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超高压腌制对烤制猪肉品质的影响

王琳 冉佩灵 熊双丽 李安林

王琳,冉佩灵,熊双丽,等. 超高压腌制对烤制猪肉品质的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):19−26. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080360
引用本文: 王琳,冉佩灵,熊双丽,等. 超高压腌制对烤制猪肉品质的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):19−26. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080360
WANG Lin, RAN Peiling, XIONG Shuangli, et al. Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Curing on the Quality of Roasted Pork[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 19−26. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080360
Citation: WANG Lin, RAN Peiling, XIONG Shuangli, et al. Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Curing on the Quality of Roasted Pork[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 19−26. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080360

超高压腌制对烤制猪肉品质的影响

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080360
基金项目: 烹饪科学四川省高等学校重点实验室2021年开放基金项目(PRKX2021Z05)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王琳(1995−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品加工与安全,E-mail:18281538842@163.com

    通讯作者:

    熊双丽(1977−),女,博士,教授,研究方向:功能性食品加工与安全,E-mail: xiongshuangli@swust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS251

Effect of Ultra-high Pressure Curing on the Quality of Roasted Pork

  • 摘要: 为研究超高压处理对烤制猪肉腌制的影响,并优化其工艺。本研究以猪肋条肉为原料,采用单因素与响应面相结合的方法,研究超高压腌制对烤肉感官品质与脂肪氧化的影响,确定超高压腌制最佳工艺,并与常温常压腌制、低温常压腌制比较。结果表明:超高压腌制最佳条件为:180 MPa,温度15 ℃,腌制时间30 min,得到感官评分92.59,与预测值基本一致。经过超高压腌制的烤肉与常温常压腌制和低温常压腌制相比,感官评分分别提高了10.84%和9.52%,硬度和咀嚼性更低;丙二醛含量分别降低了41.90%和4.48%;过氧化值分别降低了21.29%和9.89%。采用PEN3型电子鼻检测烤肉挥发性物质,并对其响应值进行主成分分析(principal component analysis, PCA)。结果表明超高压腌制与常温常压腌制风味相似,两者与低温常压腌制风味差别较大。超高压腌制的烤肉在感官、脂肪氧化、质构等得到改善。
  • 图  1  压力对烤制猪肉感官评价及脂肪氧化的影响

    Figure  1.  Effects of pressure on the sensory evaluation and fat oxidation of roasted pork

    图  2  保压时间对烤制猪肉感官评价及脂肪氧化的影响

    Figure  2.  Effects of holding pressure time on sensory evaluation and fat oxidation of roasted pork

    图  3  温度对烤制猪肉感官评价及脂肪氧化的影响

    Figure  3.  Effects of temperature on sensory evaluation and fat oxidation of roasted pork

    图  4  压力和温度响应曲面图

    Figure  4.  Response surface graph of pressure and temperature

    图  5  压力和时间响应曲面图

    Figure  5.  Response surface graph of pressure and time

    图  6  三种腌制方式对烤制猪肉品质的影响

    Figure  6.  Effects of three curing methods on the quality of roasted pork

    注:不同小写字母表示同一指标差异显著(P<0.05)。

    图  7  三种腌制方式电子鼻数据主成分分析图

    Figure  7.  Principal component analysis diagram of electronic nose data for three curing methods

    表  1  响应面试验因素水平

    Table  1.   Response surface experimental factors and levels

    水平因素
    A 腌制压力(MPa)B 腌制温度(℃)C 保压时间(min)
    −11001510
    02002520
    13003530
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  烤肉感官评分标准与细则

    Table  2.   Criteria and detailed rules for sensory evaluation of roasted meat

    分类特征描述分值(分)
    滋味(30分)入口咸淡适宜,具有烤肉应有的滋味,肉香和香料味相得益彰30~21
    略微过咸或者略微偏淡,具有一些烤肉的滋味,香料味道过重掩盖了肉的味道或者香料味道过淡不能完全掩盖肉的腥味20~11
    过于咸或者过于淡,没有烤肉的滋味,全是香料味或没有香料味10~0
    香气(25分)具有烤熟肉和香料混杂的芳香气味,有令人愉悦的香气25~17
    有一些烤肉和香料混杂的味道,其中夹杂着一些烤焦的味道或者肉腥味16~8
    有烤焦气味和令人不愉快的难闻气味7~0
    色泽(20分)色泽金黄,让人有强烈的食欲20~14
    色泽偏白或黑,让人有一些食欲13~7
    色泽为白色或黑色,让人完全没有食欲6~0
    口感/嫩度(25分)口感软硬适中,既有嫩度,也有适当的嚼劲25~17
    口感偏嫩或偏老16~8
    没熟的嫩感或者过熟感7~0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  响应面试验设计和结果

    Table  3.   Design and results of response surface experiment

    试验号A 压力B 温度C 时间Y感官评分(分)
    1−1−1086
    21−1082
    3−11087
    411075
    5−10−186
    610−180
    7−10186
    810177
    90−1−188
    100191
    110−1192
    1201184
    1300089
    1400090
    1500089
    1600090
    1700088
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  方差分析结果

    Table  4.   Results of ANOVA

    差异来源平方和自由度均方FP显著性
    模型374.71941.6395.56<0.0001**
    A-压力120.121120.12275.7<0.0001**
    B-温度15.12115.1234.710.0006**
    C-时间4.514.510.330.0148*
    AB1611636.720.0005**
    AC2.2512.255.160.0573
    BC30.25130.2569.43<0.0001**
    A2183.411183.41420.94<0.0001**
    B20.04210.0420.0970.765
    C20.5210.521.180.3126
    残差3.0570.44
    失拟项0.2530.0830.120.9442NS
    纯误差2.840.7
    总离差377.7616
    注:**表示差异极显著,P<0.01;*表示差异显著,P<0.05,NS表示不具有显著性。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-31
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-17
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-03

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    《食品工业科技》青年编委专栏征稿 | 杂粮与主粮复配的营养学基础