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中国精品科技期刊2020

鳕鱼骨低苦味多肽酶解制备及其特性研究

赵起越 鞠馨瑶 吴超 徐献兵 杜明

赵起越,鞠馨瑶,吴超,等. 鳕鱼骨低苦味多肽酶解制备及其特性研究[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(14):138−144. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040149
引用本文: 赵起越,鞠馨瑶,吴超,等. 鳕鱼骨低苦味多肽酶解制备及其特性研究[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(14):138−144. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040149
ZHAO Qiyue, JU Xinyao, WU Chao, et al. Preparation and Characteristics of Low-Bitter Peptides from the Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Cod Bone[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(14): 138−144. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040149
Citation: ZHAO Qiyue, JU Xinyao, WU Chao, et al. Preparation and Characteristics of Low-Bitter Peptides from the Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Cod Bone [J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(14): 138−144. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040149

鳕鱼骨低苦味多肽酶解制备及其特性研究

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040149
基金项目: 辽宁省“兴辽英才计划”项目“海产品蛋白高质化加工关键技术及产品开发”(XLYC1802047);大连市杰出青年科技人才项目“水产蛋白活性肽产业化制备关键技术”(2017RJ09)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵起越(1995−),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:水产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:18342272396@163.com

    通讯作者:

    徐献兵(1986−),男,博士,副教授,研究方向:水产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:xianbingxu@dlpu.edu.cn

    杜明(1977−),男,博士,教授,研究方向:水产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:duming@dlpu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S937.3

Preparation and Characteristics of Low-Bitter Peptides from the Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Cod Bone

  • 摘要: 本研究以鳕鱼骨为原料,通过控制水解度降低鳕鱼骨酶解液的苦味,并分析了水解物中的多肽与游离氨基酸对苦味的产生机制。结果表明通过木瓜蛋白酶适度水解2 h,鳕鱼骨酶解液水解度达到7.48%,苦味值为5.80,并且多肽主要分布在1500~2000 Da;另外,第一次酶解后将沉淀进行高压蒸煮热处理(121 ℃,30 min),使鱼骨表面变得松散,再次添加混合酶对沉淀进行酶解,以实现鳕鱼骨的深度水解,水解度达到49.24%,水解物中多肽分子量较小,主要分布在500~1000 Da,苦味值为6.03,游离氨基酸显著高于仅一次水解后的含量。通过控制水解度从而限制了苦味的产生,这种低苦味酶解肽的制备为其在食品中的应用奠定了基础。
  • 图  1  鳕鱼骨水解的工艺流程

    Figure  1.  The process flow diagram of cod bone hydrolysis

    图  2  适度水解不同时间下水解度的变化

    Figure  2.  The change of the degree of hydrolysis under different time of mild hydrolysis

    注:图中小写字母不同表示不同组之间差异显著(P<0.05);图3~图4同。

    图  3  适度水解不同时间下苦味强度和涩味强度的变化

    Figure  3.  The change of bitterness intensity and astringency intensity under different time of mild hydrolysis

    图  4  深度水解不同时间下水解度的变化

    Figure  4.  The change of degree of hydrolysis under different time of extensive hydrolysis

    图  5  一段酶解后(A)与二段酶解后(B)鳕鱼骨表面的扫描电镜图(150000×)

    Figure  5.  The scanning electron micrograph of cod bone surface after the first (A) and second (B) enzymolysis(150000×)

    图  6  适度水解(A)与深度水解(B)后鳕鱼骨酶解液中多肽分子量的分布

    Figure  6.  The molecular weight distribution of cod bone hydrolysates after mild (A) and extensive (B) hydrolysis

    表  1  两段式酶解后鳕鱼骨酶解上清液电子舌味道值

    Table  1.   The taste value of enzymatic supernatant electronic tongue after the second enzymolysis

    苦味涩味鲜味咸味
    一段酶解7.33±0.26a0.95±0.13a15.98±0.05a0.39±0.33a
    二段酶解6.03±0.45b0.55±0.25b16.64±0.18b1.31±0.25b
    注:同列不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  两段式酶解后鳕鱼骨酶解上清液游离氨基酸的含量

    Table  2.   The free amino acid content of cod bone hydrolysate supernatant after the second enzymolysis

    氨基酸一段水解(nmol/L)二段水解(nmol/L)上升幅度(%)
    天冬氨酸(Asp)17.97±0.2230.85±1.1371.68
    苏氨酸(Thr)9.21±0.2812.13±0.6531.70
    丝氨酸(Ser)10.73±0.0914.40±0.8634.20
    谷氨酸(Glu)6.23±0.569.33±0.1249.76
    脯氨酸(Pro)15.96±6.7521.24±3.3733.08
    甘氨酸(Gly)1.80±1.203.92±0.35117.78
    丙氨酸*(Ala)36.78±2.8851.31±1.8939.51
    半胱氨酸(Cys)8.17±1.7512.70±1.4755.45
    缬氨酸*(Val)11.61±2.6322.32±0.9992.25
    蛋氨酸*(Met)3.41±0.305.71±0.5767.45
    异亮氨酸*(Ile)17.16±0.2325.53±0.8448.78
    亮氨酸*(Leu)23.99±2.8733.90±7.3641.31
    酪氨酸(Tyr)51.58±2.3257.15±0.3710.80
    苯丙氨酸*(Phe)75.87±2.9692.13±1.1821.43
    赖氨酸(Lys)28.63±2.5640.57±2.8741.70
    组氨酸(His)2.06±0.512.55±0.4923.79
    精氨酸(Arg)146.67±1.50186.72±2.6827.31
    注:*为疏水性氨基酸。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  适度水解后鳕鱼骨酶解物的多肽序列

    Table  3.   The polypeptide sequence of cod bone hydrolysates after mild hydrolysis

    肽段分子量(Da)蛋白来源
    LVVDGVK728.4433肌酸激酶M型
    EAPLNPK767.4161肌动蛋白
    IIAPPER794.4624肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    KLEGDLK801.4564肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    FAGDDAPR847.3817肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    LQDLVDKL942.5384肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    IHLDDALR951.5119肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    AGFAGDDAPR975.4393肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    STHPHFVR979.4984肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    LTEAPLNPK981.5467肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    EQIDNLQR1014.5072肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    FAGDDAPRAV1017.4872肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    RDLTDYLM1041.4806肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    LGEQIDNLQR1184.6104肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    GSLEQEKKLR1186.6640肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    HHTFYNELR1215.5793肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    DLTDYLMKIL1223.6437肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    NWDDMEKIW1235.5254肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    ELEEISERLE1245.6106肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    RDLTDYLMKI1266.6615肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    TNWDDMEKIW1336.5770肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    WDDMEKIWHHTFY1806.7776肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    GIITNWDDMEKIWHH1893.8829肌动蛋白
    RDLTDYLMKIL1395.7397肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    LGEQIDNLQRVK1411.7757肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    NWDDMEKIWHH1509.6456肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    NWDDMEKIWHHT1610.6924肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    WDDMEKIWHHTF1643.7162肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    DLQHRLDEAEQLAL1650.8277肌球蛋白
    NWDDMEKIWHHTF1757.7578肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  深度水解后鳕鱼骨酶解物的多肽序列

    Table  4.   The polypeptide sequence of cod bone hydrolysates after extensive hydrolysis

    肽段分子量(Da)蛋白来源
    GAPGPAG525.2548胶原α-1(I)链
    AGAPGPA539.2696胶原α-1(I)链
    GAEGAPG557.2469胶原α-1(I)链
    ANGLAGA573.2981胶原α-1(I)链
    GAPGPAGAR752.3880胶原α-1(I)链
    APPHIFS767.3970肌球蛋白
    GPPGPTG581.2809胶原α-1(I)链
    GHRGFTG730.3507胶原α-1(I)链
    GAPGPQG582.2762胶原α-1(I)链
    GPSGNIG600.2865胶原α-1(I)链
    RGPPGPM710.3534胶原α-1(I)链
    ASGPAGPR711.3659胶原α-1(I)链
    TEAPLNPK868.4612肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    GQKDSYVG852.3982肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    AEREIVR871.4828肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    LQDLVDKLQ1070.5965肌球蛋白重链,骨骼肌
    GTTMYPGIADR1180.5560肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    VAPEEHPVL989.5160肌动蛋白
    IWHHTFY1002.4736肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    PGPGPMG611.2739胶原α-2(I)链
    SGPAGPR640.3296胶原α-1(I)链
    GPMGPRG670.3218胶原α-1(I)链
    GFSGLDGAKG907.4393胶原α-1(I)链
    ALPHAIM907.502肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    MYPGIADR921.4372肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    SGPMGPR700.3332胶原α-1(I)链
    VFPSIVG717.4045肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    APGPVGPAG721.3754胶原α-1(I)链
    NWDDMEKIWH1372.5861肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    RDLTDYLMKIL1379.7446肌动蛋白,α骨骼肌
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-24
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-07

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