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新型燕麦酸奶制作工艺及其理化性质分析

祝烨媛 赵钢 王爱莉

祝烨媛,赵钢,王爱莉. 新型燕麦酸奶制作工艺及其理化性质分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):184−192. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100082
引用本文: 祝烨媛,赵钢,王爱莉. 新型燕麦酸奶制作工艺及其理化性质分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):184−192. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100082
ZHU Yeyuan, ZHAO Gang, WANG Aili. Processing Technology of A New Type of Oat Yogurt and Its Physical and Chemical Properties Analysis[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 184−192. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100082
Citation: ZHU Yeyuan, ZHAO Gang, WANG Aili. Processing Technology of A New Type of Oat Yogurt and Its Physical and Chemical Properties Analysis[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 184−192. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100082

新型燕麦酸奶制作工艺及其理化性质分析

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100082
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(32102125);四川省科技计划项目(2019YFS0526)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    祝烨媛(1997−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:杂粮加工,E-mail:zhuyeyuan0403@163.com

    通讯作者:

    王爱莉(1984−),女,博士,特聘副研究员,研究方向:杂粮加工产品和食品感官风味,E-mail:alicewang124@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TS252.54

Processing Technology of A New Type of Oat Yogurt and Its Physical and Chemical Properties Analysis

  • 摘要: 以燕麦乳及复原乳为原料,市售酸奶发酵菌种为发酵剂,开发一种新型燕麦酸奶。以感官评分及酸度为指标,通过单因素实验探究燕麦乳与复原乳的复配比、菌种添加量、发酵时间、发酵温度4个因素对燕麦酸奶发酵效果的影响。在单因素实验的基础上采用正交试验确定燕麦酸奶的最优发酵工艺,并对燕麦酸奶的基本理化指标包括蛋白质、脂肪、氨基酸、酸度、pH进行测定分析,通过ABTS和DPPH自由基清除能力分析燕麦酸奶的抗氧化活性,通过气质联用法测定燕麦酸奶中风味物质。结果表明,燕麦酸奶的最优发酵工艺为:燕麦乳/复原乳为2:1,发酵菌种接种量为0.2%,发酵时间9 h,发酵温度34 ℃。在此工艺条件下制得的燕麦酸奶呈均匀的米白色,口感酸甜适中,富含燕麦清香。GC-MS共检测出燕麦酸奶36种香气成分,主要为酯类、酸类和醛类。与市售酸奶相比,燕麦酸奶的蛋白质含量与其接近但脂肪含量只有其60%,且抗氧化活性及甘氨酸和精氨酸含量显著提高(P<0.05),更适合减肥人群食用。
  • 图  1  燕麦乳与复原乳不同配比对燕麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  1.  Effects of different proportions of oat milk and reconstituted milk on the quality of oat yogurt

    图  2  菌种添加量对燕麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  2.  Effect of strain addition on the quality of oat yogurt

    图  3  发酵时间对燕麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  3.  Effect of fermentation time on the quality of oat yogurt

    图  4  发酵温度对燕麦酸奶品质的影响

    Figure  4.  Effect of fermentation temperature on the quality of oat yogurt

    图  5  燕麦米、燕麦乳、燕麦酸奶及市售酸奶之间蛋白质及脂肪含量对比

    Figure  5.  Comparison of protein and fat content among oat rice, oat milk, oat yogurt and commercial yogurt

    注:不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。

    图  6  燕麦米、燕麦乳、燕麦酸奶及市售酸奶之间ABTS及DPPH自由基清除率对比

    Figure  6.  Comparison of ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging rates among oat rice, oat milk, oat yogurt and commercial yogurt

    表  1  正交试验因素与水平

    Table  1.   Factors and levels of orthogonal test

    水平A配比
    燕麦乳:复原乳
    B菌种接种量
    (%)
    C发酵时间
    (h)
    D发酵温度
    (℃)
    11:20.14734
    21:10.17837
    32:10.20940
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  燕麦酸奶感官评分标准

    Table  2.   Sensory scoring standard of oat yogurt

    项目评分标准感官评分(分)
    色泽(20分)颜色异常0~5
    色泽不均匀、浅灰色6~10
    色泽不均匀、呈米白色11~15
    色泽均匀一致、呈米白色16~20
    组织状态(30分)有杂质、凝乳裂纹、有气泡、乳清析出严重0~5
    凝乳组织粗糙、有裂纹、有气泡、乳清析出6~10
    凝乳均匀较细腻、表面光滑、无气泡、少量
    乳清析出
    11~20
    凝乳均匀细腻、表面光滑、无气泡、无乳清析出21~30
    风味(20分)风味异常0~5
    无燕麦味、仅有酸奶味6~10
    微弱的燕麦味、纯正的酸奶味11~15
    浓郁的燕麦味、纯正的酸奶味16~20
    口感(30分)口感异常0~5
    口感粗糙、有颗粒、酸味过度6~10
    口感较细腻润滑、酸甜适中11~20
    口感细腻润滑、酸甜适中21~30
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  正交试验设计及结果

    Table  3.   The orthogonal test design and results

    实验号ABCD感官评分(分)
    1111167.82
    2122271.43
    3133372.97
    4212368.72
    5223171.51
    6231270.12
    7313273.35
    8321373.06
    9332177.41
    k170.7469.9670.3372.25
    k270.1272.0072.5271.63
    k374.6173.5072.6171.58
    R4.493.542.280.66
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  正交试验方差分析结果

    Table  4.   Variance analysis of orthogonal test results

    来源平方和df均方FP
    A104.834252.41776.1040.000**
    B46.264223.13233.5860.000**
    C18.77629.38813.6310.000**
    D5.88022.9404.2690.030*
    误差12.398180.689
    总变异188.15226
    注:*表示差异显著(P<0.05);**表示差异极显著(P<0.01)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  燕麦酸奶微生物指标

    Table  5.   Microbial indexes of oat yogurt

    微生物指标乳酸菌大肠杆菌
    活菌数(CFU/mL)>1×106<3.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  燕麦酸奶基本理化指标

    Table  6.   Basic physical and chemical indexes of oat yogurt

    基本理化指标蛋白质(g/100 g)脂肪(g/100 g)酸度(°T)pH
    燕麦酸奶2.391.51584.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  燕麦米、燕麦乳、燕麦酸奶及市售酸奶之间氨基酸含量对比

    Table  7.   Comparison of amino acid content among oat rice, oat milk, oat yogurt and commercial yogurt

    氨基酸种类燕麦米
    (g/100 g)
    燕麦乳
    (g/100 g)
    燕麦酸奶
    (g/100 g)
    市售酸奶
    (g/100 g)
    天门冬氨酸0.99±0.01a0.16±0.00c0.17±0.00c0.21±0.01b
    苏氨酸0.42±0.00a0.06±0.00d0.08±0.00c0.12±0.00b
    丝氨酸0.58±0.01a0.09±0.00d0.10±0.00c0.14±0.00b
    谷氨酸2.64±0.01a0.44±0.00d0.48±0.00c0.57±0.02b
    甘氨酸0.62±0.00a0.09±0.00b0.08±0.00c0.05±0.00d
    丙氨酸0.59±0.01a0.09±0.00b0.09±0.00b0.09±0.00b
    缬氨酸0.62±0.01a0.10±0.00d0.12±0.00c0.15±0.01b
    蛋氨酸0.13±0.01a0.02±0.00d0.03±0.00c0.06±0.00b
    异亮氨酸0.47±0.02a0.08±0.00c0.10±0.00c0.13±0.01b
    亮氨酸0.92±0.01a0.15±0.00d0.18±0.00c0.25±0.01b
    酪氨酸0.40±0.01a0.02±0.00d0.04±0.00c0.11±0.00b
    苯丙氨酸0.65±0.02a0.10±0.00c0.11±0.00c0.13±0.00b
    赖氨酸0.50±0.00a0.07±0.00d0.12±0.00c0.21±0.01b
    组氨酸0.26±0.01a0.05±0.00d0.06±0.00c0.08±0.00b
    精氨酸0.89±0.00a0.13±0.00b0.12±0.00c0.09±0.00d
    脯氨酸0.58±0.00a0.09±0.00d0.15±0.00c0.29±0.00b
    总含量11.26±0.6a1.74±0.00c2.01±0.00c2.68±0.08b
    注:同行不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  燕麦酸奶中主要风味物质种类及含量

    Table  8.   Types and contents of main flavor substances in oat yogurt

    编号组分保留指数峰面积百分比(%)呈现风味
    RI计算值RI参考值
    12-甲基四氢呋喃-3-酮8018091.25老姆酒及面包风味[37]
    2甲基戊基甲酮8928911.25香蕉香及轻微药香[38]
    32-壬酮108910921.13芸香香气,玫瑰、茶样风味[38]
    4甲基壬基甲酮129412941.25芸香油脂蜡香,兼柑橘香[39]
    52,2,4,6,6-五甲基庚烷9819911.06栗香绿茶[40]
    6右旋萜二烯101810302.11似花香气味[41]
    7正庚醛9029010.68刺激性果香[39]
    8苯甲醛9569621.51苦杏仁气味[39]
    9正辛醛99410034.61浓厚果子味[39]
    10反-2-辛烯醛105310800.29青叶香气[42]
    11壬醛110111044.90蜜蜡花香[38]
    12癸醛120112060.60稀释后呈柑橘皮气味[38]
    13十一醛130813070.42玫瑰香气[39]
    14丙位己内酯136513230.63香豆素样香味[38]
    15丁位十二内酯171217190.52略有苦味[43]
    16戊二酸二甲酯113711351.25
    17己二酸二甲酯124412430.34
    18十二酸甲酯152515261.11花香[39]
    19邻苯二甲酸二乙酯159515944.21椰香[39]
    20十四酸甲酯172717250.45蜂蜜和鸢尾样香气[38]
    21(Z)-十六烯酸甲酯189918980.29
    22十六酸甲酯192319261.46
    23油酸甲酯209220910.41略有臭味[39]
    24十八碳酸甲酯211621280.16略有臭味[39]
    25己二酸二异辛酯239323980.47
    26正己酸100499012.71乳酪气味[39]
    27正庚酸109310780.92油脂气味[38]
    28正辛酸1195118028.07微弱的水果酸味[38]
    29壬酸128312732.13脂肪及椰子香味[38]
    30正癸酸1382137310.66略有不愉快气味[39]
    31十二烷酸157015683.03月桂油、茶叶香气味[39]
    32十四酸126917680.73微弱的蜡香及奶香[39]
    33十六烷酸196819682.87几乎无味[39]
    344-乙烯基-2-甲氧基苯酚131813170.66
    351,6-己内酰胺125712591.30
    362-正戊基呋喃9849930.90水果香气[38]
    注:“—”表示暂未查到该物质的呈现风味。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-13
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-19
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-03

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