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中国精品科技期刊2020

不同蒸制时间下鲟鱼背部肉的滋味特征差异分析

钟明慧 徐新星 刘康 李钰金 高瑞昌 白帆 赵元晖

钟明慧,徐新星,刘康,等. 不同蒸制时间下鲟鱼背部肉的滋味特征差异分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(14):55−60. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110055
引用本文: 钟明慧,徐新星,刘康,等. 不同蒸制时间下鲟鱼背部肉的滋味特征差异分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(14):55−60. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110055
ZHONG Minghui, XU Xinxing, LIU Kang, et al. Difference Analysis on the Taste Characteristics of Sturgeon under Different Steaming Time[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(14): 55−60. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110055
Citation: ZHONG Minghui, XU Xinxing, LIU Kang, et al. Difference Analysis on the Taste Characteristics of Sturgeon under Different Steaming Time[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(14): 55−60. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110055

不同蒸制时间下鲟鱼背部肉的滋味特征差异分析

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110055
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0901003)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    钟明慧(1995−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:水产品高值化利用研究,Email:zmh30220@163.com

    通讯作者:

    白帆(1984−),男,硕士,工程师,研究方向:水产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:bf@kalugaqueen.com

    赵元晖(1979−),男,博士,副教授,研究方向:水产品高值化利用研究,Email:zhaoyuanhui@ouc.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS254.4

Difference Analysis on the Taste Characteristics of Sturgeon under Different Steaming Time

  • 摘要: 通过仪器分析法对蒸制不同时间鲟鱼肉的非挥发性风味物质进行量化,包括游离氨基酸、风味核苷酸、有机酸、甜菜碱和无机离子;采用电子舌结合感官评价的方法对鲟鱼肉进行滋味分辨和味觉评价,以期为鲟鱼肉热加工过程中的质量控制提供理论参考。结果表明:在蒸制过程中,鲜味氨基酸和甜味氨基酸含量变化明显,在蒸制12 min时显著降低(P<0.05),蒸制16 min时显著升高(P<0.05);蒸制不同时间风味核苷酸含量存在差异,蒸制12~16 min时风味核苷酸总量最多,蒸制16 min时IMP+GMP的含量达到最大值;随着蒸制时间的延长,有机酸和无机离子总量在减少,其中乳酸、Na+和PO43-损失较为严重;电子舌的主成分分析(PCA)结果显示,鲟鱼肉在蒸制8 min后其滋味变化程度较小;感官评价的结果显示,蒸制16 min的鲟鱼肉具有较好的滋味和较高的整体可接受度。较长时间的蒸制并不会给鱼肉感官带来显著改善,反而会造成味感下降。因此,鲟鱼肉应在蒸制12~16 min内食用,蒸制16 min左右滋味最佳。
  • 图  1  鲟鱼背部肉蒸制过程中的传热曲线

    Figure  1.  Heat transfer curve of dorsal meat in sturgeon during steaming

    图  2  鲟鱼背部肉蒸制过程中无机离子含量的变化

    Figure  2.  Changes of inorganic ions contents of dorsal meat in sturgeon during steaming

    图  3  不同蒸制时间鲟鱼背部肉的主成分分析

    Figure  3.  Principal component analysis of dorsal meat in sturgeon at different steaming time

    图  4  不同蒸制时间对鲟鱼背部肉感官品质的影响

    Figure  4.  Effect of different steaming time on the sensory quality of dorsal meat in sturgeon

    表  1  感官评价标准

    Table  1.   Sensory evaluation criteria

    评分指标评分细则
    外观(满分4分)色泽均匀,肉质呈白色,表面富有光泽(4分);色泽较均匀,肉质粗糙稍黄,表面有光泽(3分);色泽不均匀,肉质粗糙稍黄,表面微有光泽(2分);色泽不均匀,肉质粗糙泛黄,表面光泽感差(1分)
    气味(满分6分)滋味鲜美,具有鱼肉特有香味,无异味(6分);滋味较为鲜美,具有鱼肉特有香味,无异味(5分);滋味较为鲜美,香味不足,无异味(4分);滋味鲜美不足,香味不足,无异味(3分);滋味鲜美不足,香味不足,无异味(2分);有异味(1分)
    组织形态(满分4分)形体饱满,有弹性,外形保持完好(4分);形体较为饱满,弹性较差,外形保持完好(3分);形体较为饱满,弹性较差,外形稍差(2分);形体饱满度差,无弹性,外形较差(1分)
    口感(满分6分)口感好,多汁,肉质嫩(6分);口感好,汁液较多,肉质嫩(5分);口感较好,汁液较多,肉质嫩(4分);口感较好,稍干,肉质稍有柴感(3分);口感差,稍干,肉质有柴感(2分);肉质干且柴感重(1分)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  鲟鱼背部肉蒸制过程中游离氨基酸含量的变化

    Table  2.   Changes of free amino acid contents of dorsal meat in sturgeon during steaming

    呈味物质呈味特征单位(mg/100 g)
    4 min8 min12 min16 min20 min
    天冬氨酸鲜/甜(+)1.28 ± 0.00c0.74 ± 0.02b0.20 ± 0.00a0.73 ± 0.01b0.45 ± 0.18b
    苏氨酸甜(+)2.86 ± 0.00a2.91 ± 0.01ab3.02 ± 0.05b2.86 ± 0.05a2.86 ± 0.09a
    丝氨酸甜(+)3.54 ± 0.01b3.89 ± 0.06c2.30 ± 0.04a3.80 ± 0.15c3.35 ± 0.10b
    谷氨酸鲜(+)1.35 ± 0.03a1.80 ± 0.55bc1.49 ± 0.05ab1.93 ± 0.50c1.62 ± 0.24abc
    甘氨酸甜(+)6.14 ± 0.01bc5.33 ± 0.63b3.87 ± 0.02a5.20 ± 0.50b6.49 ± 0.35c
    丙氨酸甜(+)8.71 ± 0.02ab8.73 ± 0.44ab9.25 ± 0.04b8.51 ± 0.25a9.97 ± 0.32c
    缬氨酸甜/苦(+)2.29 ± 0.07a2.13 ± 0.27a2.31 ± 0.04a2.09 ± 0.15a2.05 ± 0.17a
    甲硫氨酸苦/甜(−)0.97 ± 0.00ab0.85 ± 0.04a1.12 ± 0.00c0.87 ± 0.05ab0.99 ± 0.17bc
    异亮氨酸苦(−)1.65 ± 0.00a1.52 ± 0.15a1.72 ± 0.01a1.50 ± 0.09a1.47 ± 0.14a
    亮氨酸苦(−)2.61 ± 0.01bc2.40 ± 0.18ab2.70 ± 0.02c2.36 ± 0.11ab2.33 ± 0.10a
    酪氨酸苦(−)1.20 ± 0.01a1.09 ± 0.13a1.31 ± 0.00a1.04 ± 0.13a1.16 ± 0.20a
    苯丙氨酸苦(−)0.77 ± 0.01a0.68 ± 0.10a0.95 ± 0.01b0.67 ± 0.04a0.71 ± 0.04a
    赖氨酸苦/甜(−)2.15 ± 0.02a2.44 ± 0.13ab2.83 ± 0.07b2.38 ± 0.28ab2.43 ± 0.06ab
    组氨酸苦(−)2.41 ± 0.02ab2.34 ± 0.12ab2.57 ± 0.05b2.25 ± 0.17a2.30 ± 0.04a
    精氨酸甜/苦(+)1.08 ± 0.04a1.16 ± 0.04a1.35 ± 0.03b1.14 ± 0.08a1.20 ± 0.03a
    脯氨酸甜/苦(+)0.46 ± 0.02a0.45 ± 0.03a0.48 ± 0.14a0.40 ± 0.02a0.51 ± 0.11a
    鲜味氨基酸2.63 ± 0.03c2.54 ± 0.28bc1.75 ± 0.02a2.65 ± 0.25c2.27 ± 0.06b
    甜味氨基酸21.25 ± 0.01bc20.87 ± 0.68b18.43 ± 0.1a20.37 ± 0.24b20.67 ± 0.17c
    苦味氨基酸15.59 ± 0.02b15.06 ± 0.6ab17.35 ± 0.31c14.69 ± 0.11a15.14 ± 0.35ab
    注:每行中不同的字母表示各时间点之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05);表3表4同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  鲟鱼背部肉蒸制过程中风味核苷酸含量的变化

    Table  3.   Changes of flavor nucleotides contents of dorsal meat in sturgeon during steaming

    呈味物质呈味特性单位(mg/100 g)
    4 min8 min12 min16 min20 min
    AMP鲜/甜(+)47.81 ± 1.41a48.98 ± 0.11bc49.32 ± 0.35b48.55 ± 0.27c49.41 ± 3.27c
    IMP鲜(+)81.62 ± 0.96bc75.04 ± 1.76a81.47 ± 0.08bc83.18 ± 1.08c77.65 ± 1.39ab
    GMP鲜(+)7.56 ± 0.89a10.70 ± 1.68a7.88 ± 2.22a9.11 ± 3.41a10.69 ± 2.73a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  鲟鱼背部肉蒸制过程中有机酸、甜菜碱含量的变化

    Table  4.   Changes of organic acid and betaine contents of dorsal meat in sturgeon during steaming

    呈味物质呈味特性单位(mg/100 g)
    4 min8 min12 min16 min20 min
    苹果酸酸/苦(−)71.47 ± 2.51b70.15 ± 0.15ab68.64 ± 1.20ab67.29 ± 1.27ab67.74 ± 2.46b
    乳酸酸/苦(−)311.05 ± 9.30b304.51 ± 3.06b305.85 ± 2.35b285.77 ± 9.54ab277.08 ± 8.40a
    琥珀酸酸/鲜(+)9.63 ± 0.45b10.70 ± 0.29b6.34 ± 0.97a6.56 ± 0.41a6.06 ± 0.68a
    甜菜碱鲜/甜(+)220.22 ± 3.08a206.40 ± 3.11a214.12 ± 5.54a216.80 ± 5.09a220.90 ± 3.11a
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-08
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-07

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