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不同加工方式对羊肚菌水提液鲜味及抗氧化性能的影响

卢琪 薛淑静 杨德 王少华 李露

卢琪,薛淑静,杨德,等. 不同加工方式对羊肚菌水提液鲜味及抗氧化性能的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):27−33. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090237
引用本文: 卢琪,薛淑静,杨德,等. 不同加工方式对羊肚菌水提液鲜味及抗氧化性能的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):27−33. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090237
LU Qi, XUE Shujing, YANG De, et al. Effects of Different Processing Methods on Umami Taste and Antioxidant Capability of Water Extracts of Morchella esculenta[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 27−33. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090237
Citation: LU Qi, XUE Shujing, YANG De, et al. Effects of Different Processing Methods on Umami Taste and Antioxidant Capability of Water Extracts of Morchella esculenta[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 27−33. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090237

不同加工方式对羊肚菌水提液鲜味及抗氧化性能的影响

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090237
基金项目: 珍稀食用菌高效栽培与健康食品加工关键技术研发(2019ABA110),湖北省技术创新重大专项。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    卢琪(1986−),女,博士,助理研究员,研究方向:农产品加工与贮藏,E-mail:luqihzau@126.com

    通讯作者:

    李露(1962−),女,本科,研究员,研究方向:功能食品,E-mail:Lulilu2662@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TS201.1

Effects of Different Processing Methods on Umami Taste and Antioxidant Capability of Water Extracts of Morchella esculenta

  • 摘要: 本文研究了热加工(70、90 ℃)和非热加工(室温、超声、均质和超高压)对不同粒径羊肚菌水提液鲜味成分及抗氧化性能的影响,为羊肚菌的精深加工提供参考。采用高效液相色谱和氨基酸分析仪分别检测了提取液中5’-核苷酸(5’-CMP、5’-UMP、5’-XMP、5’-GMP、5’-IMP和5’-AMP)和游离氨基酸(17种)的含量,并计算、对比各加工条件下羊肚菌的等鲜度(EUC)。通过三种抗氧化法(DPPH、FRAP和ABTS)综合评价各提取液的抗氧化性能。结果表明,除室温处理外,其它处理下,超微粉碎(P2或P3,菌粉粒径分别为35.52和6.28 μm)不同程度地提升羊肚菌水提液中5’-核苷酸含量,但降低了提取液中呈鲜味氨基酸和总游离氨基酸(FAA)含量,使得菌粉的EUC值从106.58 g MSG/100 g~493.97 g MSG/100 g降低至74.70 g MSG/100 g~364.35 g MSG/100 g。相比室温处理,其它处理均能提高羊肚菌水提液的EUC值,但热处理降低了提取液的抗氧化性能,非热处理中HHP(超高压处理)能够取得最优的EUC值和理想的抗氧化效果,其中,未经超微粉碎的菌粉经HHP处理后具有最高EUC值和抗氧化能力,适用于羊肚菌水提液的精深加工。
  • 图  1  5’-核苷酸标准品的液相色谱图

    Figure  1.  HPLC chromatogram of 5’-nucleotide standards

    图  2  羊肚菌水提液中氨基酸和核苷酸含量的热图分析

    Figure  2.  Heat map analysis of free amino acid and nucleotide content in the water extracts of Morchella esculenta

    表  1  不同加工方式对羊肚菌水提液中5’-核苷酸含量的影响 (mg/100 g DM)

    Table  1.   Effects of different processing methods on 5’-nucleotide content in Morchella esculenta water extract (mg/100 g DM)

    处理方式粒径5’-CMP5’-UMP5’-XMP5’-GMP5’-IMP5’-AMP总计
    RTP1274.08±5.64jk102.04±3.26de010.01±0.36jk142.42±3.84f170.91±7.62g699.46±20.72g
    P2262.36±4.58k61.31±2.11gh014.85±0.84ijk92.26±5.78gh251.75±10.36f682.53±23.67g
    P3477.72±7.45g92.03±4.58e5.07±0.32j67.05±2.75e58.61±2.71i179.35±7.65g879.83±25.46f
    70 ℃P1589.04±8.99c76.87±2.84f36.60±1.62d79.14±2.89c299.50±9.65b351.19±12.16c1432.34±38.15a
    P2541.85±9.27d91.87±3.87e16.64±0.68g49.63±2.31f541.54±15.74a232.35±10.32f1473.88±42.19a
    P3508.34±8.65ef111.72±2.98cd62.53±2.30a41.24±1.65g165.29±5.23e248.39±9.48f1137.51±30.29bc
    90 ℃P1482.89±7.35fg93.12±3.57e14.91±0.62gh128.31±4.03b86.30±3.76gh183.64±7.55g989.17±26.88de
    P2588.15±9.18c129.07±3.97b24.76±1.03f194.36±4.25a92.26±4.91gh190.69±8.33g1219.29±31.67b
    P3513.88±10.21e120.02±4.06bc39.26±1.28d133.89±5.77b80.07±3.98ghi190.93±7.59g1078.05±32.89cd
    UTP1261.84±3.88k46.76±2.33i015.85±0.69ij310.73±10.35b121.33±5.36h756.51±22.61g
    P2471.10±6.23gh66.04±3.86g010.83±0.08jk212.54±9.26cd308.12±10.69de1068.63±30.12cd
    P3675.78±12.17a157.18±4.95a13.66±0.71h71.55±0.39de90.85±3.76gh201.51±9.32g1210.53±31.30b
    HGP1449.06±6.29h63.97±2.58g47.53±1.06c21.69±0.17hi230.80±9.09c407.60±13.03b1220.65±32.22b
    P2492.38±7.15efg71.58±3.02fg29.67±0.39e17.68±0.59ij140.33±6.55f469.36±15.01a1221.00±32.71b
    P3618.28±10.35b103.52±2.96d52.38±1.24b76.33±2.74cd104.33±4.65g256.62±9.38f1211.46±31.32b
    HHPP1293.18±5.56j52.28±1.99hi12.07±0.11hi7.50±0.06k201.88±9.78d297.14±11.62e864.05±29.12f
    P2354.17±5.97i44.41±1.97i14.71±0.25gh14.00±0.10ijk136.05±6.63f335.86±12.21cd899.20±27.13ef
    P3517.98±13.22de81.67±2.03f10.09±0.08i26.93±1.09h70.04±2.74hi306.47±13.25de1013.18±32.41d
    注:同列小写字母不同表示差异显著,P<0.05;表3同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同加工方式对羊肚菌水提液中游离氨基酸含量的影响 (mg/100 g DM)

    Table  2.   Effects of different processing methods on FAA content in Morchella esculenta water extract (mg/100 g DM)

    氨基酸RT70 ℃90 ℃UTHGHHP
    P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3P1P2P3
    Asp102.34±
    3.12j
    144.35±
    5.23gh
    146.57±
    4.81gh
    188.52±
    6.32d
    163.95±
    6.21efg
    131.56±
    5.14hi
    186.84±
    7.21d
    177.56±
    3.58ef
    176.20±
    8.26ef
    138.90±
    4.72ghi
    114.00±
    2.91ij
    105.00±
    4.32j
    177.00±
    6.48ef
    156.00±
    4.35fgh
    115.50±
    4.95ij
    810.75±
    15.26a
    535.21±
    14.23b
    422.72±
    16.14c
    Glu223.25±
    9.15ij
    221.42±
    7.39ij
    194.04±
    7.26jk
    370.41±
    12.15f
    273.25±
    13.52hi
    214.99±
    8.32j
    607.39±
    20.03d
    385.92±
    15.33ef
    428.77±
    15.69e
    225.60±
    8.31ij
    154.80±
    6.19k
    195.60±
    7.58jk
    339.00±
    10.66fg
    339.00±
    8.79fg
    313.20±
    12.12gh
    1380.47±
    32.14a
    1211.81±
    30.52b
    1090.56±
    28.97c
    Ala91.45±
    2.55gh
    76.82±
    2.21hij
    46.76±
    1.57k
    84.15±
    3.65ghi
    70.71±
    2.88hij
    57.22±
    1.96jk
    101.85±
    4.08g
    87.15±
    3.05ghi
    97.83±
    4.77g
    134.40±
    3.94f
    63.30±
    3.48ijk
    67.20±
    2.99hij
    225.56±
    8.68de
    231.12±
    5.49d
    206.41±
    8.05e
    521.65±
    18.29a
    436.06±
    19.15b
    320.89±
    10.67c
    Gly72.46±
    2.58ef
    55.39±
    2.65fghi
    45.86±
    2.06ghi
    57.96±
    2.20fghi
    60.24±
    2.12fgh
    37.44±
    1.02i
    58.71±
    2.24fghi
    51.24±
    1.58fghi
    52.14±
    3.68fghi
    66.30±
    2.94fg
    39.05±
    1.45hi
    45.24±
    2.06ghi
    87.00±
    3.48e
    114.00±
    4.91d
    69.25±
    3.06ef
    349.97±
    12.04a
    277.92±
    14.25b
    234.02±
    15.88c
    Pro000000000000000000
    Ser41.23±
    2.12j
    50.42±
    2.85ij
    56.75±
    3.46ij
    127.82±
    5.52fg
    122.44±
    4.65g
    103.84±
    4.68h
    196.95±
    6.92d
    145.43±
    6.65ef
    147.11±
    6.48e
    87.35±
    5.77h
    54.90±
    3.01ij
    36.65±
    2.23j
    51.00±
    2.06ij
    66.21±
    2.87i
    39.61±
    1.64j
    359.28±
    11.68a
    307.35±
    12.32b
    242.40±
    10.01c
    Thr*32.60±
    1.13j
    78.82±
    3.32h
    69.06±
    3.09hi
    175.53±
    8.25ef
    160.42±
    9.64f
    112.92±
    4.79g
    210.98±
    8.65d
    190.36±
    7.59de
    191.59±
    7.46de
    59.12±
    2.21hi
    49.50±
    3.56ij
    44.23±
    1.43ij
    81.26±
    3.69h
    78.55±
    2.52h
    64.23±
    2.57hi
    453.28±
    15.48a
    379.82±
    12.43b
    278.37±
    14.52c
    Arg*000000000000000000
    His00000000021.91±
    1.12d
    9.14±
    0.62f
    012.00±
    0.35ef
    18.57±
    1.21d
    14.15±
    0.68e
    78.65±
    2.87a
    65.46±
    3.14b
    44.74±
    3.05c
    Leu*82.02±
    3.54g
    36.34±
    2.06h
    51.63±
    2.12gh
    321.18±
    10.35ab
    256.51±
    11.12c
    321.18±
    13.25ab
    340.45±
    14.06a
    312.35±
    10.15ab
    340.35±
    14.69a
    192.93±
    10.23e
    195.65±
    11.45e
    152.44±
    10.12f
    243.00±
    12.57c
    237.52±
    13.52cd
    132.30±
    7.12f
    295.37±
    13.26b
    331.89±
    14.28a
    205.66±
    8.41de
    Ile*60.84±
    2.56f
    50.26±
    2.26fg
    25.52±
    2.11fg
    527.26±
    23.31a
    519.25±
    16.52a
    337.76±
    16.29b
    498.11±
    20.15a
    302.00±
    13.25c
    253.07±
    14.55d
    31.54±
    1.25fg
    19.28±
    1.06g
    20.40±
    1.25g
    36.45±
    2.25fg
    36.28±
    1.58fg
    23.44±
    1.11fg
    250.90±
    14.48d
    231.67±
    11.26d
    157.14±
    6.25e
    Met000000000000000000
    Phe*000267.70±
    10.28c
    268.60±
    14.65c
    183.78±
    10.02e
    91.41±
    7.54h
    75.15±
    2.17h
    144.92±
    8.65f
    137.10±
    7.28f
    144.35±
    6.15f
    227.71±
    7.59d
    255.64±
    10.06c
    153.81±
    8.09f
    132.93±
    3.15f
    395.41±
    13.77b
    476.71±
    15.62a
    416.46±
    13.32b
    Val*67.07±
    2.23ij
    60.23±
    3.50ij
    45.56±
    1.89j
    131.55±
    5.64de
    112.30±
    6.21defg
    124.93±
    7.06def
    94.81±
    3.33gh
    134.84±
    4.32d
    111.27±
    3.58defg
    99.31±
    5.58fgh
    83.74±
    2.14hi
    107.71±
    4.48efgh
    132.66±
    7.35de
    126.52±
    7.49de
    93.37±
    2.51gh
    412.62±
    16.32a
    375.83±
    15.87b
    227.05±
    16.39c
    Tyr00000000075.00±
    2.24e
    84.61±
    5.78e
    126.65±
    7.86d
    174.21±
    9.32b
    172.56±
    15.17bc
    130.88±
    10.26d
    162.11±
    6.55bc
    152.71±
    8.91c
    234.54±
    12.22a
    Lys*60.82±
    2.25fgh
    48.78±
    1.69hi
    42.04±
    1.58hi
    170.27±
    8.33c
    140.18±
    5.57d
    150.49±
    8.24d
    90.09±
    3.59e
    76.49±
    4.86ef
    70.42±
    5.48fg
    49.25±
    1.16hi
    39.76±
    2.58i
    51.64±
    1.26ghi
    69.55±
    5.18fg
    57.86±
    5.64fghi
    48.92±
    4.19hi
    216.26±
    12.36a
    237.52±
    10.07b
    182.32±
    6.67c
    Cys179.83±
    6.74fg
    139.51±
    8.28g
    249.59±
    10.03e
    419.23±
    16.15bc
    402.38±
    8.79c
    493.54±
    26.58a
    440.95±
    20.01bc
    398.69±
    18.87c
    455.10±
    19.97ab
    412.11±
    12.68bc
    332.00±
    15.58d
    325.58±
    20.04d
    401.22±
    10.87c
    455.61±
    23.15ab
    329.15±
    10.03d
    196.09±
    12.25f
    225.49±
    15.32ef
    207.32±
    5.89ef
    鲜味
    氨基酸
    325.59±
    12.27ij
    365.77±
    12.62hi
    340.61±
    12.07ij
    558.93±
    18.47ef
    437.20±
    19.73gh
    346.55±
    13.46ij
    794.23±
    27.24d
    563.48±
    18.91ef
    604.97±
    23.95e
    364.5±
    13.03hi
    268.80±
    9.10j
    300.60±
    11.90ij
    516.00±
    17.14f
    495.00±
    13.14fg
    428.70±
    17.07gh
    2191.22±
    47.40a
    1747.02±
    44.75b
    1513.28±
    45.11c
    甜味
    氨基酸
    237.74±
    8.38ij
    261.45±
    11.03ij
    218.43±
    10.18j
    445.46±
    19.62ef
    413.81±
    19.29efg
    311.42±
    12.45hi
    568.49±
    21.89d
    474.18±
    18.87e
    488.67±
    22.39de
    347.17±
    14.86gh
    206.75±
    11.50j
    193.32±
    8.71j
    444.82±
    17.91ef
    489.88±
    15.79de
    379.5±
    15.32fgh
    1684.18±
    57.49a
    1401.15±
    58.15b
    1075.68±
    51.08c
    苦味
    氨基酸
    346.68±
    16.20i
    269.41±
    16.17i
    281.62±
    16.36i
    1512.46±
    61.93b
    1462.28±
    65.84b
    1286.9±
    56.49cd
    1233.71±
    61.57de
    1108.89±
    40.14e
    1161.29±
    51.31de
    587.14±
    31.90gh
    630.81±
    31.64gh
    657.58±
    28.83fgh
    792.77±
    37.45f
    719.98±
    38.12fg
    560.76±
    21.72h
    1785.28±
    71.57a
    1783.69±
    76.59a
    1402.34±
    61.72bc
    无味
    氨基酸
    240.65±
    8.99gh
    188.29±
    9.97h
    291.63±
    11.61g
    589.50±
    24.48bcde
    542.56±
    14.36cdef
    644.03±
    34.82ab
    531.04±
    23.60def
    475.18±
    23.73f
    525.52±
    25.45ef
    536.36±
    16.08def
    456.37±
    23.94f
    503.87±
    29.16ef
    644.98±
    25.37ab
    686.03±
    43.96a
    508.95±
    24.48ef
    574.46±
    0.16bcde
    615.72±
    34.30abcd
    624.18±
    24.78abc
    总氨
    基酸
    1013.91±
    42.84h
    962.34±
    41.79h
    973.38±
    40.22h
    2841.58±
    112.50d
    2550.23±
    102.22de
    2269.65±
    105.22ef
    2918.54±
    116.30d
    2337.18±
    90.65ef
    2468.77±
    104.10def
    1730.82±
    69.87g
    1384.08±
    66.18g
    1506.05±
    73.60g
    2285.55±
    95.07f
    2243.61±
    103.01f
    1713.34±
    71.59g
    5882.81±
    118.62a
    5245.45±
    198.79b
    4264.19±
    168.69c
    EUC
    (g MSG/100 g)
    55.53±
    5.59g
    48.96±
    6.15g
    62.37±
    7.02g
    266.54±
    25.27cd
    247.09±
    28.56d
    94.40±
    9.87eg
    321.77±
    30.86bc
    287.25±
    27.41cd
    241.30±
    27.35d
    106.58±
    10.76efg
    58.61±
    6.45g
    74.70±
    6.47fg
    165.04±
    14.95e
    121.71±
    11.03efg
    140.99±
    15.16ef
    493.97±
    46.13a
    364.35±
    32.87b
    265.83±
    24.96cd
    注:鲜味氨基酸: Asp+Glu;甜味氨基酸:Ala+Gly+Ser+Thr+Pro;苦味氨基酸:Arg+His+Ile+Leu+Met+Phe+Trp+Val;无味氨基酸: Lys+Tyr+Cys;*代表必需氨基酸;同行不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同处理条件下羊肚菌提取液抗氧化能力对比

    Table  3.   The comparison of antioxidant abilities of Morchella esculenta extracts processed by different methods

    DPPH自由基清除能力
    (μmol AAE/mL)
    FRAP铁离子还原能力(μmol AAE/mL)ABTS阳离子自由基清除能力(μmol TE/mL)
    RT-P11974.03±61.54b1471.95±89.33c3.91±0.21b
    RT-P21661.94±27.04c1388.97±89.68cd3.53±0.14b
    RT-P31077.22±21.74ef980.92±45.01ef2.77±0.17c
    70 ℃-P1749.72±24.46g804.94±33.67fgh2.69±0.15c
    70 ℃-P21005.97±20.17f956.32±20.94efg2.52±0.15c
    70 ℃-P3544.58±10.25h541.84±26.22j1.69±0.12d
    90 ℃-P11010.55±22.20f783.79±12.78ghi2.73±0.16c
    90 ℃-P21006.67±18.30f944.37±48.68efg2.96±0.21c
    90 ℃-P3464.03±10.14h624.97±20.71ij2.44±0.14c
    UT-P11351.81±15.38d1434.02±64.23cd5.12±0.24a
    UT-P2772.78±72.13g1425.63±73.22cd3.63±0.21b
    UT-P3547.78±24.48h739.77±18.61hi3.57±0.03b
    HG-P11276.94±15.34d1294.02±64.18cd4.04±0.04b
    HG-P21114.86±19.70e1071.03±35.67e2.99±0.12c
    HG-P3833.61±18.44g1081.15±41.10e2.54±0.14c
    HHP-P12216.11±14.20a2322.87±93.90a5.25±0.28a
    HHP-P21943.61±22.45b1906.67±49.58b3.77±0.26b
    HHP-P3772.78±10.44g1282.64±61.43d3.76±0.22b
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-17
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-03

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