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青稞的营养功能及其高值化利用研究进展

夏虎 晏熙玥 卢利聃 曹亚楠 彭镰心 邹亮 任远航 赵钢

夏虎,晏熙玥,卢利聃,等. 青稞的营养功能及其高值化利用研究进展[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(20):1−11. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080217
引用本文: 夏虎,晏熙玥,卢利聃,等. 青稞的营养功能及其高值化利用研究进展[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(20):1−11. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080217
XIA Hu, YAN Xiyue, LU Lidan, et al. Progress on Nutritional Function and High-value Utilization of Hulless Barley[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(20): 1−11. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080217
Citation: XIA Hu, YAN Xiyue, LU Lidan, et al. Progress on Nutritional Function and High-value Utilization of Hulless Barley[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(20): 1−11. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080217

青稞的营养功能及其高值化利用研究进展

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080217
基金项目: 龙泉驿区科技项目(2021LQYF0026);国家重点研发计划(2020YFD1001403);四川省科技厅区域创新合作项目(22QYCX0077);成都市科技局技术创新研发项目(2022-YF05-00431-SN)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    夏虎(1999−),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品加工与安全,E-mail:xiahu5575@foxmail.com

    通讯作者:

    任远航(1989−),男,博士,副研究员,研究方向:杂粮营养评价及精深加工,E-mail:renyuanhang@cdu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS213

Progress on Nutritional Function and High-value Utilization of Hulless Barley

  • 摘要: 近年来,青稞因其丰富的营养组成及独特的生物活性而受到广泛关注。青稞中抗性淀粉、Lunasin多肽、独特的脂肪酸和非淀粉多糖组成以及丰富的酚类物质令其在抗癌、降血糖、降血脂等方面具有良好的发展潜力,然而其加工利用程度低,高附加值产品少,限制了青稞产业的发展。本文从特色营养功能成分、生物活性、加工利用技术和高附加值产品开发现状四个方面对青稞研究进展进行了总结,以期促进青稞的深入研究和应用,为青稞产业持续发展提供进一步支持。
  • 图  1  青稞主要营养成分及功能活性物质

    Figure  1.  Main nutritional components and functional active substances of hulless barley

    表  1  常见谷类营养成分表[10-17]

    Table  1.   Nutritional composition of common Cereals[10-17]

    名称蛋白质(%)脂肪(%)碳水化合物(%)膳食纤维(%)灰分(%)总VA
    (μgRAE/100 g)
    烟酸
    (mg/100 g)
    总VE
    (mg/100 g)
    青稞10.62.976.113.43.006.71.0
    小麦11.91.375.211.61.604.01.8
    稻米7.72.775.03.91.201.3
    小米9.03.175.11.11.21.53.6
    高粱10.43.174.74.01.501.61.9
    荞麦9.51.773.04.02.422.24.4
    燕麦10.10.277.45.32.1Tr-0.9
    藜麦14.45.866.66.62.2Tr1.06.4
    注:−表示理论上存在一定量的该成分但实际未检测;Tr表示未检出或低于应用的检测方法的检出限。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  青稞的营养成分及其功能

    Table  2.   Nutritional components and functions of hulless barley

    类别成分功能主要内容参考文献
    淀粉RS降低酒精诱导的胃损伤青稞RS较低的粘度能够促进胃排空,减少乙醇在胃黏膜上的作用,并且通过调节氧化应激、炎症因子,改善中性粒细胞浸润来改善胃损伤水平。[64]
    蛋白质赖氨酸青稞蛋白质的第一
    限制氨基酸
    青稞中赖氨酸含量高达0.367 g/100 g,在促进人体生长发育、增强机体免疫力、抗病毒、促进脂肪氧化、缓解焦虑情绪等方面都具有积极作用。[65]
    Lunasin多肽抑制皮肤癌细胞增殖Lunasin多肽能够抑制小鼠表皮细胞增殖。[40,41]
    脂肪脂肪酸降血糖亚油酸、油酸、棕榈酸、α-亚麻酸是青稞最主要的脂肪酸,对α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制活性强于阿卡波糖,在降血糖方面有着不俗的效果。[52]
    麸皮油降血脂、抑制动脉硬化青稞麸皮油通过提高大鼠血液中TIMP-1水平,抑制MMP-9活性,在抑制炎症反应与细胞外基质降解的同时,降低TC、TG、LDL-C水平,提高HDL-C水平,通过改善脂代谢抑制动脉硬化的形成。[66]
    非淀粉多糖β-葡聚糖降血脂青稞β-葡聚糖可与胆酸发生有效结合,胆酸在肠道内的重吸收作用减弱,胆汁酸的分泌增加,肝脏内胆酸合成的限速酶CYP7A1表达上升,胆酸合成速率加快,胆固醇代谢增强,肝脏内胆固醇水平降低,肝细胞表面LDLR活性提高,肝细胞内LDL-C转入增加,加快了血清中LDL-C的清除速率,
    从而降低血脂。
    [7]
    预防结肠癌β-葡聚糖通过降低特定的肠道菌群丰度,减少硫化氢的产生,从而对结肠癌起到预防作用。[9]
    一种水溶性
    多糖
    预防结肠癌该多糖组分通过TLR4、TRAF6、TAK1和NF-кB炎症通路,促进免疫抑制小鼠体内巨噬细胞的增殖和吞噬,同时抑制NF-кB从细胞质到细胞核的转移,诱导人结肠癌细胞凋亡。[5556]
    多酚抗氧化青稞游离态和结合肽提取物抗氧化活性差异显著,且不同提取方式对青稞多酚的组成和抗氧化活性影响较大。[5]
    抗肿瘤细胞
    增殖
    青稞多酚通过诱导细胞周期阻滞和细胞凋亡从而对HepG2,MDA-MB-231和Caco-2细胞表现出抗增殖活性。[54]
    降血糖青稞多酚通过靶向IRβ受体、影响SRS-1/P13K/Akt通路调节糖代谢,恢复葡萄糖耐受量异常小鼠的葡萄糖耐受量和胰岛素抵抗,促进糖原合成 ,
    降低血糖。
    [52]
    全谷物具有多种生物活性青稞全谷物在抗癌、抗肥胖、降血糖、降血脂、改善肠道菌群、调节胆固醇代谢等方面均有着不俗的效果。[54]、[58]、[6263]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同品种青稞淀粉颗粒的粒径及糊化性质[67]

    Table  3.   Grain size and gelatinization properties of starch granules in different varieties of hulless barley[67]

    青稞品种体积平均粒径(μm)糊化初始温度(℃)糊化焓(J·g−1崩溃值(BD)
    藏青32052.29±0.96a41.21±0.65b1196.67±153.14c667.00±1.00d
    昆仑12号39.30±2.83b47.98±5.10a1873.13±21.39a832.67±17.04ab
    肚里黄37.81±1.77bc41.94±6.24b1908.00±90.50a849.67±34.99a
    北青3号24.30±2.21d52.21±0.83a1357.33±81.68b740.67±26.58c
    北青6号33.60±3.38c50.81±1.62a1361.47±35.06b791.00±35.93b
    注:不同字母表示在0.05水平上显著。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  以青稞为主要原料的保健食品

    Table  4.   Health food with hulless barley as the main raw material

    序号名称主要原料功效批准文号
    1奇正牌青稞膳食纤维水苏糖咀嚼片青稞膳食纤维、水苏糖通便国食健注G20090032
    2奇正牌青稞紫苏油软胶囊辅助降血脂国食健注G20100315
    3青之元牌青稞银杏叶胶囊辅助降血脂国食健注G20100106
    4天知牌青稞红曲胶囊青稞、葛根、决明子、山楂、红曲米辅助降血脂国食健注G20140909
    5轻之®红曲植物甾醇酯八宝粥红曲、植物甾醇酯、糯米、大麦仁、赤豆、黑米、花生仁、红芸豆、青稞、
    银耳等
    辅助降血脂国食健注G20130457
    6虫草青稞酒青稞酒、虫草、藏红花调节体液免疫卫食健字(1997)第548号
    7青稞鹿茸酒调节体液免疫卫食健字(1997)第549号
    8奇正牌云山美良粉青稞蛋白、大豆蛋白、乳清蛋白、
    乳酸锌
    增强免疫力国食健字G20070424
    9英茂牌红景天胶囊红景天、青稞粉提高缺氧耐受力、对辐射危害有辅助保护功能国食健字G20060512
    10保生素片低聚糖、螺旋藻、麦绿素延缓衰老、改善胃肠道功能卫食健字(1997)第341号
    11大印象牌万康麦绿素片调节血脂、抗疲劳卫食健字(1999)第137号
    12金巴开牌麦绿素片大麦嫩叶调节血脂、抗疲劳、抗氧化卫食健字(1998)第250号
    13绿手指麦绿素片大麦苗、麦芽糊精免疫调节、延缓衰老卫食健字(2000)第0428号
    下载: 导出CSV
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