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储藏条件与优质籼稻品质变化关系的研究

舒在习 陈一帆 张威 王平坪 戴煌

舒在习,陈一帆,张威,等. 储藏条件与优质籼稻品质变化关系的研究[J]. 食品工业科技,xxxx,x(x):1−8. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010155
引用本文: 舒在习,陈一帆,张威,等. 储藏条件与优质籼稻品质变化关系的研究[J]. 食品工业科技,xxxx,x(x):1−8. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010155
SHU Zaixi, CHEN Yifan, ZHANG Wei, et al. Study on the Relationship between Storage Conditions and Quality Changes of High-quality Indica Rice[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, xxxx, x(x): 1−8. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010155
Citation: SHU Zaixi, CHEN Yifan, ZHANG Wei, et al. Study on the Relationship between Storage Conditions and Quality Changes of High-quality Indica Rice[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, xxxx, x(x): 1−8. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010155

储藏条件与优质籼稻品质变化关系的研究

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010155
基金项目: “十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0401604);国家粮食和物资储备局委托研究项目(CCS2020301)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    舒在习(1965−),男,硕士,副教授,研究方向:农产品加工与储藏工程,E-mail:shuzaixi@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TS213.3

Study on the Relationship between Storage Conditions and Quality Changes of High-quality Indica Rice

  • 摘要: 为探究储藏条件与优质籼稻品质变化的关系,将优质籼稻“丰优22”样品在4种储藏温度(15、20、25和30 ℃)、3种水分含量(13.5%、14.5%和15.5%)和2种气体成分(氮气、空气)下模拟储藏360 d,定期测定其黄粒米含量、发芽率、电导率、α-淀粉酶活性、脂肪酸值、胶稠度、直链淀粉含量、米汤固形物、碘蓝值和米饭硬度、米饭黏度、米饭平衡度、米饭弹性、外观评分、口感评分、综合评分等指标。结果表明,储藏温度越高、水分含量越大,品质变化越明显;在储藏温度、水分含量相同的情况下,氮气储藏具有延缓品质变化的作用。采用主成分分析法对16个指标进行分析,通过降维得到5个累积贡献率达到81.055%的主成分因子,对各主成分中正特征值较大的指标进行筛选,获得发芽率、电导率、碘蓝值和直链淀粉含量等具有代表性的品质特征指标。将4个特征指标与储藏温度、水分含量、气体成分进行相关性分析,发现储藏温度对优质籼稻特征指标影响最大,水分含量影响次之,气体成分影响最小。
  • 表  1  样品分组处理与编号

    Table  1.   Experimental sample group processing and numbering

    水分含量
    (%)
    储藏温度(℃)
    15 20 25 30
    非气调气调非气调气调非气调气调非气调
    13.51 23 45 67
    14.5891011121314
    15.515161718192021
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同条件下优质籼稻“丰优22”储藏前后理化品质的变化

    Table  2.   Changes of physical and chemical quality of high-quality indica rice "Fengyou 22" before and after storage under different conditions

    组别黄粒米
    含量
    (%)
    发芽率
    (%)
    电导率
    (μs/(cm·g))
    α-淀粉酶
    活性
    (U(单位))
    脂肪酸值
    (mg KOH/
    100 g)
    胶稠度
    (mm)
    直链淀粉
    含量
    (g/100 g)
    米汤
    固形物
    (mg/g)
    碘蓝值
    (D(600 nm))
    00.2±0.097±25.70±0.001.17±0.0617.4±1.090±312.9±0.663.0±0.40.507±0.007
    10.4±0.186±511.02±0.080.36±0.0120.6±0.7131±415.6±0.460.7±0.70.342±0.006
    20.2±0.087±410.32±0.080.14±0.0119.4±0.8141±114.9±0.660.2±1.10.324±0.006
    30.4±0.088±39.39±0.080.21±0.0121.3±0.9136±316.6±0.351.6±0.40.220±0.011
    40.2±0.086±611.25±0.060.30±0.0123.2±0.9128±216.4±0.439.9±0.80.222±0.010
    50.4±0.180±511.00±0.100.42±0.0121.8±0.7126±014.4±0.651.4±0.60.296±0.004
    60.2±0.171±610.26±0.040.28±0.0128.5±0.6129±117.0±0.440.2±0.80.216±0.006
    70.4±0.146±811.05±0.060.28±0.0128.4±0.8128±415.3±0.543.3±0.80.276±0.007
    80.5±0.181±410.13±0.080.30±0.0121.7±0.8143±115.2±0.653.8±1.00.286±0.006
    90.3±0.185±611.27±0.080.10±0.0024.7±0.9131±416.0±0.457.1±1.10.288±0.010
    100.4±0.175±59.68±0.030.28±0.0126.5±0.7128±215.8±0.448.3±0.80.339±0.004
    110.5±0.168±511.57±0.080.27±0.0121.9±0.8125±114.7±0.144.7±0.80.339±0.009
    120.4±0.164±610.42±0.090.22±0.0027.7±0.3128±314.5±0.651.8±0.80.394±0.011
    130.4±0.19±412.48±0.100.31±0.0125.1±0.9135±115.2±0.640.3±1.10.319±0.006
    140.4±0.123±610.35±0.060.32±0.0029.3±0.3126±116.3±0.451.9±0.80.258±0.010
    150.3±0.187±410.61±0.110.34±0.0124.1±1.1112±115.9±0.647.1±0.40.343±0.009
    160.5±0.188±410.42±0.100.25±0.0129.5±0.7127±217.6±0.654.0±1.10.341±0.011
    170.7±0.166±59.50±0.110.34±0.0127.4±0.1125±115.8±0.656.1±0.70.443±0.004
    180.5±0.065±610.45±0.060.21±0.0122.1±0.7124±315.3±0.547.6±1.00.312±0.008
    190.5±0.172±69.64±0.040.12±0.0125.0±1.1129±314.4±0.541.5±0.60.436±0.008
    200.4±0.125±614.96±0.080.07±0.0027.5±0.6128±117.9±0.641.2±0.80.451±0.011
    210.7±0.10±010.15±0.050.29±0.0139.5±1.1125±415.9±0.541.0±0.80.304±0.007
    注:0组为新收获的优质籼稻,1~21组为不同条件下储藏360 d的优质籼稻,参见表1表3同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同条件下优质籼稻“丰优22”储藏前后米饭食味品质的变化

    Table  3.   Changes in the eating quality of high-quality indica rice "Fengyou 22" before and after storage under different conditions

    组别米饭硬度米饭黏度米饭平衡度米饭弹性外观评分口感评分综合评分
    02.865±0.0060.518±0.0110.181±0.0040.892±0.0088.1±0.08.1±0.181.0±0.9
    11.697±0.0100.186±0.0080.110±0.0040.882±0.0106.8±0.16.2±0.173.7±0.8
    21.858±0.0080.214±0.0060.115±0.0040.883±0.0066.4±0.15.8±0.170.3±0.8
    32.693±0.0080.162±0.0090.060±0.0030.882±0.0106.7±0.06.0±0.373.8±1.1
    42.377±0.0100.166±0.0080.070±0.0030.888±0.0086.2±0.15.9±0.170.2±1.0
    51.997±0.0090.162±0.0080.081±0.0040.865±0.0076.0±0.15.6±0.169.5±0.5
    62.598±0.0110.157±0.0070.061±0.0020.858±0.0095.8±0.15.4±0.268.0±0.4
    72.304±0.0040.136±0.0110.059±0.0060.862±0.0065.5±0.15.2±0.165.1±1.0
    81.573±0.0100.172±0.0090.109±0.0070.880±0.0116.7±0.16.2±0.072.6±0.8
    91.828±0.0080.163±0.0110.089±0.0060.893±0.0087.3±0.16.6±0.277.3±0.9
    101.620±0.0110.120±0.0070.075±0.0050.882±0.0086.4±0.15.7±0.169.8±0.9
    112.080±0.0130.108±0.0100.052±0.0060.885±0.0066.0±0.05.5±0.268.6±0.7
    122.122±0.0100.148±0.0080.070±0.0040.880±0.0115.7±0.15.2±0.166.2±1.1
    132.494±0.0060.108±0.0100.043±0.0040.842±0.0085.6±0.15.2±0.159.5±0.7
    142.368±0.0110.140±0.0110.060±0.0050.858±0.0085.1±0.14.9±0.060.7±0.9
    151.836±0.0080.175±0.0080.095±0.0040.876±0.0076.7±0.16.1±0.174.4±0.7
    161.977±0.0080.148±0.0060.075±0.0030.852±0.0116.4±0.05.7±0.170.4±1.0
    171.848±0.0110.172±0.0070.093±0.0040.868±0.0086.3±0.15.8±0.169.7±1.4
    182.142±0.0090.125±0.0040.059±0.0020.882±0.0106.0±0.15.3±0.168.7±0.9
    192.615±0.0070.133±0.0090.051±0.0040.865±0.0056.5±0.16.0±0.371.1±1.1
    202.645±0.0060.098±0.0100.037±0.0040.887±0.0086.1±0.15.6±0.170.1±1.2
    212.590±0.0090.133±0.0030.051±0.0010.866±0.0065.0±0.14.7±0.262.2±1.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  优质籼稻“丰优22”品质指标间相关系数矩阵

    Table  4.   Correlation coefficient matrix between “Fengyou 22” indicators

    黄粒米
    含量
    发芽
    电导
    α-淀粉
    酶活性
    脂肪
    酸值
    胶稠
    直链淀
    粉含量
    米汤
    固形物
    碘蓝
    米饭
    硬度
    米饭
    黏度
    米饭
    平衡度
    米饭
    弹性
    外观
    评分
    口感
    评分
    综合
    评分
    黄粒米含量1
    发芽率−0.3791
    电导率−0.202−0.3981
    α-淀粉酶活0.159−0.001−0.2731
    脂肪酸值0.443*−0.663**−0.0240.0311
    胶稠度−0.1580.093−0.038−0.272−0.3361
    直链淀粉含量−0.130−0.0920.298−0.1930.337−0.1151
    米汤固形物0.0100.506*−0.3300.050−0.3950.299−0.1331
    碘蓝值0.454*−0.1220.237−0.2940.081−0.214−0.1440.0811
    米饭硬度−0.010−0.536*0.245−0.2820.385−0.0490.280−0.702**−0.1441
    米饭黏度−0.3330.624**−0.461*0.187−0.3790.254−0.1170.670**−0.236−0.458*1
    米饭平衡度−0.1880.647**−0.3760.241−0.451*0.240−0.2060.800**−0.033−0.824**0.869**1
    米饭弹性−0.2200.450*0.103−0.387−0.435*0.078−0.0350.2770.057−0.3230.2140.3171
    外观评分−0.2430.788**−0.104−0.270−0.625**0.2020.0500.503*0.119−0.513*0.454*0.579**0.539*1
    口感评分−0.2890.769**−0.074−0.209−0.625**0.2190.0330.458*0.071−0.482*0.502*0.613**0.519*0.977**1
    综合评分−0.2410.825**−0.117−0.267−0.543*0.0510.1110.449*0.073−0.448*0.483*0.555**0.654**0.939**0.921**1
    注:*表示在0.05水平(双侧)上显著相关,**表示在0.01水平(双侧)上显著相关。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  主成分特征值及贡献率

    Table  5.   Principal component eigenvalues and contribution rate

    成分初始特征值 提取主成分的特征值
    合计方差的
    贡献率(%)
    累积
    贡献率(%)
    合计方差的
    贡献率(%)
    累积
    贡献率(%)
    16.49540.59440.594 6.49540.59440.594
    22.41615.09755.6912.41615.09755.691
    31.75010.93566.6261.75010.93566.626
    41.2517.81874.4441.2517.81874.444
    51.0586.61181.0551.0586.61181.055
    60.8935.58486.639
    70.6434.01790.655
    80.5353.34594.000
    90.3141.96395.963
    100.2891.80897.772
    110.1711.06998.841
    120.0910.56699.407
    130.0660.41299.819
    140.0170.10699.925
    150.0110.06999.994
    160.0010.006100.000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  主成分的特征向量

    Table  7.   Eigenvectors of principal components

    指标成分
    12345
    黄粒米含量(X1)−0.131−0.2040.544−0.0040.232
    发芽率(X2)0.3470.008−0.0790.174−0.134
    电导率(X3)−0.1150.4140.030−0.112−0.204
    α-淀粉酶活(X4)−0.022−0.493−0.0950.251−0.346
    脂肪酸值(X5)−0.280−0.0990.1310.3090.407
    胶稠度(X6)0.1100.032−0.243−0.6400.436
    直链淀粉含量(X7)−0.0580.277−0.1560.5360.480
    米汤固形物(X8)0.285−0.2130.139−0.1170.313
    碘蓝值(X9)−0.0140.1260.662−0.115−0.008
    米饭硬度(X10)−0.2750.240−0.244−0.0100.114
    米饭黏度(X11)0.292−0.242−0.1960.0550.206
    米饭平衡度(X12)0.333−0.2590.0250.0040.105
    米饭弹性(X13)0.2240.2890.101−0.038−0.125
    外观评分(X14)0.3460.2100.1000.0930.033
    口感评分(X15)0.3450.1820.0500.0820.001
    综合评分(X16)0.3370.2280.0930.2350.009
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  成分矩阵

    Table  6.   Component matrix

    指标成分
    12345
    黄粒米含量(X1)−0.333−0.3170.720−0.0050.239
    发芽率(X2)0.8830.012−0.1050.194−0.138
    电导率(X3)−0.2930.6440.040−0.125−0.209
    α-淀粉酶活(X4)−0.057−0.766−0.1260.281−0.356
    脂肪酸值(X5)−0.714−0.1540.1730.3450.419
    胶稠度(X6)0.2800.050−0.322−0.7160.449
    直链淀粉含量(X7)−0.1480.430−0.2070.5990.493
    米汤固形物(X8)0.726−0.3310.184−0.1310.322
    碘蓝值(X9)−0.0360.1950.875−0.129−0.008
    米饭硬度(X10)−0.7010.372−0.323−0.0110.117
    米饭黏度(X11)0.744−0.376−0.2600.0610.212
    米饭平衡度(X12)0.849−0.4020.0330.0050.108
    米饭弹性(X13)0.5700.4490.134−0.042−0.129
    外观评分(X14)0.8820.3270.1320.1040.034
    口感评分(X15)0.8790.2830.0670.0920.001
    综合评分(X16)0.8580.3540.1230.2630.009
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  主成分得分及综合得分排名

    Table  8.   Principal component score and comprehensive score ranking

    组别成分得分及排名
    主成分1主成分2主成分3主成分4主成分5综合得分综合得分排名
    13.679−0.8670.4510.034−0.1231.7352
    23.746−0.375−1.099−2.1920.9341.5233
    31.5901.078−1.7320.1111.1060.8646
    40.6711.098−2.3440.907−1.0060.23010
    50.704−1.755−0.301−0.138−1.672−0.16412
    6−1.4500.115−2.8321.2280.378−0.93817
    7−2.257−0.596−0.733−0.260−0.372−1.39518
    83.235−1.061−0.020−1.3110.7281.3534
    93.7472.0840.1180.1870.7902.3631
    100.702−0.2250.7700.411−0.3680.4238
    11−0.7770.6420.981−0.613−1.871−0.34915
    12−0.680−0.6100.919−1.036−0.277−0.45316
    13−4.057−0.178−0.823−1.839−0.602−2.40220
    14−3.161−1.704−1.0840.1200.591−1.98719
    152.055−0.2340.4662.547−1.6641.1585
    160.165−0.3210.5121.6821.6710.3919
    170.870−1.9702.6340.7080.8650.5637
    18−0.5950.2850.577−0.251−0.857−0.26114
    19−0.3741.1991.460−0.889−0.1790.13311
    20−2.6604.9411.2930.0140.497−0.19613
    21−5.155−1.5460.7870.5801.432−2.59121
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  品质特征指标与储藏条件的相关系数

    Table  9.   Correlation coefficient of quality characteristic index and storage condition

    储藏条件品质特征指标
    发芽率电导率碘蓝值直链淀粉含量
    储藏温度−0.754**0.378−0.1010.096
    水分含量−0.3070.0710.644**0.158
    气体成分−0.016−0.499*0.117−0.329
    注:*表示在0.05水平(双侧)上显著相关,**表示在0.01水平(双侧)上显著相关。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-07-28

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