2016 No. 04

Display Method:
Determination of microcystins by electrode modified with bi-modified gold nanoparticles with mono-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin and thiol phosphate modification
GAN Ke, ZHAO Hui, WANG Hai-ying, WANG Chao-yuan, LIANG Xiao-sheng
2016, (04): 49-52. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.001
Abstract(45) PDF(273)
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In order to determinate microcystins fast and sensitively,an electrochemistry determination method of differential pulse voltammetry was established with bi- modified gold nanoparticles. The bi- modified gold nanoparticles were prepared by modifying gold nanoparticles with mono- 6- thio- β- cyclodextrin and thiol phosphate based on the structural characteristics of microcystins. The bi-modified gold nanoparticles had an absorbance capability of 2.125 μg/m L and a static allocation coefficient of 5.67,respectively. Then microcystin was determined with the electrochemical sensor prepared with a glassy carbon electrode which modified with toluylene red polymer to get a positive charged surface for absorbing the bi-modified gold nanoparticles. The result showed that this method had a strong resisting interference ability with a linear range of determination from 26 nmol/L to 213 μmol/L and a detection limit of 19 nmol/L,respectively.
Quantitative analysis of tea saponin from seed cake
ZHANG Tuan-jie, XIONG Dao-ling, XU Guang-hui, CHEN Chao, CHEN Jin-zhou
2016, (04): 53-56. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.002
Abstract(65) PDF(628)
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In order to establish a rapid,simple and accurate method of determining the content of tea saponin,spectrophotometry and HPLC methods were used. The quantitative analysis results for the same content of tea saponins from the two improved analysis methods were very accordant and the former was more simple. The employed coloring reagents was vanillin-acetic acid and the color determination of saponin content based on aglycone at the wavelength of 554 nm. Optimal color condition for sample solution were obtained as follows:color reagents 1.0 m L,temperature 60 ℃,reaction time 15 min. The color of the samples were stabled within40 min and the average recovery was 98.28%(RSD =3.86%) with high precision. The method based on spectrophotometry including high accurate,precision and stability,it could be used for quantitative determination of tea saponin.
Analysis of stewing chicken breast flavor using the extraction of SDE combined with SAFE
LIANG Jing-jing, CAO Chang-chun, WANG Meng, HOU Li, XIE Jian-chun, ZHENG Fu-ping, SUN Bao-guo
2016, (04): 57-67. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.003
Abstract(100) PDF(487)
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Volatile flavor constituents from cooking chicken breast were analyzed to provide some guidance for the preparation of related meat flavorings. Simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction(SDE) was applied when the chicken breast was boiled as stewing, and then solvent-assisted flavor evaporation( SAFE) was applied to extract the residue broth. A total of 151 volatiles were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry( GC- MS), including 5 sulfur compounds, 7 nitrogen- containing heterocyclic compounds, 10oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds,97 aliphatic compounds,29 aromatic compounds,and 3 terpenoids,among which the percentage of the aliphatic compounds ranked the greatest. By aroma extract dilution analysis(AEDA) of gas chromatography and olfactometry(GC-O),90 olfactory regions were found and 79 of them were identified. Those of higher flavor dilution factors(FD≥2~(10)) were 3-methional,bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulfide,2-furfurylthiol,4-methylthio-2-butanone,2-acetyl-1-pyrroline,(E,E)-2,4-decadienal,(E,E)-2,4-nonadienal,γ-decalactone,2,3-pentanedione,coumarin,etc,suggesting that they contributed much more to the cooking chicken flavor and would be used potentially in the preparation of cooking chicken flavorings.
Study on the method of canned citrus quality measurement based on the Near-infrared spectroscopy
CAO Jiang-na, ZHANG Jun, LU Sheng-min
2016, (04): 68-72. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.004
Abstract(94) PDF(206)
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In order to quickly detect the contents of main nutrition indicators of canned citrus,the experiment was conducted to spectral acquisition of canned citrus,by Partial Least Squares(PLS) linear fit to establish Nearinfrared quantitative analysis model on canned citrus total sugar,acid,flavonoids and vitamin C. Analyzed and compared the effects of different spectral pretreatment methods on Near- infrared spectroscopy models, in which the normalized model of total sugar and flavonoids were optimal,correlation coefficients were 0.9156 and0.9147,root mean square error of cross-validation(RMSECV) were 0.6305% and 2.7028 mg/100 g. Smoothed model of total acid correlation coefficient was 0.8921,RMSECV was 0.0539%. Model of vitamin C based on raw spectral data whose correlation coefficient was 0.9129,RMSECV was 1.4323 mg/100 g. Through validation,prediction set of total sugar,total acid,flavonoids and vitamin C correlation coefficient were 0.8519,0.8106,0.8334 and 0.8425,predict root mean square error(RMSEP) were 0.8969%,0.0638%,3.6055 mg/100 g and1.9732 mg/100 g. The results showed that Near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid detection of canned citrus total sugar,total acid,flavonoids and vitamin C content was feasible.
Development of quantitative analysis of ovine products by droplet digital PCR
MIAO Li, ZHANG Xiu-ping, CHEN Jing, LI Ke, WANG Yong-jie, BAI Jie
2016, (04): 73-76. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.005
Abstract(71) PDF(358)
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A quantitative method based on the droplet digital polymerase chain reaction(dd PCR) technique was developed to determine the weight of ovine in meat products. By using the dd PCR method,the relationships between the meat weight and DNA weight and between the DNA weight and DNA copy number were both close to linear within the dynamic range. The DNA weight was utilized as an intermediate value to establish the following formulae for calculating the original meat weight from the DNA copy number:Movine=0.03C+0.69. By examining the mixed meat samples of known composition,the final quantitative results were similar to the true meat weights,and the maximum content deviation was 1.52%. Analysis of commercial samples showed that dd PCR quantification system could determine the proportion and quantification of ovine and had a good practicability. Quantitative analysis indicated that dd PCR was highly precise in quantifying ovine in meat products and had the potential to be used in routine analysis and quality meat adulteration of various species.
2016, (04): 77-79. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.006
Abstract(32) PDF(364)
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Determination of capsaicinoids and piquancy characteristic of Zhejiang dishes
HE Shuai, XIE Ding-yuan
2016, (04): 80-86. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.007
Abstract(124) PDF(250)
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Objective:The aim of this study was to find a efficient and faster way for the determination of main spicy ingredients in dishes through optimizing the detection chromatographic condition according to GB/T21266-2007. Taking a part of Zhejiang dishes that collected from Shaoxing,Hangzhou,Ningbo and Wenzhou as the experimental subject,detecting spicy ingredients in each dish,then analyzed the piquancy characteristics of Zhejiang dishes. Method:Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were extracted by ultrasonic with methanol-tetrahydrofuran( 1 ∶ 1) as solvent, high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) was used to analyze capsaicinoid compounds. Result:The mobile phase was methanol:water(70∶30) with the flow rate was 0.8 m L/min and the UV detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The regression equation of capsaicin was Y =6636.7X +1221 and correlation coefficient R2=0.9999. The regression equation of dihydrocapsaicin was Y=6338.9X-3758 and correlation coefficient R2=0.9999. The proportion of the use chili in Zhejiang 100 dishes was 13%,the spicy degree of whole dishes was 0.143. Conclusion:This method was accurate,speedy and reproducible.Pungency level in Zhejiang dishes was low.
Analysis and comparison of aroma compounds from traditional Tongshan sorghum liquor and samples of improved fermentation process by GC-MS
JIANG Xiao-kun, YING Tie-jin
2016, (04): 87-91. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.008
Abstract(62) PDF(279)
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Aroma compounds from fen-flavor traditional Tongshan sorghum liquor,as well as samples of improved fermentation process were extracted by using headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). The results showed that the total of 61 aroma compounds were identified in the three samples of fen-flavor liquor :35 aroma compounds were identified in traditional Tongshan sorghum liquor,mainly including esters,alcohols and aromatics,and the main aroma compounds such as hexanoic acid ethyl ester,ethyl acetate,3-methyl-1-butanol,1,1-diethoxy-ethane and butanoic acidethyl ester. 45 aroma compounds were identified in Sample Ⅰ,mainly including esters,alcohols,alkanes and olefins,such as ethyl acetate,1,1-diethoxy-ethane,3-methyl-1-butanol,D-Limonene and dodecane. In Sample Ⅱ,41 aroma compounds were identified,mainly including esters,alkanes,olefins and aromatics,such as ethyl acetate,1,1-diethoxy-ethane,3-methyl-1-butanol,D-Limonene and tetradecane. The results indicate that the aroma compounds in Sample Ⅰ and Ⅱ increase significantly after fermentation process improvement,with the melioration of taste and flavor.
Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology to analyze aromatic constituents in Si-Te liquor
JIANG Yu-jie, SHEN Ming-yue, XIE Ming-yong, LIU Qian, MEI Jiang, WANG Yu-ting
2016, (04): 92-96. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.009
Abstract(93) PDF(455)
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Headspace solid- phase microextraction( HS- SPME) coupled to gas chromatography- mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was used for the analysis of volatile compounds in Si-Te liquor samples. HS-SPME conditions including the salt addition,extraction temperature and time,desorption time were optimized. The optimal condition occurs at 10 m L of liquor with 2 g Na Cl at an extraction temperature of 50 ℃ for 30 min,then desorb 7 min at the GC inlet. As a result,29 aroma compounds were detected,the content of esters and alcohols were relatively higher,and respectively were 60.012% and 38.166%. Ethyl lactate played an important role on the formation of its special flavor as the characteristic aroma of Si-Te wine. This study established the composition and contribution of each aroma components from Si-Te wine,which could provide the reference for comprehensively understanding the special flavor liquor.
Analysis of volatile compounds of dried Eucheuma by HS-SPME methods combined with GC-MS
YANG Shao-ling, YANG Xian-qing, CHEN Sheng-jun, DENG Jian-chao, HAO Shu-xian, WANG Jing-Xu, QI Bo
2016, (04): 97-101. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.010
Abstract(67) PDF(189)
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The volatile compounds of Eucheuma were analyzed using headspace solid phase micro-extraction(HS-SPME) method combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). A total of 58 volatile compounds were isolated and identified by GC-MS,including 17 aldehydes,27 hydrocarbons(including 8aromatic hydrocarbon),4 ester,5 ketones,2 alcohols and 3 others. Among these volatile compounds,aldehydes content was the highest,54.10%,followed by aldehydes(23.19%,including 10.66% aromatic hydrocarbon),ester(11.68%),ketones(11.03%),alcohols(0.68%) and others(0.77%). The high-ranking compounds included nonanal(18.45%),isoacetophorone(7.75%),diethyl phthalate(7.50%),heptanal(7.13%),hexanal(6.33%),octanal(6.31%),butyl ethanoate(3.65%),toluene(3.29%),decanal(2.81%),dodecane(2.21%). On the whole,aldehydes made significant impact on the flavor of Eucheuma,esters,hydrocarbons and other compounds had a certain influence.
Determination of the nonylpbenol in milk powder by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aid of central composite design
ZHANG Fang-yuan, LIN Chen, WU Ling-tao, WANG Li-ping, CAI Da-chuan, ZHANG Zhi-jun, FANG Li
2016, (04): 102-106. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.011
Abstract(41) PDF(156)
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Objective : An analytical method based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric had been developed for the determination of nonylpbenol in milk powder. Method:Firstly,selecting the appropriate extraction and purification cartridge by the contrast experiment,then,by using the chromatographic peak area as response values,the temperature,time and the dosage of silylation reagent involved in the derivatization procedure were optimized by central composite design. Results:Acetonitrile was used as extractant and protein precipitator,the solid-phase extraction was conducted on a florisil extraction cartridge,and the silylation reagent was trimethyl chlorosilance with 1% trimethyl chlorosilane. Under the temperature of 72 ℃,with the dosage of silylation reagent of 215 μL,after a reaction time of 27 min,the derivatization of nonylpbenol reach the best result.Conclusions:Under the optimal conditions,the limit detection of nonylpbenol was 24.0 μg/kg,linearity range was 10.70~1369 ng/m L,and the recoveries ranged from 90.6% to 105.2% with a relative standard deviations of2.7%. This method is accurate,sensitive,with small sample matrix interference,and applicable to the determination of nonylpbenol in milk powder.
Multiplex LAMP method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria in eggs
ZHAO Jun, CHEN Ze-ping, LI Zhen, SONG Xiao-ning, LI Yu-feng
2016, (04): 107-110. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.012
Abstract(57) PDF(139)
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Two strains of bacteria named X_1,X_2 were found to detect the pathogenic bacteria on eggs. Combined with 16 S r RNA molecule methods,testing the cloned plasmid sequence,blasting the sequence with NCBI in Gen Bank. The results showed that X_1 was Bacillus cereus NC7401(AP007209) and X_1 was Staphylococcus aureus(AP003088). According to the highly conservative gene nhe and nuc,two sets of primers were designed.The optimized LAMP reaction system contained Mg SO41.5 μL,each primer 2.0 μL and reaction temperature of60 ℃. The specificity was verified by using 9 strains of non-targeting bacteria and targeting bacteria X_1,X_2.The LAMP assay showed a sensitivity of 10 fg / μL. The novel multiple LAMP method reported here was characteristics of rapid detection, high specificity and excellent sensitivity, which could be applied in the detection of pathogenic bacteria.
Extraction of β-Glucan from waste wine yeast by multiple cell-wall-broken technologies
CHENG Chao, ZHANG Hong-hai, SHENG Wen-jun, HAN Shun-yu, WANG Jing
2016, (04): 111-116. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.013
Abstract(82) PDF(343)
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The cell wall of wine yeast was broken by high pressure homogenization and freezing-thawing methods collaboratively. Combined with enzymatic hydrolysis of compound protease and lipase,the effect of multiple cell-wall-broken technologies on purity of β-Glucan was studied. On the basis of single factor experiment,the Box-Behnken design was adopted. The concentration of yeast,homogeneous time and freezing-thawing water content were factors,and the purity of β-Glucan was response value,the extraction process of β-Glucan from waste wine yeast was optimized. The results showed that the optimal extraction parameters were obtained as follows:homogeneous pressure 70 MPa,concentration of yeast 13%,homogeneous time 34 min and freezingthawing water content 25%,while extraction purity of β-Glucan content was 91.69% and yield was 13.23%under these conditions. The process provided a reference basis for the development and utilization of Glucan from yeast.
The process and dynamic research for the non-enzymatic browning reaction about the self-degradation of L-ascorbic acid
LI Ya, YANG Yan, YU Ai-nong, HU Ting-wei
2016, (04): 117-122. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.014
Abstract(47) PDF(264)
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The no-enzymatic self-degradation behavior of ascorbic acid was discussed by dynamics method.The influences of time,temperature and p H on uncolored-intermediate-products(UIPs) and brown-products(BPs) were separately investigated. The dynamics feature of UIPs and BPs was discussed in the degradation process of ascorbic acid based on the initiation different p H value. The results showed that the formation rate of UIPs and BPs would be speeded with the increasing temperature and prolonging reaction time and those rates would also be influenced by the initiation value of p H. The appropriate p H for formation UIPs was 4.5 and the appropriate p H value for BPs was 6. 8. The no- enzymatic self- degradation behavior of ascorbic acid for formation UIPs and BPs was characteristic of the zero-order kinetics,and the Eavalue for formation of brown precursor was much less than that of formation of BPs.
Behaviour of Salmonella sp. on fresh-cut vegetables and predictive models for growth
MA Chen, LI Jian-guo, CHENG Jing
2016, (04): 123-127. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.015
Abstract(63) PDF(220)
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In order to investigate the behaviour of Salmonella in raw-eaten vegetables or seasoned vegetables,a cocktail of two serovars(Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 and S. newport ATCC 6962) were spot inoculated into fresh-cut vegetables(garlic sprout,cilantro,tomato,cucumber and shallot) with four inoculum levels(0.1,1.0,2.0 and 3.0 log CFU/g). Growth kinetics of Salmonella in fresh-cut cucumber at different temperatures were also studied and predictive models were used for fitting the growth data. Results indicated that no obvious growth of Salmonella was observed in all the tested vegetables at 4 ℃ for 6 days. At 28 ℃,growth potential(δ)of Salmonella in all tested vegetables were between 3.39 and 5.28 at the high inoculum levels of 2.0 and 3.0log CFU/g,indicating good growth of Salmonella in all vegetables(maximum populations>7.0 log CFU/g). At1.0 log CFU/g inoculum levels,Salmonella grew well in all tested vegetables with maximum populations of about 5.0 log CFU/g,except in cucumber at the low inoculum levels of 0.1 log CFU/g,Salmonella grew only in tomato and shallot(δ >0.5 log CFU/g),and no obvious growth was observed in other three vegetables(δ <0.5 log CFU/g). Growth curves for each culture condition in cucumber were built separately by fitting data to the Baranyi model. The results indicated that specific growth rate(μmax) of Salmonella in fresh-cut cucumber were 0.026,0.11,0.14 and 0.29 h-1at 7,15,20 and 25 ℃ respectively and lag time was 24.33 h and 9.44 h at 7 ℃ and 15 ℃. However,there was no lag time at 20 ℃ and 25 ℃. The Ratkowsky square-root model was used to describe maximum growth rate as a function of storage temperature and the mathematical models were validated. Thus,vegetable kinds,inoculum dose and storage temperature all had an impact on the behaviour of Salmonella in fresh-cut vegetables.
Effect of different pressure treatment on preparation of wheat starch acetate and their structure characterization
WANG Li, QIN Li-juan, SONG Xian-liang, YE Sheng-ying
2016, (04): 128-131. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.016
Abstract(72) PDF(143)
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Wheat starch suspensions(40%) were high-pressure-homogenized at increasing pressures of 0,20,40,60,80 MPa,followed by esterification with acetic oxide,respectively. Then,FTIR,PLM,XRD and SEM were carried out on wheat starch acetates morphology and structure analysis. The results indicated that ester carbonyl was introduced into starch molecules after esterification. High pressure improved esterification degree of wheat starch significantly,and DS increased by 47.70% when compared with unhighpressured starch. The highest substitution degree of 0.096 was achieved at 40 MPa. From polarization diagram,the umbilical point of starch particles burst and the crack expand outward from the umbilical point with the increasing pressure.Birefringence almost disappeared when it arrived at 80 MPa. A type crystal structure of wheat starch couldn't be transformed by high-pressure homogenization and low esterification,however,the pressure tended to disrupt granule crystallinity structure. Starch acetate particle hold the samed morphology with native wheat starch,but microshear deformation and mechanical folding developed on starch granules of 20 MPa. Under the 80 MPa,starch granule surface appeared serious mechanical damage and crack,and some of the relatively large starch granular disintegrated even adhered with each other,which was one of reasons why the substitution reduced.
Antioxidant activity-guided fractionation of non-heading Chinese cabbage
MA Jing-fan, LIU Xi-ming, CHEN Xiao-hong
2016, (04): 132-137. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.017
Abstract(70) PDF(89)
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This study was carried out to explore the antioxidant activities of five extracts obtained from non-heading Chinese cabbage by using different polarity solvents, including petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate,n-butyl alcohol and water. The antioxidant activities of the five fractions were evaluated by the scavenging power of four free radicals,namely DPPH·,·OH,O2-· and ABTS+·. The relationship between the antioxidant activity and the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were also analysed. The results showed that four fractions except water fraction had great antioxidant activity and the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids had a highly significant correlation with the antioxidant activity. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most effective fraction. The EC50 values based on DPPH·,·OH,O2-· and ABTS+· were(0.64±0.05),(1.17±0.12),(1.02±0.15) mg/m L and(0.78±0.07) mg/m L,respectively. The highest contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were in the ethyl acetate fraction and their contents were(151.32±1.87) mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and(32.97±0.56) mg rutin equivalent/g DW,respectively. Effect of the ethyl acetate fraction on anti-lipid peroxidation was investigated. The inhibition of the ethyl acetate fraction on hemolysis of mice erythrocytes and lipid perexidation of mice liver homogenate induced by H2O2 were 62.11% and 51.26% when the ethyl acetate fraction concentration was 10 mg/m L. The ethyl acetate fraction of non-heading Chinese cabbage,a strong ability to act as antioxidant,might be considered as a natural source of active compounds.
Effect of evaluating pork shear force by different sampling temperature,orientation and shear speed
ZHANG Ting-huan, CHEN Lei, PAN Hong-mei, WANG Jin-yong, QIU Jin-jie
2016, (04): 138-141. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.018
Abstract(61) PDF(181)
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Tenderness is an important factor affecting food quality of pork,but the shear force as a method of evaluating the tenderness lacks a standardized assessment method. The purpose of this paper was to study the influence of the maximum shear force,hardness,average shear force on different water bath temperature(72 ℃ and 80 ℃),different orientation(the direction of the muscle fiber and the direction of the muscle) and different shear speed( 1, 2 and 3 mm / s). As a result, it was found that different water bath temperature,orientation and orientation had important influence on determination of shear force,and the better water bath temperature was 72 ℃,the best shear speed was 2 mm/s,the best orientation was parallel to the direction of the muscle fiber. To do this,this paper provides the theory basis to develop standardized methods to evaluate the pork tenderness.
Composition analysis of Portulacao leracea L. powder and its application on pork emulsion sausage
JIA Hong-jiao, WANG Wen-hang
2016, (04): 142-146. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.019
Abstract(32) PDF(189)
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Portulacao leracea L. is an important medicine-food-homology plant with a long history. It contains abundant vitamin,microelements and dietary fiber. Based on the detection results,the total dietary fiber,protein,ash in Portulacao leracea L. powder were 39.45% ±0.65%,21.70% ±0.14%,18.20% ±0.01%. Its capacities for water binding and oil binding were(6.01±0.48) g/g and(4.28±0.06) g/g respectively. Adding the Portulacao leracea L. powder into the pork emulsion sausage with the rate of 1%,3%,5% will decrease the cooking loss significantly(p<0.05) when compared with the control group. The hardness,flexibility,chewiness,cohesiveness of the sausage increased initially and then decreased gradually from the texture results. However,adding the powder did not lead to an obvious change on p H. In addition,an obvious decrease of light change(L*) and red color(a*) was observed while the yellow color change(b*) was not remarkable. The Portulacao leracea L.powder could be used as a potential high- edible fiber ingredient for the development of functional meat products.
Analysis of FABP gene's expression difference in yak meat from different regions by Real-time PCR
XUE Yan-feng, HAO Li-zhuang, LIU Shu-jie
2016, (04): 147-150. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.020
Abstract(42) PDF(107)
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In order to research the difference of yak meat's quality in different regions,total RNA was extracted from 4-year-old male yak 's muscle samples of Datong,Jiulong,Henan,Diqing,Hongyuan,and then c DNA was generated under the action of reverse transcription polymerase,at last,the production of reserve transcription reaction was utilized to carry out RT-PCR and detect the expression levels of FABP gene. The results were that if the yak muscle sample of Diqing was taken as the control group and the 2~(-ΔΔCt)value of it was set to 1,the fluorescence quantitative 2~(-ΔΔCt)value of Datong,Jiulong,Henan,Hongyuan yak muscles were 4.18,2.94,9.95,10.73 respectively. So that the relative expression quantity of FABP gene in yak muscles could be obtained to evaluate yak meat's quality in different regions on molecular level. The yak meat's quality of Hongyuan and Henan was the best while that of Diqing was the worst.
Purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Boletus aereus in Yunnan
ZENG Li-ping, WANG Xin-shi, WU Su-rui, FAN Jian, ZHAO Tian-rui
2016, (04): 151-154. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.021
Abstract(49) PDF(274)
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The purification and activity analysis of Boletus aereus polysaccharides can provide a theoretical basis for the further application and popularization of B. aereus. In the present work,crude polysaccharides of Bronze Boletus was extracted by hot water and then successively purified with DEAE-52 ion exchange column and Sephadex G-100 gel permeadun column. Two polysaccharides,named PB-1A and PB-2A,were obtained after purification. The purity of obtained polysaccharide was determined by specific rotation method and UV spectral scanning. The total reducing power,hydroxyl free radical and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides,PB-1A and PB-2A were determined by in vitro antioxidant evaluation system. The results demonstrated that the total reducing power,hydroxyl free radical and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of B. aereus polysaccharides before and after purification showed a dose- dependent manner, with activities being PB-2A>PB-1A>crude polysaccharides of B. aereus.
Study on the interfacial property,physical and oxidative stability of emulsions stabilized by whey protein
CHEN Xian-xin, MA Xiao-yu, ZHU Wen-ting, TANG Xiao-ming, ZHU Xue-mei, XIONG Hua, BAI Chun-qing
2016, (04): 155-159. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.022
Abstract(60) PDF(850)
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In this study,whey protein and corn oil were used to prepare oil-in-water(O/W) emulsions using high-pressure homogenization. The effects of whey protein concentration(0.45%~3.60%) and ionic strength(250 mmol/L Na Cl) on the interfacial property,physical and oxidative stability of emulsions were investigated.The results showed that increasing whey protein concentration lead to decrease in the particle size,creaming index,peroxide value(POV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS),and increase in interfacial protein concentration and potential. Addition of 250 mmol/L Na Cl contributed to increase in the particle size,creaming index, interfacial protein concentration, potential, POV and TBARS values of the emulsions. These findings indicated that the physical and oxidative stability of the emulsions could be improved by increasing the interfacial protein concentration or decreasing ionic strength.
A preliminary study of inhibitory activities on angiotensin I-converting enzyme and antihypertensive effects of synthetic dipeptide
WANG Jian-guo, YAN Bing-yu, LEI Jian-yong, WU Yue, GUO Lei, XING Ke
2016, (04): 160-164. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.023
Abstract(78) PDF(194)
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Objective:The purpose of this work was to study the inhibitory activities on angiotensin I-converting enzyme(ACE) and the antihypertensive effects of synthetic dipeptides. Methods:The inhibitory activities on ACE of35 synthetic dipeptides were screened by using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry. The IC50 of dipeptides with high inhibitory activity was also measured. The antihypertensive effects of dipeptides were subsequently studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) at 2 h and 4 h after oral administration diluted in 1 m L normal saline according to the dosages of 1,10,25,50,100 mg/kg,respectively. Results:With the exception of a few dipeptides,most of dipeptides showed ACE inhibitory activities. Among them,Cys-Ala(CA) and Cys-His(CH)were dipeptides with the highest ACE inhibitory activities,of which the ACE inhibition rates were 84.38% and 70.79%respectively. The dose response data showed the IC50 values of CA and CH were 23.22 μmol/L and 61.17 μmol/L respectively. The antihypertensive effects of CA in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) were further studied. The data showed obvious antihypertensive effect of CA in SHR. The results also revealed that the antihypertensive effects after 2 h of administration was positively correlated with doses of oral administration(R2>0.8),and the overall antihypertensive effects after 4 h of administration were higher than that after 2 h of administration. Conclusion:Based on the results of determination on in vitro ACE inhibitory activities and in vivo experiments,CA was the dipeptide with high ACE inhibition rate and strong antihypertensive effect,which suggested CA could be used as functional food ingredients with potential therapeutic benefit in the prevention and treatment of hypertension.
Variations in rheological and gel properties of preserved eggs during middle experiment technology of pulse pressure processing
LI Yu-hui, GUO An-min, WANG Jun-gang, WU Hong-bin, LIU Cheng-jiang, JIN Xin-wen
2016, (04): 165-168. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.024
Abstract(96) PDF(150)
Abstract:
The rheological and gel properties of egg white and yolk were determined using a rheometer and a texture analyzer at different stages during the processing of preserved eggs,which were produced in a pulse pressure. Rheological analysis showed that preserved egg white was characteristic of a non-Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluid during 0 ~ 36 hours, and its viscosity reduced with increasing shear rate. Egg yolk was transformed gradually from a non-Newtonian expanded plastic fluid into a pseudoplastic plastic fluid,and its viscosity distinctly an initial increase and then an unchanged level during 0 ~36 hours. Egg yolk viscosity distinctly reduced with increasing shear rate during 36~72 hours. Texture analysis showed that the hardness of egg white gel revealed an initial increase,then an unchanged level. The springiness of egg white revealed an initial increase,then remained stable. The hardness and springiness of egg yolk gel revealed an initial increase and then an unchanged level.
Separation and activity assay of antioxidant peptides from Corbicula fluminea meat
LIU Jing-jing, TANG Hui-fang, GUO Zhi-ling, HAN Yao-ping, WANG Xue-feng, DAI Yang-jun
2016, (04): 169-172. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.025
Abstract(104) PDF(198)
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Objective:In order to separate the antioxidant peptides from Corbicula fluminea meat. Methods:In this experiment,enzymatic hydrolysates of Corbicula fluminea meat were isolated by Sephacryl S-100 HR gel chromatography after membrane separation,the oxidation resistance of the strongest components was further purified by CM Sepharose FF ion exchange chromatography and antioxidant activity in vitro of each group was measured. Results:The result showed that the enzymatic hydrolysates of Corbicula fluminea meat was fractionated into five active fractions by ephacryl S-100 HR gel chromatography,named as A,B,C,D and E.Among these,the fraction C showed the higher antioxidant activity,the total antioxidant capacity,scavenging ability of hydroxyl and DPPH radical were 1.79,83.33%,26.35%,respectively. Component C was further separated into two active components by CM Sepharose FF ion exchange chromatography,named as C1 and C2,the fraction C2 showed the highest antioxidant activity,the total antioxidant capacity,scavenging ability of hydroxyl and DPPH radical were 2.03,92.34%,35.94%,respectively. Conclusions :The radical scavenging ability of Corbicula fluminea meat was outstanding,which provides a theoretical basis for the deep processing of the peptide.
Comparision on antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from three mangrove species
LI Jin-qiang, LU Guo-hong, QIU Jian-peng, WEN Jian-li, XIAO Xiao-sheng, FAN Xiu-ping, ZHANG Chao-hua
2016, (04): 173-177. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.026
Abstract(68) PDF(304)
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To investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant activities in vitro of extracts from 3 mangroves including Hibiscus tiliaceus, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum. Four kinds of different solvent extracts were extracted by ethanol extraction and then solvent separation. The inhibition zone and minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC),were used to detect the antibacterial activities,and determined by disk diffusion method and broth microdilution method. The scavenging effect to the hydroxyl radical,superoxide radical and DPPH was detected with the oxidation of ferrous sulfate-salicylic acid,self-oxidation of pyrogallic acid system and DPPH system,respectively. The results showed that the antibacterial effect on 5 species of common pathogens were H. tiliaceus>A. marina>A. corniculatum. Inhibitory effect of water extracts was higher than other extracts significantly. All of water extracts from 3 kinds of mangroves had good bacteriostatic effect on Staphlococcus aureus(for the MIC ranging in 11.2~15.6 mg/m L). The free radical scavenging effect was DPPH>superoxide free radical>hydroxyl radical. A. corniculatum had more stronger effect on DPPH free radical scavenging,four kinds of solvent extracts of A. corniculatum had strong scavenging effects,and the ethyl acetate extract >n-butanol extract >petroleum ether extract,water extract. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of extract from H. tiliaceus was mainly in the water extract,and the ethyl acetate extract from A. corniculatum had strong scavenging effect of DPPH free radical.
The effects of adding maltdextrin and limited starch enzyme hydrolyzation on spray-dried instant millet powders
SONG Chao-yang, QIAN Hai-feng, ZHANG Hui, WANG Li, QI Xi-guang, DING Xiang-li
2016, (04): 178-182. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.027
Abstract(28) PDF(423)
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In this paper,instant millet powders were produced by spray drying using two methods,adding maltdextrins(MD) and limiting starch enzyme hydrolyzation. The effects of the two methods on the glass transition temperature,recovery rate,moisture content,water activity,bulk density,caking capacity and microstructure of the instant millet powders were studied. The results showed that,relatively lower DE value,higher addition amount of MD and lower degree of starch hydrolysis would result in a higher recovery rate,glass transition temperature and buck density,a lower moisture content,water activity and caking capacity of instant millet powders. When MD was used as drying carrier,DE8 had a better spray drying effect than DE20. Under the condition of same DE value of feeding solutions,properties of the instant millet powders produced by limited starch enzyme hydrolyzation was superior to the powders produced with MD while the recovery rate was lower.In addition,the microstructure of the particles was also influenced by their various producing methods.
Comparison of physicochemical properties of pea starch,potato starch and corn starch
ZHANG Yan-peng, ZHUANG Kun, DING Wen-ping, CAO Yang
2016, (04): 183-186. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.028
Abstract(112) PDF(1425)
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The basic composition,granule morphology,retrogradation,gelatinization characteristics,transparency and resistant starch content of pea starch,potato starch,corn starch were determined and compared. The results indicated that the content of amylose and protein in pea starch was greater than those in the potato starch and corn starch,but the size of pea starch granules was smaller than that of potato starch. Compared with potato starch and corn starch,the pea starch was more easy to retrogradate,but its paste was more stable. Moreover,the transparency of pea starch was less than that of potato starch,but its content of slowly digestible starch was more than that of potato starch and corn starch.
Effect of ultra-high pressure treatment on tissue structure and quality of sea cucumber
ZHENG Ming-jing, ZHOU Mei-ling, CHEN Ni, CHEN Ling, ZHENG Bao-dong, ZENG Shao-xiao
2016, (04): 187-191. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.029
Abstract(73) PDF(283)
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In order to develop instant sea cucumber with long shelf life, ultra-high pressure technology was adopted to processing sea cucumber in this paper,to study the change tissue structure and quality of sea cucumber treated by 100 ~600 MPa ultra-high pressure for 5 min. The results showed that the ultra-high pressure treatment could destroy the structure of the sea cucumber muscle,and the phenomenon of depression or shrunken porosity appeared. With the increase of the pressure,the texture of the sea cucumber showed the trend of first rising and then decreased. While the pressure increasing,the water holding rate continued to increase,reached to the maximum of 87.97% at 500 MPa,which increased nearly 45% compared with un-processing sea cucumber. The color of that become lighter under ultra-high pressure,showed the brightness and yellow were increased while decreasing the red. During storage,the shelf life of sea cucumber was increased due to the decreased residual quantity of microorganism with ultra-high pressure increasing,and sea cucumber treated by 500 MPa could keep commercial sterile 5 weeks when storied in 37 ℃,the change of protein,soluble oligopeptide(TCA) and p H content of sea cucumber during storage were more small under higher pressure. Therefore,the quality of sea cucumber treated by ultra-high pressure would improve though the change of microstructure,which is conducive to the development and research of instant sea cucumber.
Effect of concentrated and powder soybean phospholipids on the quality of frozen dumplings
LI Hong, SUN Dong-xian, LI Mao-zhi, GUO Chen, HUAI Yu, SHEN Rui-ling
2016, (04): 192-195. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.030
Abstract(94) PDF(149)
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The effects of the concentrated soybean phospholipids and the powder soybean phospholipids on the quality of frozen dumplings were studied in this paper. It was found that both concentrated soybean phospholipids and powder soybean phospholipids could not only significantly decrease the cracking rate and peeling rate but also improve the sensory scoring of frozen dumplings and some texture incicators of frozen dough such as hardness,springiness,cohesiveness and chewiness when 0.2%,0.4%,0.6%,0.8% or 1.0%amount of phospholipids were added. Especially when 0.4% amount of concentrated soybean phospholipids or powder soybean phospholipids was added,the changes of the qualities of frozen dumplings were most obvious,which was evidenced by 14% of the reduction rate of the cracking rate,14% or 12% of the decreasing rate of peeling rate,80.5% or 73.2% of the increasing rate of the sensory scoring,79.1% or 0.1% of improve rate of the hardness,64.9% or 62.3% of the raise ratio of the springiness,37.9% or 3.98% of the increase rate of the cohesiveness,and 72.1% or 10.9% of the increasing rate of the chewiness. Moreover,concentrated soybean phospholipids could do better in increasing the qualities of frozen dumplings.
Effect of degree of hydrolysis on emulsification,foaming capacity and antioxidant activity of Spirulina peptides
MA Yan-fang, LI Yu-yang, LIU Jin-long, ZHENG Ming-gang, SUN Zhong-tao
2016, (04): 196-199. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.031
Abstract(69) PDF(218)
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The effect of the degree of hydrolysis(DH) on the emulsification,foaming capacity and antioxidant activity of Spirulina peptides was investigated. The DH of the hydrolysate increased during the process of hydrolysis. In the process of hydrolysis,the foaming activity,DPPH radical scavenging ability,and reducing power of Spirulina peptides first increased then decreased with the increase of the DH,the hydroxyl radical scavenging ability first decreased then increased,when reached maximum then decreased,however the foaming stability,the emulsification,emulsifying stability decreased with the increase of the DH. This showed that the DH was not the higher the better in the production of Spirulina peptides,and the best DH must be determined according to the need of the products to get a better physicochemical properties and antioxidant abilities.
Chain conformation and antioxidant activity of a novel intracellular polysaccharide HSIPS2 from Hirsutella sinensis
SHAO Shuang-shuang, HE Liang, WEI Chao-yang, LI Wei-qi
2016, (04): 200-204. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.032
Abstract(50) PDF(86)
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A novel intracellular polysaccharide,named HSIPS2,from Hirsutella sinensis was obtained by hot water extraction and alcohol precipitation,and then purified using DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography and Sephacryl S-100 gel column chromatography. Its chain conformation and antioxidant activity were determined.The result showed that HSIPS2 was composed of glucose,galactose,mannose,and ribose with a molar ratio of48.52 ∶6.58 ∶5.17 ∶1.0. It was proved to be a novel lower dispersion polysaccharide with uniform molecular of1.463×10~4g/mol,and the purity was 99.82%. In 0.1 mol/L Na NO_3 aqueous solution,HSIPS2 existed as flexible chain conformation. The parameters of Rh,ML,q and d were 2.3 nm,334.05 nm~/(-1),0.70 nm,and 0.69 nm respectively.Moreover,the IC_(50) of its hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was identified to be 0.749 mg/m L and the value of ORAC was calculated to be 872.80 μmol TE/g. Hence,it was undoubtedly demonstrated that HSIPS2 exhibited potent antioxidant activity.
Effect of different mixed starter cultures and fermentation conditions on biological safety of ‘Zha fish'
ZHANG Xiao, GONG Ji-jun, TANG Jing, ZHOU Han-jun
2016, (04): 205-210. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.033
Abstract(50) PDF(202)
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The purpose of this paper was to explore the influence of different starter cultures and fermentation conditions on biological safety of ‘Zha fish '(a fermented grass carp). Taken Lactobacillus plantarum(Lp),Pediococcus pentosaceus(Pp),Staphylococcus xylose(Sx),Saccharomyces cerevisiae(Sc) as starter culture,which was mixed with methods of Lp+Sx+Sc,Lp+Pp+Sc,and Sx+Pp+Sc under a ratio of 1∶1∶1(v/v/v). Tthe harmful bacterial count and biogenic amine(BA) content of ‘Zha fish' was assayed periodically under different fermentation conditions. The results showed that inoculation fermentation( IF) exhibited better antibacterial effects against harmful bacteria than that of the natural fermentation(NF)(p<0.01). Among three mixed starter cultures,Lp+Sx+Sc exhibited the best effect on inhibiting the formation of BA(p<0.05). With 20%(m/m) KCl substituted for Na Cl,it showed better inhibition effect on BA formation than that of samples no KCl substitution(p <0.05). The suitable content of composited salt was 2.4% Na Cl +0.6% KCl. From the point of view of BA control and production efficiency,20 ℃ was a suitable one. As to the sensory quality and BA control,5.0%mixed sugar was preferred. The total content of BA in ‘Zha fish' was as low as 43.50 mg/kg,and an excellent sensory quality could be achieved using Lp +Sx +Sc as starter culture to fermentation for 50 d under above-mentioned optimal conditions. The data obtained in this study suggested that biological safety of ‘Zha fish 'products could be ensured if Lp +Sx +Sc was taken as starter culture under an appropriate fermentation conditions.
Culture of complex bioflocculant-producing strains and optimization of its nutritional conditions by using cassava starch wastewater
WANG Xin-wei, MO Chuang-rong, LIANG Min, HU Zao-shi, DAI Zhi-you
2016, (04): 211-216. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.034
Abstract(67) PDF(225)
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A new style of combined microbial flocculant and a new way for cassava starch wastewater reutilization were proposed. Two lactic acid bacterial strains LB3 and LB5 which could produce bioflocculant with high flocculating to cassava starch wastewater were screened from anaerobic wastewater. 16 S r DNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two strains could be identified as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum respectively. The nutritional conditions which combined strains fermented cassava starch wastewater to produce bioflocculant were optimized through single factor test. The optimization nutritional compositions were :raw concentration cassava starch wastewater without adding KH_2PO_4,with glucose as the optimal carbon source in wastewater culture medium,combined nitrogen source of yeast extract and peptone by 1∶2,4.5% of total carbon and nitrogen amount with C/N ratio of 1.5. With the condition above,the flocculation rate of fermentation broth to starch wastewater and Kaolin clay suspension was found to be 89.2% and 91.4% respectively.
Study on xylan extraction from cottonseed husk enhanced by ultrasonication and enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to xylooligosaccharides
ZHI Jia-jia, LI Ying-biao, JIANG Cai-hong, LI Fei-ya, YE Jia-xin
2016, (04): 217-222. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.035
Abstract(84) PDF(175)
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The preparation of xylooligosaccharide from cottonseed husk was studied in this paper. Orthogonal experimental design was used to select optimal conditions of ultrasonic extraction of xylan. When the ultrasonic temperature was 60 ℃,the ultrasonic time was 30 min,the ratio of material to liquid was 1∶15,the concentration of Na OH was 8%,the extraction rate of xylan was 33.66%. Based on the experimental results of single factor:ratio of material to liquid,the amount of enzyme,the time of enzyme hydrolysis and the temperature of the enzyme hydrolysis,using four factors and three levels of response surface methodology to analyse the influence of each single factor and interaction. The reducing sugar content in response to the value of establishing mathematical model,the optimum conditions were as follows:the ratio of solid to liquid was 1∶20,the accession of the xylanase was 4%,zymohydrolysis time was 3.5 h,zymohydrolysis temperature was 64 ℃. Under this condition,3.35 mg/m L oligosaccharide content was produced.
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on cell growth and lipid accumulation of tropic ocean microalgae strain Desmodesmus sp. WC08
LUO Ning, ZHANG Sen, LIU Ping-huai
2016, (04): 223-227. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.036
Abstract(89) PDF(180)
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In order to study the effects of nitrogen sources and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth,lipid accumulation of a marine algae Desmodesmus sp. WC08. Four nitrogen sources such as sodium nitrite,sodium nitrate,urea and ammonium chloride and different concentrations of urea and phosphorus were investigated based on the BG11 media. The results showed that different nitrogen sources made little difference to Desmodesmus sp. WC08 except for ammonium chloride. In addition,the growth and lipid accumulation proved to be best when using urea as nitrogen source. Accordingly,the best growth and lipid accumulation which would be easily affected if the concentration of nitrogen was higher or lower,could be obtained at the optimal concentration of nitrogen(10 mmol/L). Likewise,the growth and lipid accumulation could be obtained at the optimal concentration of phosphorus(0.5 mmol/L). To be concluded,the nitrogen and phosphorus could be thoroughly absorbed by WC08 and the nutrients in the BG11 media could also be fully used at the their optimal concentrations.
Synthesis of recombinant gene for Bacillus subtilis bacteriocin subtilosin A and its expression in Pichia pastoris
CHEN Bai-xiong, HUANG Jia-jun, LIN Jun-fang, GUO Li-qiong, CHEN Jun-fei, LIU Ying-li
2016, (04): 228-231. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.037
Abstract(73) PDF(241)
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In this study,the recombinant gene for subtilosin A(rsbo A) was synthesis for the sake of the expression for this bacteriocin in host cell P. pastoris. Both the results of colony PCR of positive Escherichia coli recombinants and DNA sequencing indicated that recombinant plasmid p PIC9K- sbo was constructed successfully. In addition,the results of colony PCR of positive P. pastoris recombinants indicated that recombinant Pichia GS115- p PIC9K- sbo was constructed successfully. Protein electrophoresis analysis of positive P. pastoris recombinants displayed that the recombinant gene rsbo A was secretory expressed in P. pastoris GS115.Analysis of antimicrobial activity showed that the fermentation broth of this recombinant yeast possess antibacterial activities against P. aeruginosa. The result of this work built a new strategy of bacteriocins,a small molecule peptide,in heterologous expression. The study laid a foundation for industrialized production of Bacillus subtilis antibiotic peptide subtilosin A.
Optimization of fermentation medium of Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0386 for bile salt hydrolase production
TANG Ya-ru, YU Shang-fu, GUO Li-dong, WANG Na-na, HUO Gui-cheng
2016, (04): 232-235. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.038
Abstract(58) PDF(121)
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In order to improve the bile salt hydrolase production of Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0386,the response surface method was used to optimize the medium composition. The optimal values of the culture medium were as follows(g/L) :glucose 18.2 g/L,peptone 15.03 g/L,yeast extract 9.97 g/L,sodium acetate3.13 g/L,diammonium hydrogen citrate 2.00 g/L,K_2HPO_4 2.00 g/L,Mn SO_40.25 g/L,Mg SO_4 0.58 g/L. Before optimizing,the activity of bile salt hydrolase was 1.04 U/mg,Under the optimal conditions,specific enzyme activity of bile salt hydrolase was 3.37 U/mg,increasing 3.24 times than before. The experimental result was consistent with the value predicted by the mathematical model. which showed the model can be put into use.
Optimization of hydrolysis of Chinese pine pollen protein by response surface methodology
FAN San-hong, DU Jing-ting, WANG Xiang-shuai
2016, (04): 236-241. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.039
Abstract(60) PDF(101)
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With protein of Chinese pine pollen as the raw material protein hydrolysis degree as an evaluation index,this paper aimed to study the process conditions of pine pollen proteolysis. The alkaline protease was choosen as the bast hydrolase. On the basis of single factor experiment,the Plackett-Burman screening test was adopted to determine three factors(which signifcantly affect) significantly affecting hydrolysis of Chinese pine pollen as:total enzyme dose,p H and substrate concentration. Then,the hydrolysis process conditions of pine pollen protein was optimized by Box-Behnken center combination experiment and response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimum conditions for hydrolysis were as follows:enzyme concentration0.04 g/g,p H11.1,substrate concentration 0.09 g/m L,enzymatic time 5 h,enzymatic temperature 50 ℃. Under the optimal conditions,the hydrolysis degree of Chinese pine pollen protein could reach 79.07%. This study provided a theoretical basis for the development of Chinese pine pollen peptides and functional foods.
Effects of germination factors on Bacillus subtilis spores in the sub(lethal) stage
CHANG Chao, PAN Li, WU Jin-e, ZHANG Zhe
2016, (04): 242-245. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.040
Abstract(69) PDF(56)
Abstract:
The effect of food nutritional ingredient on Bacillus subtilis spores in the sub(lethal) stage germination was evaluated,which the impact of carbon,nitrogen,inorganic salts in food on spore germinate was conducted by batch culture method, and temperature, p H, inoculum size, oxygen content was studied by orthogonal experimental design. To quantitatively analyse the effect of these factors,the optical density of OD580 was determined to calculate germination rate. The results showed that maltose,whey protein were the best C source and N source of spore germination,respectively. Mg SO_4 had a significant induction effect on spore germination.Based on the best nutrients of maltose(5 mg/m L),Mg SO_4(5 mg/m L),whey protein(5 mg/m L),optimal growth conditions for spore was that an inoculum of 4% of Bacillus subtilis spores in media with p H7.0 were cultured under 37 ℃,and the dissolved oxygen was 70 m L,constant shaking for 60 min,resulted in the maximum spore germination rate was 15.27%.
Study on variation of metal elements during Pu 'er tea fermentation
CHEN Bao, PU Hong-jun, DAO Shi-qiang, JIANG Dong-hua, LUO Zheng-gang, GAO Xiao-li, LI Zhong-hua
2016, (04): 246-249. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.041
Abstract(119) PDF(240)
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The variations of metal elements during pile-fermentation of Pu'er tea were studied by using tertiary sun-dry tea as raw materials and setting different turning piles. The results showed that with the increase of turning piles the content of trace element Iron and Manganese increase with the spiral tendency,and increase respectively 77% and 13%,the content of trace element Zinc show an increasing trend,and increase33%,the content of trace element Copper decrease with the spiral type,and decrease 4% at the end of fermentation. The content of heavy metal Cadmium and Chromium increase with the spiral type,and increase respectively 12%,16%,the content of heavy metal Lead show an increasing trend,and increase 18%,the content of heavy metal Arsenic firstly decrease then increase 8% at the end of fermentation. The total rare earth oxide showed an increasing trend,and increase 1.1 times at the end of fermentation. The results showed that the variation of metal elements was significantly in the pile-fermentation process of different turning frequency and fermentation layer,all these provide some certain technological support for product quality and safety during Pu'er tea fermentation process.
Enzyme hydrolysis preparation model of ACE inhibitory peptides from blue clam based on quadratic general rotation design
YU Zhi-peng, CAI Jian-wen, ZHAO Wen-zhu, ZHANG Hong-yang, WU Yu, ZHANG Shuang, LI Jian-rong, LIU Jing-bo
2016, (04): 250-253. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.042
Abstract(66) PDF(119)
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Blue clam was hydrolyzed by protamex protease and measured by the degree of hydrolysis. The hydrolysis model of peptides from blue clam was established through quadratic general rotation design followed single factor experiment,subsequently ACE inhibitory activity and FTIR of blue clam-derived peptides was measured. The results showed that the equation for the optimal regression equation had a maximal value according to regression coefficient test,regression equation,and the lack of fit test. The optimal details of enzymatic hydrolysis was as follows:substrate concentration 10%,enzymatic hydrolysis p H value 10,the amount of enzyme 7% and hydrolysis temperature 60 ℃,and hydrolysis degree of blue clam protein was 30.1% in one hour. In vitro ACE inhibitory activity of bioactive peptides from blue clam was performed by high performance liquid chromatography,and the IC_(50) value was 80 mg/m L. In addition,secondary structure of the blue calm-derived peptides was random coil.
Extraction optimization of crude polysaccharides from the seed cakes of Rhus succedanea L and its antioxidant activity
CHEN Hong-xia, WANG Cheng-zhang, YE Jian-zhong, ZHOU Hao, TAO Ran, LI Wen-jun
2016, (04): 254-258. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.043
Abstract(98) PDF(179)
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Single factor and orthogonal methodology were used to optimize the extraction conditions of crude polysaccharides from the seed cakes of Rhus succedanea L,then the antioxidant(scavenging hydroxyl and ABTS radicals) of the crude polysaccharides from the seed cakes of Rhus succedanea L were possessed. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows :extraction time 2.5 h,ratio of material to water 1 ∶20(g∶m L),extraction temperature 80 ℃,and extraction times 2. Under the optimized conditions,an experimental yield was 1. 561 %. The IC_(50) values scavenging hydroxyl and ABTS~+radicals of the crude polysaccharides were8.515 mg·m L~(-1) and 7.03 mg·m L~(-1),respectively. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of polysaccharides reached 61.5% at 25 mg·m L~(-1). The ABTS+radicals scavenging ability of polysaccharides reached 58.4% at10 mg·m L~(-1). The seed cakes polysaccharides displayed significant antioxidant.
Optimization of formula for quick-frozen perilla meatballs by Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology
CHEN Chang-yong, HE La-ping, LI Cui-qin, TIAN Yun, CHEN Ping, XUE Rong-tao, LUO Yan
2016, (04): 259-265. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.044
Abstract(68) PDF(596)
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In order to improve quality of quick-frozen perilla meatballs,the formula parameters which affected quality of quick-frozen perilla meatballs were optimized by Plackett-Burman design,the steepest ascent experiment and Box-Benhnken response surface methodology. First,two level factorial design of Plackett-Burman was used to evaluate the influence of seven related factors,and substitution amount of perilla seed,ice water and soy protein isolated were identified as the most significant variables. Second,the path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of response surface. Third,further optimization was made by using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal production formula were as follows:perilla seed 7%,ice water 29%,soy protein isolated 2.5%. Under the optimal conditions,the sensory score of22.03,hardness of 2158.83 g,springiness of 8.82 mm and cohesiveness of 0.63 was obtained by the verification experiment, and the relative error was 0. 57 % ~ 1. 61 %, which indicated that the combination of Plackett-Burman design,the steepest ascent experiment and response surface methodology could well optimize the production formula for quick-frozen perilla meatballs. Moreover,the perilla meatballs were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Optimization of preparation conditions of hairtail protein polypeptide-Iron(Ⅱ) chelate by response surface methodology
HUANG Sai-bo, LIN Hui-min, DENG Shang-gui
2016, (04): 266-270. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.045
Abstract(71) PDF(192)
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The preparation conditions of hairtail protein polypeptides chelating iron(Ⅱ) were studied,with hairtail surimi as raw materials. The influences of p H,temperature,time,solution volume ratio of Fe Cl_2 to enzymatic hydrolysate and ascorbic acid content on the yield of peptide- iron( Ⅱ) chelate were investigated. The optimization experiments of response surface were designed by Box-Behnken based on above one-factor experiments. The results showed that the optimal chelating conditions were p H6.9,29 ℃,30 min,Fe Cl_2-enzymatic hydrolysate volume ratio 1∶50(V/V),and ascorbic acid content 0.1% of hydrolysate. Under these conditions,the yield of peptide-iron(Ⅱ) chelate was 80.46%. The analysis of infrared spectrum revealed that the ferrous ions were chelated with the amino groups and carboxyl groups,which suggested the formation of a new kind of peptide-iron(Ⅱ) chelate.
Response surface optimizes the compound extraction process of sulforaphane from broccoli
HU Cui-zhen, LI Sheng, MA Shao-ying, CAO Bao-chen, TANG Bin, ZHAO Sheng-qin, SHI Zhen-zhen, SU Li-rong, ZHOU Wen-zheng
2016, (04): 271-277. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.046
Abstract(60) PDF(467)
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The green young stems and buds of broccoli were used as experimental material,the enzymolysis condition of sulforaphane extraction from broccoli was optimized by response surface method. According to central composite experiment design principle and using response surface analysis of four factors and three levels,four additives including ascorbic acid,EDTA,Mg SO_4,Ca Cl_2 were chosen on the basis of the single factor to determine the impact of various factors on the extraction rate of sulforaphane. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows:ascorbic acid 4.659 mg/g,EDTA 6 mmol/L,Mg SO_4 8.5 mmol/L,Ca Cl_2 4.0 mmol/L.The theoretical maximum extraction rate of sulforaphane was 1858.20 μg/g,and the value reached 1813.26 μg/g in the experiment,the relative error was 2.48%,which indicated that the extraction process parameter above was feasible in sulforaphane extraction from broccoli.
The polyphenol extraction of Leccinellum crocipodium and their inhibitory effect on proliferation of Caco-2 cells
LIU Yu-yang, HOU Yu-yan, WU Su-rui, ZHAO Tian-rui, FAN Jian
2016, (04): 278-282. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.047
Abstract(39) PDF(156)
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The polyphenols were extracted from the Leccinellum crocipodium by ethanol as extraction solvent extraction and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The effect of ethanol concentration,temperature,solid-liquid ratio and time on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols were identified. Based on single factor test,an orthogonal design was applied to optimize extraction process. The polyphenol composition and inhibitory effect on Caco-2 cells of Leccinellum crocipodium were investigated in the present work. The results showed that the optimum conditions for extraction of polyphenols were temperature of 80 ℃,ethanol concentration of 50%,solid-liquid ratio of 1∶25,extracted 1 h,two times. Under this condition,polyphenol extraction rate was 5.46% ±0.04%.Among 18 kinds of polyphenols,the polyphenols of this wild edible fungi were mainly composed of 5-sulfosalicylic acid,catechin,cinnamon and other five kinds of polyphenols,and the content of 5-sulfosalicylic acid up to779.00 mg/100 g. The inhibitory effects on colon carcinoma cells showed that the cell inhibition rate was up to55.07%,when the polyphenols concentration was 175 μg/m L.
Study on improvement of solubility of soybean milk powder by a combination of ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis treatment
QI Bao-kun, SUI Xiao-nan, WANG Zhong-jiang, MA Wen-jun, ZHANG Qiao-zhi, LI Yang
2016, (04): 283-287. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.048
Abstract(66) PDF(199)
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Based on the preparation technology of soybean milk powder by wet processing,a combination of ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis was adopted to improve the solubility of soybean milk powder. On the basis of single factor experiment,technological parameters for preparation of soybean milk powder with higher solubility were determined by response surface methodology to optimize the combination parameters of ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis as follows:350 W ultrasonic power treated for 23 min,then enzymatic hydrolyzed at p H8.6,57 ℃,for 1.7 h. Under this optimal processing condition,the protein dispersibility index reached 88.79%,which was nearly 10 percent higher than that of the soybean milk powder without the combined treatment of ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis. The solubility of soybean milk powder had increased significantly.
Study on dying and smoking characteristic of betel nut
WU Shuo, LI Zong-jun, TAN Ya, DU Sha, HUANG Run-ting, WU Jing
2016, (04): 288-293. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.049
Abstract(70) PDF(240)
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To improve the quality of edible betel nuts,the edibel betel nut drying and smoking features in combination with new environmentally friendly edible betel nuts oven were studied. By controlling drying temperature,humidity and wind speed and the key point of the smoking process and by comparing TPA test results and changes of betel maximum circumference,the optimal baking process parameters were obtained.At the roasting environment:temperature at 55 ℃,humidity at 60% RH,and wind speed at 1.2 m/s,the betel nut could be produced with better quality in a shorter period of time. By controlling smoking time,the smoky flavor was maintained and the smoke time was reduced 1/2 as well,which reduced the amount of harmful residues and hardness of betel nut,and improved the quality of edible betel nut.
Optimization of preparation conditions and structural analysis of succinylated oat protein isolate
LIU Jin-yang, ZHAO Cheng-bin, CHEN Yang, ZHANG Yao, ZHANG Yang, WU Fei
2016, (04): 294-298. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.050
Abstract(50) PDF(144)
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In order to improve the solubility of oat protein isolate(OPI),succinylation was used to modify the proteins. The effects of the temperature of reaction,p H,the ratio of succinic anhydride,and the concentration of proteins on solubility were studied by single factor experiments. The changes of structure of OPI were analyzed by fluorescence emission spectra. Through the response surface methodology,the optimal conditions were as follows:the temperature of reaction 50 ℃,p H8.5,the ratio of succinic anhydride 10% and the concentration of proteins 4 %. The solubility of OPI reaches to 68. 38 % in the optimal conditions. Fluorescence intensity of succinylated oat protein isolate increased,which was obtained by fluorescence emission spectra. The increasing of fluorescence intensity was due to more exposed leucine which were caused by the expanding of the structure of side chains.
Optimization of Ginkgo protein extraction by response surface methology
ZHANG Xiu-yun, LI Dan-dan, MA Yan-fang
2016, (04): 299-302. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.051
Abstract(57) PDF(321)
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The response surface analysis method was used to study the Ginkgo protein extraction process on the basis of single factor experiment with Ginkgo for materials,the effect of Tris-HCl concentration,p H,solidliquid rate,extraction time on the protein extraction yield was inspected. The research results showed that the optimal conditions for ginkgo protein extraction:0.16 mol/L,p H8.7,1∶26(g/m L),and 5 h. Under this condition,the yield of Ginkgo protein was 82.76%,compared to the theoretical value,the relative error of 0.30%. Optimized regression equation derived some practical significance.
The peony seed kernel oil pressure and oil extraction joint production process research
SHI Chuang, WANG Fei, YIN Zhong-yi, ZHENG Xu-xu
2016, (04): 303-308. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.052
Abstract(79) PDF(294)
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To improve the extraction yield of peony seed kernel oil,the grease of high quality and low residual oil and degeneration of the cake,two step method was used to prepare the peony seed oil,and the two processes were optimized. The results showed that hydraulic press optimal process for the material granularity was 40 mesh,the material moisture content was 5%,the press number was 3 times,the press time was 20 min,the press temperature was 60 ℃,the press was 55 MPa and solvent extraction process was 3 times,the ratio of material to liquid ratio was 1∶10,the extraction temperature was 50 ℃,extraction time was 120 min. Under the comprehensive extraction of two processes,the peony seed kernel oil total withdrawal rate was as high as98.86%. The squeezing peony seed kernel oil unsaturated fatty acids was as high as 91.36%,extraction of peony seed kernel oil unsaturated fatty acids was as high as 90.64%,and the two oils all had high nutritional value,so they were expected to develop to become a kind of high nutritional health edible oil.
Extraction scheme optimization and component analysis of the seed oil in the fruit of Acanthopanax
ZHANG Xiao-nan, ZHANG Xiu-ling, WANG Qiang, CHENG Xue, CHEN Shao-hua, ZHAO Tian-tong, SUI Xiao-nan, WANG Zhong-jiang, QI Bao-kun
2016, (04): 309-312. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.053
Abstract(40) PDF(190)
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This article had a preliminary discussion on the best scheme of the extraction of the seed oil in the fruit of acanthopanax,and carried out the gas chromatographic analysis on the components of the seed oil and volatile oil in the fruit of acanthopanax. The best extraction conditions of the seed oil in acanthopanax were determined as follows:feed liquid proportion 1∶15,ultrasonic power 150 W,ultrasonic time 20 min. The highest extraction rate of the seed oil under such extraction conditions was 14.83%. The gas chromatographic analysis is carried out on the acquired seed oil in acanthopanax to identify its 13 components,and the key components included 18. 81 % of oleic acid in content, 14. 70 % of α- bisabolol, 14. 67 % of Trans squalene, 14. 04 % of nonacosane. The gas chromatographic analysis was carried out on the volatile oil in acanthopanax to identify its 16 components,and the key components include 20.52% of α-bisabolol in content,18.63% of caryophyllene,7.93% of cyclohexene.
2016, (04): 313-317. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.054
Abstract(47) PDF(200)
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Preparation and performance characterization of citrus dietary fiber
SUN Hai-yan
2016, (04): 318-321. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.055
Abstract(81) PDF(506)
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Choosing the residue of the citrus peel as experimental materials,the insoluble dietary fiber was distilled by microwave kill enzyme,decolorized,dried,grinded and centrifugal separation. The effect of residue dietary fiber productivity could be shown when studied the extraction temperature,time and ratio. At the same time,the optimum extraction process could be used to extract the IDF from the peel of small kumquats,oranges,gold-rimmed shaddocks and the ugly oranges,and to determine the physicochemical indicators and functional properties. The result showed that the optimum microwave extraction process of IDF was that when the extraction temperature was 40 ℃,the extraction time was 2 minutes,the extraction power was 400 W and the feed liquid ratio was 1:4 g/m L. In this condition,the extraction ratio of citrus IDF reached a maximum number,18.13%. And the moisture content in ugly orange peel residue IDF was up to 8.05%,the gold-rimmed shaddocks ash content was up to 4.70%. The small kumquat fat,the protein and the total sugar content were up to respectively4.36%,2455 μg/g,18.18%. The water retention property and the expansibility of the orange were highest,respectively was 949% and 1384%. The oil retention of the ugly orange could up to 189%.
Optimization study on purification of polysaccharides in polygonatum odoratum
ZHENG Shuang, LI Xin-hua, YANG Qiang, SUN Bu-yun
2016, (04): 322-325. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.056
Abstract(69) PDF(391)
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Single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were undertaken to study the best deproteinization methods of polygonatum polysaccharides. On this basis,by contrasting the decolorizing effects of polygonatum polysaccharides of the different types of resin,choose the most suitable decolorization resin type and the optimal dynamic parameters. Enzymatic and sevag method combination was the best deproteinization. The results showed that the enzyme dosage of 0.1 g,enzymolysis temperature of 40 ℃,enzymolysis time of 1 h,solution p H of 5,the loss rate of polysaccharide was 13.14% and the protein removal rate was 72.43%. Under the conditions of using decolorization 1 resin,sample concentration 4 mg/m L,flow rate 1 m L/min,sample loading amount 2 BV,the decolorization rate of polygonatum polysaccharides was 80.65%,and the retention rate of the polysaccharides was 87.82%.
Effects of pallet and vacuum packaging on quality of chilled mutton
LI Shuang, AI Qi-jun
2016, (04): 326-329. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.057
Abstract(90) PDF(335)
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pallet and vacuum packaging on chilled meat's quality. In this study, chilled mutton was packaged in Nylon / chlorinated- polypropylene( PA / CPP), Nylon /polyethylene(PA/PE) vacuum packaging materials and general-purpose pallet,respectively. Samples was stored for 20 days at 4 ℃,vacuum degree of 0.08 MPa. Drip loss rate,p H,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),color,total viable counts were determined during the storage period. The results showed that compared with pallet packaging,the vacuum-packed samples had the significant higher drip loss during the storage period.Total microbial counts and TVB-N values of ordinary pallet packaging were higher than vacuum packaging significantly(p>0.05). Among two vacuum-packed groups,PA/CPP group had the lower drip loss,but the difference between PA/PE group was not significant. Therefore,vacuum packaging could effectively extended the shelf-life,and the influences of the two packaging materials PA/CPP and PA/PE on chilled mutton quality were not significant(p>0.05).
Formulation optimization of edible films based on konjac glucomammanby response surface analysis
HUANG Yan, ZHANG Yuan, XU Xiao-qing, ZHONG Geng
2016, (04): 330-336. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.058
Abstract(39) PDF(334)
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In this paper,carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan(CMK),konjac glucomannan(KGM),glycerin and gelatin were used to prepare edible films. Based on the results of single factor experiment,with the amount of CMK,KGM,gelatin and glycerin as independent variables,tensile strength(TS),elongation(E) and sealing strength(SS) as response values,response surfacemethodology was applied to optimize the formulation of films,followed by the validation experiments. The film showed the best properties when the composite was1.42% CMK,0.25% KGM,0.33% gelatin and 0.23% glycerin. Under the optimalconditions,the properties of the edible films were(10.37±0.61) MPa,19.98%±0.92%,(4.35±0.15) N/15 mm,which were close to the predicted values.The sealing strength of the films was improved after optimization,which contributed to better practical application.
Quality changes of Paralichthys olivaceus during partial freezing and refrigerated storage
XU Yong-xia, ZHANG Chao-min, ZHAO Jia-mei, LI Xue-peng, MI Hong-bo, LI Jian-rong
2016, (04): 337-341. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.059
Abstract(76) PDF(163)
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Changes in sensory,microbiological,and physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the loss of quality and shelf life of Paralichthys olivaceus during freezing(-2 ℃) and refrigerated(4 ℃) storage.The results indicated that with the extension of storage time,the sensory quality declined gradually(p<0.01),while total viable count(TVC),TVB-N content,TBA and K values increased significantly(p<0.01). Besides,the quality of fish stored at partial freezing temperature changed more slowly than that at 4 ℃ storage. Hardness,springiness,adhesiveness,and chewiness declined significantly(p <0.05) with storage time,while p H value showed no significant correlation with the storage time and other indicators,except for TBA value. According to the sensory score,TVB-N,TVC,and other indicators,the shelf life of Paralichthys olivaceus stored at 4 ℃ and-2 ℃ was 9 days and 12 days,respectively. Compared with the refrigerated storage samples,the partial freezing can inhibit the propagation of bacteria more effectively,thus extending the shelf life.
Antimicrobial activity of solid ClO_2 preservative on miliang kiwifruit pathogenic fungi
LONG Ming-xiu, WANG Hui, JIANG Wei, TAN Shu-ming
2016, (04): 342-346. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.060
Abstract(52) PDF(211)
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In order to investigated antimicrobial activity of solid chlorine dioxide preservative on miliang kiwifruit,pathogenic fungi were isolated from diseased tissue by PDA plate. Using injury and no injury inoculation to screening strongest virulence strains. Morphological and molecular way were used to identify strains. The antimicrobial activity of solid ClO_2 preservative on the most virulent strains was investigated by using the method of mycelium growth rate. Research had revealed that seven pathogen strains were parted from rotten miliang kiwifruit. Three of them were deemed as the most virulent strains and identified as Myrothecium sp.,Phoma sp.and Alternaria sp. All three strains were inhibited by solid ClO_2 preservative under room temperature but couldn't completely inhibit their growth. The sequence of inhibition was Alternaria sp.,Myrothecium sp. and Phoma sp. The three strains were almost inhibited by solid ClO_2 preservative under 2 ℃. Solid ClO_2 spoilage of miliang kiwifruit had a good antibacterial effect. It can be used as a preservative for reducing the rate of corruption.
Study on preservation of fresh-cut Ya-pears of clove medicine extraction
YAN Xun-you, DU Hong-li, ZHU Ai-hong, SHI Zhen-xia, WU Zhi-yan
2016, (04): 347-350. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.061
Abstract(65) PDF(315)
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The effect of freshness was studied about the extract of clove on fresh-cut Ya-pear as raw material.The preservation of fresh-cut Ya-pear was studied under the clove extract concentration of 2.5,5.0,7.5 g/L,during storage of the physical and chemical properties of the fresh-cut Ya-pear( vitamin C, titratable acid content,sugar content and mass loss rate) and the total number of colonies changes. The results showed that different concentrations of clove extract groups could delay the speed of rotting,reduce mass loss rate,delay of vitamin C,titratable acidity and soluble solids degradation,inhibit the microbial growth,and could maintain better quality and water retention. In combination with all these factors,the best preservation effect was obtained at the 0.5 g/L of clove extract,it was a certain degree in delaying the degradation of vitamin C,maintaining the acid content, maintaining solid content, reducing weight loss, and significant( p < 0. 05) in suppression of the growth of microorganisms.
Preservation of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans FX-6 fermented extracts on shrimp
CHEN Fei-long, MIAO Jian-yin, LIAO Wei-ling, PENG Bo, CAO Yong
2016, (04): 351-355. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.062
Abstract(47) PDF(164)
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The total bacterial count,p H value,content of total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N) and sensory evaluation were measured, the preservative effects of distilled water, 0.5% FX-6 fermented extracts, 0.5% potassium sorbate and 0.5% nisin on shrimp were investigated respectively during storage at 4 ℃. The results showed that the total bacterial count, p H value and TVB- N of shrimp increased during storage, the TVB- N of25 mg/100 g and the total bacterial count of 10~6 CFU/g could be adopted to judge the end of shelf-life. The shrimp of distill water group reached the edible limit of 25 mg/100 g and 10~6 CFU/g at day 6,the 0.5%potassium sorbate and 0.5% nisin group reached the edible limit at day 8,however,the 0.5% FX-6 fermented extracts group reached the edible limit at day 10. Therefore,the 0.5% potassium sorbate and 0.5% nisin could extend the shelf life of shrimp 2 d,but the 0.5% FX-6 fermented extracts could extend the shelf life of shrimp4 d. The 0.5% FX-6 fermented extracts had better fresh-keeping effects on shrimp than 0.5% potassium sorbate and 0.5% nisin.
The inhibitory effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment on the important pathogenic fungi causing postharvest disease in muskmelon
WANG Hu-jun, LU jun, XUE Hua-li, ZHAO Jun, BI Yang, NAN Mi-na
2016, (04): 356-359. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.063
Abstract(53) PDF(283)
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To study the inhibitory effects of the zinc oxide nanoparticles on T. roseum,Fusarium spp.,Alternaria,which caused pink rot,Fusarium rot,black spot of postharvest muskmelon,respectively. The solid phase and liquid phase zinc oxide nanoparticles at different concentration and T. roseum,F. Sulphureum,A. alternate were used in vitro and vivo study. In vitro,the results showed that the significant inhibitory effect on mycelial growth and spore germination was found at different states of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The inhibition effect was greatly enhanced with the increase of the zinc oxide nanoparticles' s concentration. The inhibitory effect of the solid phase zinc oxide nanoparticles was more effective than the liquid phase one,which showed the most effect for T. roseum,then F. sulphureum,A. alternate. In vivo,it indicated that the solid phase and liquid phase zinc oxide nanoparticles had the significant inhibitory effect on the diameter of melon disease spot,which was caused by T. roseum,F. sulphureum,A. alternate,respectively. So zinc oxide nanoparticles could directly inhibit the major of pathogens to decrease disease of postharvest muskmelon,besides the inhibitory effect of solid phase zinc oxide nanoparticles was better than the liquid.
Analysis and comparison of nutritional compositions in Xinjiang turnip(Brassica rapa L.)
MA Guo-cai, WANG Yu-ru, XUAN Zheng-ying
2016, (04): 360-364. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.064
Abstract(82) PDF(455)
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To fully understand edible value of Xinjiang turnip,13 species of Xinjiang producing area were selected to examine the nutrient composition. This research provided basis for the development and utilization of Xinjiang turnip resources and could enhance the added value. The content of amino acid,crude protein,Ca,Mg,and other mineral elements of 13 Xinjiang turnip species were detected by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer(AAS). The results showed that Lukun turnip with the highest levels contents of amino acid(12.32%),protein(2.33%) and mineral element(57488 mg/kg). By comparing nutrient composition of 13 Xinjiang turnip species,Lukun turnip was the best,followed by Keping turnip and Yahua turnip. Xinjiang turnips with high nutritional value,rich in amino acid,protein and mineral elements,had high edible value and great development prospects.
Regulations of food allergen labeling from the European Union,Australia and New Zealand and its enlightenment on China
ZOU Li, LI Xin, TONG Ping, GAO Jin-yan, CHEN Hong-bing
2016, (04): 365-369. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.065
Abstract(63) PDF(368)
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Food allergy has become a major public health and food safety issue of concern in the world. Fourteen and eight food allergens were labeled mandatory in European Union( EU), Australia and New Zealand,respectively. Moreover,they have carried out basic research on certified reference materials and threshold for food allergens,and successfully developed allergen reference materials and population threshold. In addition,some advices were suggested on how to speed up the food allergen labeling regulations in China after the comparison of food allergy management between China and European Union(EU),Australia and New Zealand.
Research progress in analysis methods of macamides
LI Shao-hui, XU Xiu-li, ZHANG Fei-fang, ZHOU Wei-e, ZHENG Yang, ZHANG Yuan, LI Hong-na, ZHANG Feng
2016, (04): 370-373. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.066
Abstract(78) PDF(428)
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Maca was a rare medicinal and edible plant,originating in Peru. It contains abundant nutrients.Maca has the ability to relieve fatigue,improve sleep,improve the function and antioxidant and other biological activity.Macamides were the special active substances in Maca,having strong biological activity. The content of the macamides in maca was low. At present,the method of solvent reflux,ultrasonic extraction,HPLC and liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry were used to detect it. In this paper, the extraction and analysis of macamides were reviewed,which provides a reference for its further research.
Progress of fatty acid metabolism and skeletal muscle contraction genes affecting lamb quality
ZHANG Li-xia, GUO Yue-ying, CHENG Hai-xing, WANG Le, JING Ye
2016, (04): 374-377. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.067
Abstract(93) PDF(270)
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Meat traits were effected by many factors,and the genes play an important role in genetic factors.Fatty acid metabolism and skeletal muscle contraction were related with the flavor and tenderness of muscle,diameter and density of muscle fiber which influence accumulation of the intermuscular fat,development of muscle fiber,the moisture of muscle and so on. The function,regulation mechanism and research status on meat quality of qualityfat-1 gene,diethyl diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene,adipose tissue triglyceride hydrolase gene,skeletal muscle troponin fast gene,tropomyosin 3 gene were reviewed in this article.
Research advance on acanthopanax structure and the content of active ingredient
BAI Xue, HU Wen-zhong, JIANG Ai-li, LI Jing, LI Xiao-bo
2016, (04): 378-381. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.068
Abstract(97) PDF(923)
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In this paper,some research advances on the acanthopanax active ingredients and its functuions had been introduced briefly. While the different growing conditions,harvest time,different parts and different extraction methods that could influence the contents of acanthopanax active ingredients were also compared. It could provide a theoretical basis for the acanthopanax screening and application in future studies.
Progress on the application of peptidomics methods in food-derived bioactive peptides
YU Zhi-peng, XUE Ru-yang, ZHAO Wen-zhu, ZHANG Hong-yang, WU Yu, ZHANG Shuang, LI Jian-rong, LIU Jing-bo
2016, (04): 382-385. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.069
Abstract(93) PDF(698)
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Food peptidomics as an emerging field of food science and technology is gradually applied to the biological activity of the peptide preparation, purification, identification, and structure- activity relationship,involved the qualitative and quantitative aspects of bioactive peptides. Objective of this review was to highlight the increasing role of peptidomics as indispensable tool in the fields of production,purification,characterization,and structure-activity relationship of food-derived bioactive peptides,aimed to support extensive application reference of peptidomics in the food-derived peptides field.
Review on the extraction of main effective active ingredients and function of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.
LI Xiao-bo, HU Wen-zhong, LI Jing, JIANG Ai-li, MU Shi-yang, SONG Chun-lu
2016, (04): 386-390. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.070
Abstract(74) PDF(707)
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Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill. has high health value and biological activity as Chinese traditional and edible herbal medicine of which the fruit is used as medicine. In this paper,the pharmacology and health care effects,the extraction and identification of main bioactive ingredients which had health care effects,the development health care products in the future and the direction of bioactive components were discussed to provide reference and basis for exploitation and the research of new products of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill. resources.
Advances in functional ingredients in Liao Asarum
SUN Lu, HU Wen-zhong, LIU Cheng-hui, LI Jing, BAI Xue
2016, (04): 391-394. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.071
Abstract(102) PDF(641)
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The Liao Asarum for asarum belongs to tradition Chinese medicine. In this paper,the application situation and functions of Liao Asarum functional components were summarized. The Liao Asarum pharmacological functions which included the sedation,anti-aging and anti-tumor functions were described primarily. The medicinal and edible value of Liao Asarum were illustrated and prospected,and then the extraction methods of volatile oil were discussed. With the development of medicine,Liao Asarum remains to be further development and utilization. This paper provides a certain reference for the future application prospect of Liao Asarum.
Progress on modified atmosphere packaging technology of salmon
ZHANG Xin-lin, XIE Jing, YANG Sheng-ping, PAN Ying-jie
2016, (04): 395-399. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2016.04.072
Abstract(50) PDF(790)
Abstract:
Salmon was not only an ideal food source to supply nutrient for human,but also had health function.The research progress and development tendency of modified atmosphere packing(MAP) of salmon were introduced. If just adopting modified atmosphere packaging,salmon could be only kept quality in limited days,but if combining MAP with acid leach,salt marsh,smudging,preservative and fungicide,the shelf life of salmon could be prolonged longer,which was the major developing trend of modified atmosphere technology. Modified atmosphere packaging could inhibit the growth of aerobic bacteria. Salmon's specific spoilage organisms(SSO) under modified atmosphere packaging were Photobacterium phosphoreum,lactic acid bacteria and so on. The models created by the growth of spoilage bacteria was used to predict the shelf life of salmon,which was a useful method to establish an accurate and timely food safety risk assessment.
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