC233.57 ± 15.49aC320.91 ± 25.47aB84.38 ± 4.41cD
    T4711.23 ± 8.87bA202.09 ± 13.28aD227.09 ± 13.89aC316.27 ± 22.38aB98.11 ± 3.98aE
    AspT11374.31 ± 87.39dA278.87 ± 18.28dD319.28 ± 28.38dC564.87 ± 37.19dB129.74 ± 7.47dE
    T22239.09 ± 110.28bA468.76 ± 22.38bD558.41 ± 34.09bC908.49 ± 40.21bB293.47 ± 12.38bE
    T31588.47 ± 73.98cA328.17 ± 17.09cD365.09 ± 28.38cC698.41 ± 22.09cB198.38 ± 10.92cE
    T42980.19 ± 109.38aA633.28 ± 36.47aD709.28 ± 38.77aC1272.09 ± 78.88aB322.09 ± 14.87aE
    SerT1566.38 ± 29.38dA141.29 ± 7.98cD154.87 ± 10.22cC249.09 ± 8.09dB78.09 ± 3.98dE
    T2792.09 ± 22.09bA202.09 ± 11.09bC212.31 ± 13.28bC349.18 ± 19.28bB112.44 ± 8.87bD
    T3644.31 ± 10.09cA138.98 ± 8.09cD162.09 ± 10.23cC288.47 ± 18.28cB89.02 ± 4.47cE
    T4904.87 ± 20.87aA218.29 ± 13.09aC230.47 ± 13.44aC431.09 ± 28.09aB127.48 ± 5.81aD
    GlyT1550.47 ± 38.09dA61.98 ± 3.28cC65.44 ± 5.31cC80.98 ± 3.29bB43.09 ± 3.01bD
    T2647.36 ± 20.87bA70.39 ± 2.98bC74.09 ± 6.09bC88.09 ± 3.97aB39.28 ± 2.09cD
    T3612.37 ± 19.27cA68.27 ± 4.38bD75.49 ± 2.02bC84.18 ± 4.31bB39.01 ± 2.11cE
    T4739.07 ± 23.28aA79.87 ± 4.99aC83.29 ± 2.98aC92.91 ± 3.21aB48.28 ± 3.88aD
    HisT1258.87 ± 10.21aA65.49 ± 3.09cD85.49 ± 4.21bC109.28 ± 2.98aB31.09 ± 1.98bE
    T2273.78 ± 23.19aA77.38 ± 2.01bD93.48 ± 2.18aC102.31 ± 3.11bB38.29 ± 2.44aE
    T3260.18 ± 20.18aA68.92 ± 3.21cC95.09 ± 5.41aB97.19 ± 2.09cB28.22 ± 1.98cD
    T4270.98 ± 23.19aA83.27 ± 3.92aD88.48 ± 2.09bC105.37 ± 3.24abB30.91 ± 3.29bE
    ProT1609.27 ± 39.09dA35.47 ± 2.19cD49.18 ± 2.37dC63.29 ± 2.18dB35.21 ± 3.09cD
    T21002.39 ± 30.14bA76.29 ± 3.18bD87.49 ± 3.19bC99.09 ± 6.98bB40.19 ± 3.18aE
    T3710.28 ± 28.91cA55.38 ± 3.09cD63.48 ± 2.19cC83.28 ± 4.49cB38.18 ± 3.48cE
    T41098.09 ± 34.18aA80.29 ± 6.38aD90.41 ± 4.58aC101.21 ± 7.09aB42.19 ± 2.89aE
    AlaT11389.09 ± 43.19dA578.18 ± 29.34dD639.18 ± 29.48dC981.28 ± 44.03bB198.49 ± 8.38cE
    T21567.48 ± 39.04bA676.19 ± 30.48bD749.19 ± 34.09bC1048.29 ± 59.48bB219.48 ± 12.34abE
    T31477.67 ± 29.38cA622.41 ± 33.18cD701.28 ± 19.28cC1010.48 ± 49.28bB203.48 ± 19.48bE
    T41687.28 ± 50.49aA770.49 ± 40.39aD838.09 ± 23.42aC1147.49 ± 29.48aB233.14 ± 18.29aE
    GluT1982.09 ± 49.58dA109.21 ± 3.19dD148.39 ± 8.09dC199.09 ± 9.28dB87.19 ± 4.29dE
    T22035.38 ± 104.28bA221.09 ± 11.41bD331.08 ± 15.39bC439.18 ± 22.49bB177.09 ± 5.29bE
    T31366.27 ± 88.49cA154.27 ± 8.91cD218.21 ± 10.21cC279.19 ± 5.41cB112.04 ± 4.98cE
    T42356.87 ± 149.51aA265.48 ± 14.09aD378.29 ± 18.41aC479.09 ± 14.21aB201.48 ± 7.08aE
    CysT1133.28 ± 4.81cC25.12 ± 1.09bD31.47 ± 2.09cC41.28 ± 2.48bB11.21 ± 0.87bE
    T2154.38 ± 7.09abA31.09 ± 2.11aD38.91 ± 1.43bC47.58 ± 2.33aB10.09 ± 1.21bE
    T3147.09 ± 4.11bA32.17 ± 2.87aD41.28 ± 2.04aC42.81 ± 1.58bB13.18 ± 1.45aE
    T4160.28 ± 3.98aA34.18 ± 2.34aD39.18 ± 2.11aC49.21 ± 2.41aB14.09 ± 1.09aE
    ArgT1377.48 ± 18.27dA132.15 ± 8.11dD158.04 ± 7.09dC219.09 ± 12.09dB37.84 ± 2.48cE
    T2482.18 ± 22.08bA176.09 ± 4.09bD199.74 ± 10.38bC301.28 ± 15.86bB49.88 ± 3.99bE
    T3429.09 ± 17.18cA148.09 ± 3.98cD179.28 ± 7.58cC254.87 ± 15.22cB54.98 ± 2.09aE
    T4512.01 ± 23.81aA201.98 ± 6.88aD221.09 ± 13.19aC287.98 ± 8.09aB56.18 ± 4.58aE
    TAAT19292.50 ± 451.77dA2333.60 ± 127.64dD2899.75 ± 171.29dC4107.18 ± 203.30dB1005.27 ± 56.90dE
    T214058.36 ± 593.62bA3431.95 ± 178.48bD4407.76 ± 238.37bC6013.33 ± 319.70bB1499.00 ± 80.27bE
    T310795.44 ± 466.59cA2714.35 ± 158.95cD3403.82 ± 181.89cC4807.67 ± 241.36cB1198.50 ± 77.79cE
    T416021.67 ± 658.30aA3974.13 ± 214.90aD4921.60 ± 239.92aC6928.82 ± 315.94aB1685.88 ± 100.62aE
    TEA/TAA(%)T125.2930.7936.0031.6626.21
    T229.4435.9442.0138.5828.47
    T326.1532.7337.2834.2828.17
    T428.7235.3540.9638.1930.37
    Note: TAA: Total amino acid.
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    Table  3.   Mass spectral data and contents of the phenolic compounds identified in the SLSG

    PeakRt (min)MWMS (m/z)MS2 (m/z)Identified compounds
    130.66448447 [M−H]285Luteolin-7-O-glucoside
    239.44490489 [M−H]285Acacetin-7-O-acetyglycoside
    341.79490489 [M−H]285Acacetin-7-O-acetyglycoside isomer 1
    448.87490489 [M−H]285Acacetin-7-O-acetyglycoside isomer 2
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-03-24
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-01-28

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