2020 Vol. 41, No. 16

2020, 41(16): 0-0.
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Research and Investigation
Effect of Collagen Peptide on the Quality of Set-style Yoghurt
DONG Shi-rong, XU Wei, LI Xin, SUN Yu
2020, 41(16): 1-6. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.001
Abstract(112) PDF(15)
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In order to improve the quality,nutrition and quantitatively evaluation,and quantitative assessment the effect of collagen peptide on set-style yoghurt,the set-style yoghurt samples with varied amounts of collagen peptide(0,0.2%,0.4%,0.6%,0.8%,1.0%,2.0%,3.0%,4.0%,5.0%)were prepared,and the related quality indexes were measured. The results indicated that collagen peptide enhanced the water holding capacity and pH value,the hardness,adhesiveness,gumminess,chewiness,and titratable acidity reduced,and prolonged the fermentation. However,no influence on springiness and cohesiveness was found. The ability of the collagen peptide affecting the quality of the yoghurt was directly constrained by its addition amount. In the cases of the addition amount ≤ 0.6%,significant variation of the quality of the yoghurt was observed as the addition amount increased. Whereas,the quality of the yoghurt varied slightly as the addition amount increased continuously when over 0.6%. The variation of the quality of yoghurt could be ascribed to the damage to the inter-protein crosslinking caused by the added collagen peptide. Moreover,a series of empirical models of dozens of assessment indices was developed,which reflected the quantitatively effects of collagen peptide on the quality of yoghurt,and would provide the theoretical foundation to the industry production of the yoghurt.
Effects of Ozone Water Rinsing on the Qualities and Oxidation of Surimi Myofibrillar Proteins of Spanish Mackerel Surimi
LI Wen-xie, LI Xue-peng, LIU Ci-kun, WANG Jin-xiang, ZHU Wen-hui, XU Yong-xia, YI Shu-min, LI Jian-rong, LI Ting-ting, MOU Wei-li, GUO Xiao-hua
2020, 41(16): 7-15. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.002
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Spanish mackerel surimi was rinsed by different concentrations(0,2,4,6,8,and 10 mg/L)of ozone water to investigate its influences on sensory qualities of surimi and oxidation of surimi myofibrillar proteins. The results showed that the whiteness of surimi increased and the electronic nose responses of fishy smell obviously reduced with the increasing concentrations of ozone water after rinsing. The electronic nose responses of fishy smell in surimi,including aromatic,ammonia,short-chain alkane,methyl and organic sulfur compounds,obviously reduced after rinsing by ozone water. The result of GC-MS demonstrated that the contents of volatile compounds in surimi rinsed by ozone water,such as aldehydes,alcohols,olefins,thioethers,alkanes compounds,decreased significantly(P<0.05). The carbonyl contents of myofibrillar proteins in rinsed surimi escalated,while the contents of total sulfhydryl groups decreased remarkably,with the increasing concentrations of ozone water. The Raman spectroscopy indicated that the structure and conformation of myofibrillar proteins suffered changes after rinsing,including the decreasing of a-helical relative content,the increasing of β-turn,β-sheet,random coil content. And the tryptophan and tyrosine amino acid residues exposed to the polaring environment. SDS-PAGE showed that the cross-link and aggregation of myofibrillar proteins occurred in the rinsed surimi. The above results would indicate that ozone water rinsing could improve the whiteness and flavor of Spanish mackerel surimi,and also cause oxidation of the myofibrillar protein,which led to the changes of protein structural and conformational properties.
Effect of Different Additives on the Digestibility of Extruded Rice
CAI Qiao-yu, XU Xiao-ru, ZHOU Jian, CHEN Xuan, LV Qing-yun
2020, 41(16): 16-20. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.003
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Indica rice was used as the main material in this study,rutin and chromium rich yeast were added as auxiliary materials to prepare extruded rice. Indica rice and extruded indica rice were used as control group,the color changes of extruded rice with different auxiliary materials,the inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase,and the glycemic index and digestion in vitro of extruded rice were discussed. The results showed that when more than 0.05% rutin or chromiumadd rich yeast was added,the color of extruded rice was significantly different from indica rice and extruded indica rice. When 0.35% rutin was added,the inhibition rates of α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 38.54% and 62.09%,respectively. When 0.09% chromium rich yeast was added,the inhibition rates of α-glucosidase and α-amylase were 17.93% and 40.14%,respectively. When 0.35% rutin or 0.09% chromium rich yeast was added,the GI results was closely to the marketed indica rice,which was 77.02 and 78.29,respectively. Adding 0.35% rutin or adding any proportion of chromium rich yeast,the contents of RDS,SDS and RS were significantly different from the extruded indica rice,indicating that adding 0.35% rutin or adding chromium rich yeast could improve the digestion in vitro and slow down the absorption of blood glucose in vitro.
Evaluation of Stability and Rheology Properties of Whole Nutrition Medical Formula in Different Storage Environments
SUN Wan-ting, YANG Yun-yun, REN Yuan-hai, WANG Sai, DONG Lei-chao, CHEN Xuan-hong, ZHOU Quan-cheng
2020, 41(16): 21-25,31. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.004
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To explore the relationship between the composition of formula food and the stability and rheological properties of food with the osmotic pressure,pH and rheological properties as storage time going,the stability of two kinds of full nutrition medical formula under high temperature test,high humidity test,light test and long-term test were evaluated. The results showed that the osmotic pressure of formula 1 was 280~320 mosmol/kg and pH was 6.2~6.8,which were in the normal range of human body,while that of formula 2 was lower or higher than normal. The shear thinning of formula 1 was more significant than that of formula 2. The thixotropy of both formulas was smaller,while the shear thinning of formula 1 was more significant than that of formula 2. The functional properties of whole foods were better when the shear thinning was more significant. By comprehensive analysis,formula 1(pea protein and whey protein as the main raw materials)had good stability and rheological properties. At the same time,pH and osmotic pressure showed that the physical and chemical indexes of formula 1 were relatively stable,which could maintain its functional characteristics in a long storage period. The results would provide theoretical guidance and experimental data reference for the development of medical food industry.
Preparation of Sustained-Release Agent of Long-acting Chlorine Dioxide
MENG Tian-yu, LIU Ying-dan, LOU Yong-jiang
2020, 41(16): 26-31. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.005
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In order to develop a sustained-release solid chlorine dioxide preservative with controlled concentration and effective sterilization time,the effects of different kinds of activators,gels and chloride salts on the concentration and slow release period of chlorine dioxide gas were investigated. The formulation was optimized by L9(34)orthogonal test design method. The optimized preservative by scanning electron microscopy was observed. The results showed that the use of EDTA as an activator made effective sterilize time over 20%. When sodium carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC)was used as the gel,the sustained-release rate of chlorine dioxide gas was the smallest and the effective sterilization time was longer. The using of NaCl as a chloride salt provided a micro-electric field environment while passivating the reactants. When the mass ratio of CMC,EDTA and NaCl was 14:1:5,the effective sterilization time(concentration of 1~50 mg/kg)of the sustained-release preservative reached 28 d. The internal structure of the preservative agent was observed under the electron microscope. After the formulation optimization,the internal structure of the sustained-release agent was a dense microporous network structure with a tight arrangement of particles and certain rules. The chlorine dioxide gas generated by the reaction was stored in the microporous structure of the sustained-release agent and released slowly.
Effect of Sheep Plasma Protein on Gel Characteristics of High-temperature Sterilization Surimi Products
YU Nan-nan, LI Jing-min, TANG Chu-qi, SUN Yue-e, WANG Wei-dong
2020, 41(16): 32-36,42. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.006
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To improve the quality of high-temperature sterilization surimi products,the effect of sheep plasma protein on gel characteristics of 121℃ treated surimi products was studied. Taking silver carp surimi as raw material,the effects of sheep plasma protein on the textural characteristics,gel strength,water holding capacity,folding property,whiteness and rheological properties of surimi gel were determined,and the changes of the dissolution rate and intermolecular forces were determined to investigate the influence mechanism. The results showed that,compared with the control group,with the addition of sheep plasma protein,the hardness,elasticity,stickiness and chewiness of gels of high-temperature treated surimi increased significantly(P<0.05),water holding capacity strengthened significantly(P<0.05). With the contents of sheep plasma protein increasing,folding performance increased,while the whiteness decreased. When the amount of addition was 2%,the gel strength of surimi products increased by 92.88%.The results of intermolecular interaction and solubility showed that the addition of sheep plasma protein could improve the hydrogen bond and non-disulfide covalent bond contents in the gel system,thus improving the gel quality of high-temperature treated surimi products.
Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma on the Physiological Biochemistry of Stale Wheat and Its Dough Pasting Properties
XU Yong-ning, WANG Ruo-lan, LI Xing-jun, LIU Jun-ming, YAN En-feng
2020, 41(16): 37-42. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.007
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The stale wheat was treated 0,14,18,22,and 26 min with 30 W atmospheric pressure cold plasma(APCP),respectively. After 14~26 min APCP treatment,the water drop contact angle of a wheat kernel significantly(P<0.05)reduced,and its germination rate and stale index significantly(P<0.05)decreased while its kernel broken percent and water-absorption rate were significantly increased. The contents of soluble protein and sulfuryl group increased with treatment time. Further analyzed the pasting properties of whole wheat flour showed,compared with the sample treated with 0 min,with the increasing in APCP treatment time,dough development time tended to increase while the dough stability time tended to decrease. The maximum consistency torque(C1),a torque at end of mixing(Cs),the minimum torque(C2),and final torque(C5)all tended to decrease,but the pasting peak torque(C3)and the torque(C4)at end of heating tended to unchanged. The amplitude of C1 torque peak significantly reduced. The weakness of protein network(C1-Cs)tended to decrease,the amylase activity(C3/C4)and the extent of starch retrogradation tended to decrease. These changes were related to a slight increase in heating rate(α)and pasting rate(β),with a decreasing tendency in enzymatic rate(γ). Cold plasma treatment significantly decreased damaged starch in the whole wheat flour. The study suggested that the atmospheric pressure cold plasma could modify the strength of protein network and the pasting properties of whole flour in stale wheat possibly by increasing peroxidase and amylase activities in a wheat kernel.
Texture Evaluation of Boiled Zhacai by Fuzzy Mathematic
LI Min, KANG Li, TAN Suo, LONG Yin-qing, HE Yun-chuan
2020, 41(16): 43-46,53. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.008
Abstract(139) PDF(4)
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To study the influence of different boiling time on the textural characteristics of Zhacai,fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation was conducted. The membership degree were as follows:Brittleness(0.33),chewiness(0.26),hardness(0.23),springiness(0.18). With the increasing of boiling time,the sensory evaluation of membership degree decreased with quality declining. Upon boiling for 0 and 20 min,the membership degrees of Zhacai were all closed to level one,presenting a superior quality. Upon boiling for 40,60 and 80 min,the quality was good. Upon boiling for 100 min,the quality was barely satisfactory.
Effects of Storage Environment and Additives on the Stability of Purple Rice Anthocyanins
WU Yi-fei, ZHONG Jin-yao, ZHENG Jing-shao, DING Shao-yun, LIANG Li-yue, HUANG Wei
2020, 41(16): 47-53. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.009
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Using purple rice anthocyanins as raw materials,the effects of light irradiance,light wavelength range,dissolved oxygen,metal ions and co-pigments on the stability of anthocyanins solution in storage environment were studied. The results showed that there was a significant negative dose-response relationship between the light irradiance and the retention rate of purple rice anthocyanins,and the products rich in anthocyanins should not be stored under strong light. The destructive acceleration experiments related to anthocyanins with strong light were simple and efficient. Both ultraviolet and visible light had destructive effects on anthocyanins,and blue light(450~490 nm)had the most destructive effect. The smaller the wavelength range of visible light incidence,the better the anthocyanins preservation. Reducing dissolved oxygen was the key factor to maintain anthocyanins stability under indoor natural light conditions. Five kinds of metal ions of Zn2+,chlorogenic acid and gallic acid had protective and complementary pigment effects on anthocyanins. The wavelength of incident light ranged from 700 to 1000 nm,the dissolved oxygen contents was controlled at 0.2 mg/L,1 mmol/L of Zn2+ and gallic acid with a pigment/co-pigment ratio of 1:15 were added,and the anthocyanins retention rate reached 91.12%,28.43% higher than that of the control group,while the packaging materials could be kept perspective.
Effects of High Pressure and Heat Pretreatment on the Biological Activity of Rapeseed Hydrolysates
WU Gang, ZOU Zhi-peng, HE Rong, WANG Ming-jie
2020, 41(16): 54-59. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.010
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In this paper,rapeseed protein was pretreated with high pressure(200,400 and 600 MPa)and heat(60,80 and 100℃)and hydrolyzed with alkaline protease(enzyme concentration:1%,3%,and 5%). The effects of different treatment conditions on rapeseed protein hydrolyzation degree,ACE,renin inhibitory activity and antioxidant properties were analyzed.The results showed that high pressure and heat treatment could reduce the hydrolysis degree of rapeseed protein.Compared with the control group,high pressure and heat treatment increased the ACE and renin inhibition activity of rapeseed protein hydrolysate. Among them,the ACE inhibition rate of rapeseed protein treated with 400 MPa increased by 10.27% at 5% enzyme concentration,and the renin inhibition rate of rapeseed protein treated with 80℃ increased by 50.06% at 5% enzyme concentration.The adsorption capacity of rapeseed protein at 1% enzyme concentration significantly reduced by high pressure or heat treatment.The Fe2+ chelating ability of rapeseed protein under high pressure or heat treatment was significantly enhanced at different enzyme concentrations(P<0.05).It was believed that high pressure and heat treatment could improve the biological activity of rapeseed protein to some extent.
Physical and Chemical Properties of Pectin-proanthocyanidin Complex and Its Antibacterial Activity in Vitro
CUI Ling-min, XIE Bi-jun, SUN Zhi-da
2020, 41(16): 60-66,80. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.011
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Objective:Improving the stability and antibacterial activity of procyanidins. Methods:The mango was used as raw material,pectin was extracted by acid method(citric acid at pH2.5).The molecular weight distribution of pectin was determined by gel permeation chromatography. The composition of neutral sugars was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The characteristic groups were determined by infrared spectroscopy. The esterification degree and the contents of galacturonic acid were determined by titration. The complex was composed of pectin and procyanidins by physical means. The thermal stability,rheological properties,grain size,aeta potential,micromorphology and other physical and chemical properties of pectin and its complex were compared by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC),isothermal titration calorimetry(ITC),rheological properties analysis,nanometer particle size potential analyzer,scanning electron microscope(SEM). On this basis,the inhibition rate of procyanidin and procyanidin-pectin complex on 4 strains of S. aureus was further analyzed. Results:The extracted mango pectin contained two integral points(Mw 2.6724×104 and 2.2525×105,respectively). The molality ratio of rhamnose:fucose:arabinose:xylose:mannose:galactose was 1.226:0.087:1:0.025:006:0.091. The esterification degree was 91.09%±2.23%. The contents of galacturonic acid was 82.32%±0.51%. The glass transition temperature of the composite decreased. The apparent viscosity of the complex was lower than that of pectin at the same mass concentration. The grain size of complex solution decreased significantly and the absolute value of aeta potential increased. Through SEM observation,the surface was smooth and the edge was threadlike. The interaction between pectin and procyanidins was mainly hydrogen bond driven spontaneous exothermic reaction. The inhibition rate of pectin-procyanidin complex on four strains of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher than that of procyanidin,and the inhibition effect on S. aureus ATCC27217 was the best with IC50 of 0.006 mg/mL. Conclusion:The mango pectin was an acidic heteropolysaccharide with high esterification degree. When compounded with procyanidins,the thermal stability of procyanidins was significantly improved,the absolute value of zeta potential significantly increased,and the solution grain size greatly reduced and more uniform. The interaction between the two was mainly exothermic reaction driven by hydrogen bonds. The inhibition effect of compound on 4 strains of S. aureus was significantly higher than that of procyanidins.
Analysis and Discrimination of Aroma Compounds of Guire 2 Black Tea Treated with Different Drying Methods
YANG Jing-yang, LI Zi-ping, LU Jin-mei, HE Wen, FENG Hong-yu, LIU Han-yan, XU Dong-ying, LIANG Guang-zhi, LUO Lian-feng
2020, 41(16): 67-73,87. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.012
Abstract(79) PDF(7)
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Objective:The mainly different aroma components of Guire 2 black tea treated with different drying methods were identified to determine the drying methods of black tea. Methods:Solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS)was used to identify the aroma components of Guire 2 black tea samples dried by freeze drying(D),hot air drying(H),sun drying(S),freezing+hot air drying(DH). Principal component analysis(PCA)and sensory evaluation were used to analyze the aroma characteristics. Orthogonal signal corrected least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA)was used to analyze the differences between groups. Cluster analysis(HCA)was used to identify the drying methods of black tea. Results:A total of 36 aroma components were identified,among which the relative contents of 12 aroma components were relatively high,which constituted the base of sweet scent of Guire 2 black tea. Three principal components were extracted by PCA(the fraction of the variation of the X variables explained was 82.2%),and the caffeine,nerol,linalool and so on had a greater impact on the component group. The OPLS-DA analysis had a poor fit to the model between DH and H,and the other groups had a good fit. The difference components were caffeine and linalool(D and DH),caffeine and nerol(D and H,D and S),linalool and nerol(DH and S),benzyl alcohol(H and S). The results of HCA cluster analysis showed that the high discrimination could be achieved except DH and H. Conclusions:The aroma components of Guire 2 black tea could be identified and classified by GC-MS combined with PCA,OPLS-DA and HCA. A comprehensive evaluation indicated that freezing+hot air drying showed the best effect.
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Bioengineering
Fermentation Characteristics of Different Strains of Bacillus coagulans with Single and Mixed Carbon Sources
SUN Yan, WANG Yong-hong
2020, 41(16): 74-80. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.013
Abstract(204) PDF(9)
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The substrate utilization and metabolism of Bacillus coagulans BH1,HL5 and 36D1 by using various substrates as sole carbon sources,including xylose,trehalose,glucose,isomaltose,sucrose and maltose,and glucose with five above carbon sources as mixed carbon sources were studied. Then,the fermentation characteristics for the three strains in a 5 L tank using glucose and isomaltose as a mixed carbon source were inspected. The fermentation characteristics of the three strains were further investigated in order to determine one strain as the starting strain for subsequent screening of high-efficiency lactic acid fermentation strains. Results showed that that:Under single carbon source fermentation,B.coagulans 36D1 could fully utilize xylose,trehalose and glucose,while BH1 and HL5 had almost no use of xylose and trehalose,and all three strains had no obvious use of sucrose. Under mixed carbon source fermentation,B. coagulans 36D1 exhibited the obvious glucose repressive effect in the fermentation process,and the use of other sugars(especially maltose or isomaltose)by BH1 and HL5 was hardly affected. The results of 5 L tank fermentation showed that B. coagulans HL5 had better utilization of isomaltose. In conclusion,B. coagulans HL5 had a high utilization capacity for maltose,isomaltose and glucose,and would be finalized as the starting strain for subsequent strain screening.
Synergistic Inhibitory Effects of Nisin and L-Lactic Acid against Aeromonas hydrophila
WANG Yang, WANG Jing-ru, BAI Dong-qing, DAN Qing-hua, YU Bo, YU Zheng-hao, LUO Yun-long
2020, 41(16): 81-87. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.014
Abstract(72) PDF(8)
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To investigate the synergistic inhibitory effect and mechanism of nisin and L-lactic acid against Aeromonas hydrophila,turbidity,plate count method,membrane electromotive force probe were used to detect the influence of nisin and L-lactic acid on growth,survival,biofilm formation,and membrane integrity of Aeromonas hydrophila(ATCC 35654,CICC 10500). The results showed that nisin and low concentration(3.5 mmol/L)of L-lactic acid synergistically inhibited the growth of two strains of Aeromonas hydrophila. And the inhibitory effect strongthened with the increasing of nisin concentration. The growth parameters modeled with a Gomptz equation showed that nisin and L-lactic acid synergistically prolonged the growth lag phase of Aeromonas hydrophila,the maximum specific growth rate decreased,and the maximum viable count of bacteria at stationary phase also decreased. Besides,nisin and L-lactic acid had a synergistic lethal effect on the indicator bacteria. Nisin and L-lactic acid treated for 12 h reduced the viable count of Aeromonas hydrophila. Results of the mechanism indicated that low concentration of L-lactic acid released the outer membrane LPS from the bacterial cells,and nisin further dissipated the membrane potential. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the use of nisin and L-lactic acid or their producing strains in control of Aeromonas hydrophila in aquatic products.
Effects of Fermented Purple Sweet Potato Products Fermented by Different Bacteria on Hypoglycemic Related Enzymes and Analysis of Active Components
LIU Si-han, LI Gao-yang, SONG Ying, HOU Yu-hao, CHANG Xia, XIE Qiu-tao
2020, 41(16): 88-96. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.015
Abstract(135) PDF(6)
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Taking the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase related to hypoglycemia as indicators,the inhibition effect of fermentation of purple potato products by anaerobic or aerobic fermentation with purple potato mud or purple potato juice as substrates was compared with that of single or mixed strains of Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Streptococcus thermophilus,Baker's yeast with low sugar,Saccharomyces cerevisiae(BV818) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae(RY1) respectively. The content changes of polysaccharides,polyphenols and flavones in the products were analyzed. The results showed that the fermentation improved the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Single bacteria was better than mixed bacteria fermentation products,and purple sweet potato juice was better than purple sweet potato mud fermentation products. Meanwhile,the contents of non-starch polysaccharide,total phenol and total ketone in fermented purple potato products were increased compared with those in unfermented purple potato products. The highest inhibition rate of hypoglycemic enzyme activity was found in the fermented purple potato products with the purple potato juice as the substrate and the low sugar Baker's yeast as the starter. The α-amylase activity inhibition rate was 63.5%,the α-glucosidase activity inhibition rate was 70.9%,the non-starch polysaccharide in the products was 3.52%,total phenol was 10.68 mg/10 g,total ketone was 0.78 mg/10 g.
Processing Optimization of Red Pigment Produced from Panax notoginseng residues in Solid State Fermentation by Response Surface Methodology
LU Shang-fei, TAN Xian-dong, HUANG Fan, SHI Jin-dong, YANG Yi-jin, GUO Xu-jing
2020, 41(16): 97-101,107. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.016
Abstract(86) PDF(4)
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The technological conditions for producing red pigment from Panax Notoginseng residues in solid fermentation were studied. On the basis of single factor experiment,the fermentation process was optimized by response surface analysis with culture time,culture temperature and sample size as influencing factors and red pigment color value as response value. The results showed that the optimum fermentation process conditions were as follows:Culture time 12 d,culture temperature 30.6℃,sample loading amount 10.63 g.Under these conditions,the predicted value and the verified experimental value of the red pigment value were 17.12,16.83 U/g,respectively,and the relative deviation was 1.69%.The production of red pigment from Panax notoginseng residues by solid state fermentation provides a new way for the resource utilization of Panax notoginseng residues. The response surface analysis method has high accuracy and small error in the optimization of fermentation process conditions.
Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria with High-yield Bacteriocin from Fermented Grians of Light-flavor Baijiu and Its Bacteriocin Characteristic
WANG Meng-meng, SHI Ying, LI Zhi-qi, MAO Jian, ZHANG Xiu-Hong
2020, 41(16): 102-107. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.017
Abstract(125) PDF(12)
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Objective:To isolate high-yield bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from fermented grains of light-flavor Baijiu brewing,and analyze the possibility of its application in light-flavor Baijiu brewing. Methods:Lactic acid bacteria with bacteriostatic activity were isolated by Oxford cup method,and identified by 16S rDNA method combined morphology. The stability of their bacteriocins and their influence on the brewing microorganisms were studied. Results:From 146 Lactobacillus strains,four strains had obvious inhibitory effects on indicator strains(Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichis coli,Bacillus subtilis). Among the four strains,YP36 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum,MC15-1 and MC49-1 as Lactobacillus brevis,and SL28 as Lactobacillus buchneri. On the stability of bacteriocin,the bacteriocins of YP36 and SL28 had no significant change in the range of 4~121℃(P>0.05),and the bacteriocins of MC15-1 and MC49-1 were stable in the range of 4~60℃(P>0.05),and the antibacterial activity after treatment at 121℃ was to 68.4% and 56.38% at 4℃,respectively. pH stability of the bacteriocins from the four strains were very similar,and there was no significant change in bacteriostatic activity(P>0.05)in the range of pH2.0~4.0,which decreased slightly when pH was 6.0,and disappeared when pH was 8.0. The bacteriocins of the four strains had no inhibitory effect on the yeasts appeared in fermented grains of light-flavor brewing.The results showed that strains YP36,MC15-1,SL28 and MC49-1 had better physical and chemical properties,which was of great significance for the application of lactic acid bacteria in the fermented grains.
Separation of Excellent Lactic Acid Bacteria from Traditional Tibetan Yogurt and Its Fermentation Performance Analysis
LIANG Ming-ming, CAO Fei-wei, YANG Huan-dong, YU Jing, ZHENG Zhi-yao, LIANG Jing-yi, WANG Wei-jun, CHEN Bo, LIU Jian-xin, REN Da-xi
2020, 41(16): 108-113. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.018
Abstract(88) PDF(9)
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This study aimed at screening lactic acid bacteria with excellent fermentation and aroma production performance from local traditional fermented dairy products. Traditional Tibetan yak yogurts samples were collected from the Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture,Sichuan province. Lactic acid bacteria were selected through genetic stability,fermentation time and sensory evaluation,and together with SPME-GC-MS for flavor. Totally 5 strains with excellent fermentation performance were screened from 26 yogurt samples,their fermentation time were 4.5~7.5 h,titration acidity were 74.0~78.4 °T,and sensory evaluation results were good. Results of SPME-GC-MS showed that the contents of key flavor substances such as acetaldehyde(1.13 mg/L)and diacetyl(4.90 mg/L)produced by strain AB1504 was the highest. The conclusion of this study was that Streptococcus thermophiles AB1504 screened from traditional Tibetan yak yogurts had nice fermentation performance and flavor,it has the potential for commercial application.
Isolation,Identification,Physiological Characteristics and Mixed Fermentation of a Non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae from Rosa roxburghii
ZHAO HU-bing, LI Hua, TIAN Ye, YU Zhi-hai, LIU Xiao-hui, HUANG Ming-zheng, LIU Xiao-zhu
2020, 41(16): 114-120. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.019
Abstract(120) PDF(7)
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To obtain the non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae suitable for the Rosa roxburghii wine fermentation,non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from spontaneous fermented Rosa roxburghii wine were identified by the analysis of morphology and 26S rDNA sequence. Physiological characteristics were detected via analyzing of glucose tolerance,citric acid tolerance,alcohol tolerance,sulfur dioxide tolerance,tannic tolerance,β-glycosidase producing ability and sulfuretted hydrogen producing ability. To explore the effects of non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the quality of Rosa roxburghii wine,the conventional physicochemical indexes,sensory evaluation and aroma profiles of Rosa roxburghii wine fermented with non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed. A total of 80 strains of non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and identified from Rosa roxburghii using lysine identification medium. One aroma-producing strain named F13 was chosen for the further study via sniffing method. Morphological and molecular biology results indicated that F13 was Hanseniaspora uvarum from Rosa roxburghii. The F13 strain was able to tolerate 300 g/L glucose,3% ethanol,3% citric acid,300 mg/L SO2 and 25 g/L tannin. However,the alcohol tolerance and β-glycosidase producing ability were lower than Saccharomyces cerevisiae X16. In addition,F13 did not produce sulfuretted hydrogen. Moreover,the mixed fermentation of F13 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae could reduce the alcohol content and volatile acid of Rosa roxburghii wine,and the concentration were 11.1%±0.39%,(0.67±0.03) g/L and (20.41±1.44 g/L),respectively. Besides,the mixed fermentation of F13 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae could not affect the sensory evaluation of Rosa roxburghii wine. But it could effectively increase the variety and contents of alcohols,and reduce the variety and contents of esters of Rosa roxburghii wine. In this study,one non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain F13 was obtained from spontaneous fermented Rosa roxburghii wine,which possessed excellent tolerance to brewing environment,including sugar,acid,alcohol and sulfur dioxide,therefore had some industrialized application potential.
Identification,Acid and Bile Salt Tolerance,and Antioxidant Ability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sour Soup
WANG Yi-ran, WEI Ming-ming, ZHANG Han, ZHOU Tian-rui, JIANG Mei
2020, 41(16): 121-126,139. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.020
Abstract(113) PDF(7)
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Six lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from the traditional sour soup were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Acid and bile salt tolerance of six isolates were studied. Antioxidant activity in vitro of six strains including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)radicals scavenging activity and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity were measured. The results showed that six strains were Lactobacillus plantarum. The six strains exhibited desirable probiotic properties,showing over 107 CFU/mL of viable count and over 87% of survival rate after incubation at pH2.5 and in the presence of bile salt at 0.3%. When adjusting the concentration of strains to 108 CFU/mL,six strainss showed 23%~35% of DPPH radical scavenging rate and 6%~16% of hydroxyl radical scavenging rate. The strain L. plantarum JMST-1 showed a high level of survival rate in acid and bile tolerance tests(>91%)and desirable free radical scavenging activity(28.60% of DPPH free radicals and 15.44% of hydroxyl free radicals).
The Microscopic Performance of Oil Synthesis and Its Growth of Schizochytrium sp.Mutant Strain S1
ZHENG Cao, YU Shu-cheng, CHEN Tao
2020, 41(16): 127-130,149. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.021
Abstract(112) PDF(6)
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The cellular growth and intracellular lipid formation of Schizochytrium sp.wild-type strain ATCC20888 and mutant strain S1 were observed and analyzed by transmission electron microscope in this study. The results showed that both rates of cellular growth and oil formation of the mutant strain S1 were significantly higher than those of the wild-type strain. At the first day of growth of the mutant strain S1,single algal cell could be obviously observed. With the passage of culturing time,the cell size of S1 remained unchanged,and it was difficult to see the cysts which contained multiple algal cells. At the initial stage of cellular growth,the intracellular oil appeared as single transparent granules. Later,the oil droplets gradually grew larger and they were joined together in blocks with a dark black color. Finally,the whole cell was filled with the oil droplets. This study revealed the properties of cellular growth and lipid formation of different algal strains at microscopic level,which scientifically explained the difference of lipid yields by different algal strain. Our research provided useful guidance for further studies on the process of cellular growth as well as the mechanism of lipid formation.
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Processing Technology
Optimization of Special Oil Nanoemulsion Prepared using Ultrasonic by Response Surface Methodology and Its Characteristics Analysis
GAO Wei, BAI Xin-peng, LIU Ya-wen, SHI Zhen-zhen, HE Kun-ming, WANG Guo-ding, SUN Guang-you
2020, 41(16): 131-139. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.022
Abstract(91) PDF(7)
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In this study,soybean lecithin was used as a surfactant to study the effects of surfactant content,ultrasonic power,ultrasonic time and interaction on the average particle size of ultrasonically prepared green tea seed oil and fractionated coconut oil nanoemulsion. The response surface preparation method was used to optimize the preparation conditions and evaluated the stability and in vitro digestion of the nanoemulsion was analyzed. The results showed that the optimum process parameters were:Surfactant content 2.2%,ultrasonic power 351 W,ultrasonic time 12 min,and the average particle size of the obtained nanoemulsion was(183.00±1.58) nm. The soy lecithin-stabilized nanoemulsion had good stability with pH6~8,heat treatment and storage. The nanoemulsion system was significantly improved with the in vitro digestibility of green tea seed oil and fractionated coconut oil,and the free fatty acid release rate finally reached 87%.
Optimization of Maillard Reaction Process for Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Shrimp and Crab Boiled Juice and Analysis of Its Volatile Flavor Components
ZHENG Mei-hua, GAO Ran, LI Yu-shuang, CHEN Jun-de
2020, 41(16): 140-149. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.023
Abstract(129) PDF(7)
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In this study,the hydrolysate powder produced from boiling down shrimp and crab juice were served as raw material,and the sensory evaluation and browning index were as indicators. Single factor and orthogonal experiments were used to optimize the Maillard reaction process. Electronic nose and solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass(SPME-GC-MS)were used to analyze the changes in volatile substances before and after the reaction. The experimental results indicated that the optimal parameters of the Maillard reaction were as follows:4% xylose,3% arginine,pH7.5,reaction time 50 min,and reaction temperature 90℃,while the enzymatic hydrolysate of shrimp and crabs as the basis. Under these optimal processing conditions,the sensory evaluation value score of the product was 8.23 score,and the browning index of the product was 0.7283. Electronic nose analysis indicated that,after the Maillard reaction,the barbecue flavor and seafood flavor of shrimp and crab blanching juice both intensified. Additionally,the results of SPME-GC-MS indicated that compounds such as amines,alkanes,alcohols,aldehydes,and phenols significantly reduced,and compounds such as pyrazines,organic acids,ketones,and sulfides significantly increased after Maillard reaction. These results could provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the high-value development and large-scale production of boiled shrimp and crab juice.
Optimization of Microencapsulation Technology of Olive Oil by Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
JIANG Yi, YAN Cheng, LIU Xue-ting, FU Xiu-zhen, HUANG Huan, FAN Guo-gang
2020, 41(16): 150-155,162. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.024
Abstract(113) PDF(3)
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Olive oil microcapsules were prepared by emulsion polymerization-freeze drying method,and konjac gum,gum arabic were used as wall material. Microencapsulation efficiency,encapsulation yield and the core material load were used as the evaluation index in the response surface methodology. The system of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was established to optimize the embedding process of olive oil microcapsule. The experimental results showed that the optimum conditions for olive oil microencapsulation were as follows:The rate of konjac gum in the wall material was 74%,the rate of gum arabicin the wall material was 26%,the emulsifying temperature was 40℃,wall-core ratio was 5.7:1.Under these conditions,the embedding rate of olive oil microcapsule was 64.8%,the load was 13.3%,and the yield was 94.0%. Under the electron microscope,the microcapsules showed a round shape with uniform and relatively full particles,and the particle size was about 0.2~0.3 μm.The experiment has achieved its intended purpose. Microencapsulation helps improve the utilization of olive oil and meanwhile prolong its service life.
Optimization of Fermentation Process of Set Yogurt with Auricularia auricular Polysaccharide
XUE Yi-ting, BAI Hong-xia, LI Ming-jie, BI Xin-yu, JI Wan-lan, XUE Hai-bo, CHEN Yi-yong
2020, 41(16): 156-162. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.025
Abstract(110) PDF(6)
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Auricularia auricular polysaccharide(AAP)and pure milk were used as raw material. The mixture of Streptococcus thermophiles,Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei were selected as starter culture to investigate best fermentation process of AAP setyogurt. With sensory evaluation as the index,effects of sucrose content,AAP contents,gelatin contents,fermentation time,fermentation temperature and fermentation agent contents on sensory evaluation of AAP set yogurt were studied by single experiments. Furthermore,response surface test was used to optimize the fermentation process parameters of AAP set yoghurt,and the yoghurt quality was analyzed. The results showed that the optimal technological parameters of AAP set yoghurt were gelatin 0.33%,sucrose 7.0%,fermentation agent 3.0%,AAP 0.1%,fermentation time 6.9 h and fermentation temperature 42℃. Under this optimal process,the sensory scores of AAP set yogurt was(9.30±0.08) score in the validation experiment,which was consistent with the predicted value. Compared with the sensory scores(8.83±0.12 score),water holding capacity(63.83%±2.69%)and texture characteristics of common yoghurt,the AAP set yoghurt had higher water-holding capacity(72.14%±3.58%)and texture characteristics,which result in better sensory scores. In addition,the free amino acids and extracellular crude polysaccharides of AAP yogurt significantly increased. And the fat contents(2.35±0.25 g/100 g)of AAP yogurt was significantly lower than that of common yogurt(4.16±0.39 g/100 g). It indicated that AAP set yogurt had higher nutritional value and health care function. Therefore,AAP set yogurt had the potential to develop into a new type of functional yogurt.
Optimization of Extraction Technology of Total Saponin from Polygonatum sibiricum and Its Inhibitory Activity to α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase
BAO Rui-min, ZHANG Zhi, DU Ya-fei, GAO Qun, WANG Biao, ZHANG Zhi-feng
2020, 41(16): 163-168,175. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.026
Abstract(94) PDF(10)
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Taking the yield of Polygonatum sibiricum saponins as the evaluation index,the cellulase addition amount,pectinase addition amount,material-liquid ratio,enzymatic pH,enzymatic temperature,and enzymatic hydrolysis time were studied by single factor tests. The extraction conditions were optimized,and acarbose was used as a positive control to investigate the inhibitory activities of saponins from Polygonatum sibiricum at different concentrations on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were:Cellulase addition amount of 0.4%,pectinase addition amount of 5.0%,material-liquid ratio of 1:16 g/mL,enzymolysis pH5.0,enzymolysis temperature 45℃,and enzymolysis time at 2.0 h,the yield of total saponins was 4.06%. When the concentration of Polygonatum sibiricum saponin was 3.000 mg/mL,the highest inhibition rate of α-glucosidase was 74%,which was close to 82% of acarbose(0.5 mg/mL). When the concentration of Polygonatum sibiricum saponin was at 2.000 mg/mL,the highest inhibition rate of α-amylase could reach 82%,exceeding 80% of acarbose(0.5 mg/mL).The compound enzyme method used in this study improved the yield of Polygonatum sibiricum saponins and confirmed that it had certain α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities.
Antioxidant and ACE inhibition Activity of Hydrolysates Obtained from Whey Protein Isolate
OU Kai, WANG Kai-xiang
2020, 41(16): 169-175. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.027
Abstract(166) PDF(5)
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The effects of alkaline,NPU,AX and flavourzyme on the peptide concentration,free amino acid content and degree hydrolysis of the hydrolysates from the WPI(whey protein isolate)were investigated. Based on the optimized conditions of alkaline,the addition time of NPU and flavourzyme were investigated and the optimal conditions of three-step-hydrolysis of composite enzyme were obtained. The optimal conditions of three-step-hydrolysis of composite enzyme were temperature 55℃,1.5% alkaline([E/S]),pH8.5,and hydrolysis time 10 min. When pH was 7.2,1% NPU([E/S])was added. After WPI hydrolysis for 240 min with alkaline and NPU,1% flavourzyme([E/S])was added and hydrolysis continued for a further 20 min.The non-bitter WPI hydrolysates contained peptides(>60 g/L)and free amino acids(4348 mg/kg)with molecular weights below 1 kDa(69.52%).The IC50 of ABTS and ACE were 1.02(0.377 μmol Trolox eq/mg)and 1.38 mg/mL,respectively. The WPI could be hydrolyzed by three-step-hydrolysis of composite enzyme to obtain the hydrolysates with antioxidant activity and ACE inhibition activity. This study laid a foundation for whey hydrolysates utilization in functional foods and health foods.
Optimization of the Preparation of Antioxidant Peptides from Enteromorpha clathrata by Enzymolysis and Its Digestive Stability
WANG Xi, LIU Xiao-pan, LIU Bing, ZHAO Hang, ZHAO Yong-hui, PAN Sai-kun
2020, 41(16): 176-181,219. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.028
Abstract(184) PDF(3)
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The purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation condition of the antioxidant peptide from Enteromorpha clathrata protein by emzymatic method and to test its digestive stability. Using DPPH free radical scavenging rate and DH as indicators,the preparation conditions of antioxidant peptides were optimized by single factor experiment and response surface analysis methodology. The hydrolysate was separated into three components with different molecular weight by three-stage membrane filtration system. Digestive stability of the components were tested by simulated gastrointestinal digestion system in vitro.The results showed that the optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were:Temperature 47℃,pH7.4,enzyme amount 3300 U/g pro,solid-liquid ratio 1:20 g/mL,and duration time 3.3 h. Under this condition,DPPH radical scavenging rate was 84.33%±1.78%,The predicted values of the model was 85.53%. T test showed that there was no significant difference between the actual and the predicted values,which indicated that the model was reliable.The two components with molecular weight less 10 kDa had strong antioxidant activity and resistance to gastrointestinal proteases in vitro. The antioxidant activity of the components with molecular weight over 10 kDa was significantly lower,and was significantly reduced after digestive enzyme digestion. In conclusion,peptides with antioxidant activity and digestive stability could be obtained from Enteromorpha clathrata protein by neutral protease hydrolysis. The process model was reliable,and the hydrolysate had potential application value in food.
Optimization of Extraction Process of Total Phenolic Acids from Lonicera confusa and Its Antioxidant Activity
LI Jie, GONG Lu-lu, WANG Gang, CUI Lin-yun, LIU Liang, LIU Chen-jian
2020, 41(16): 182-187,226. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.029
Abstract(106) PDF(5)
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The microwave-assisted extraction of total phenolic acid from Lonicera confusa was studied. Based on the single factor experiment and box-behnken response surface design,the effects of ethanol concentration,liquid-material ratio,extraction temperature,extraction time and microwave power on the yield of total phenolic acid were discussed,and the optimal extraction conditions of total phenolic acid from Lonicera confusa were optimized. The antioxidant activity of total phenolic acid extract of Lonicera confusa was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric ion reducing power assay. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were 80% ethanol concentration,12:1 mL/g liquid to material ratio,70℃ extraction temperature,30 min extraction time,400 W microwave power,the total phenolic acid content reached 59.45±0.13 mg/g,which was similar to the model prediction value of 57.76 mg/g. The IC50 value of DPPH radical scavenging rate was 21.26 μg/mL,and the EC50 value of ferric ion reducing power assay was 39.37 μg/mL. The results showed that the total phenolic acid extract of Lonicera confusa had good antioxidant activity,which provided theoretical basis for the development of Lonicera confusa.
Preparation of Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose Composite Film
SHI Hong-mou, LIN Fu-di, SU Yi-fan, FAN Chao-chun, ZHAO Yan, ZHANG Na
2020, 41(16): 188-196,231. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.030
Abstract(108) PDF(6)
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Using the HPMC-Pulullan as the main component and the κ-carrageenan as the gelling agent,the influence of different composition ratios on performance indicators was investigated,and then the optimum formula was to be determined. According to the single-factor experiments,the formula design of the composite film was optimized by using the response surface methodology,and then the best preparation process was determined:The contents of pullulan was 9.533%,the contents of HPMC was 6.000%,the contents of κ-carrageenan was 2.315%,and the contents of glycerol was 7.903%. Under these conditions,the experimental results showed that the elongation at break of composite membrane was 56.35%±1.48%,the tensile strength was(2.68±0.39) MPa,the jelly strength was(785.48±10.32) g/cm2,and the light transmittance was 46.73%±3.87%. The experimental verification results were basically consistent with the theoretical values. Therefore,the results obtained by response surface optimization show certain guiding significance for the actual production and in-depth research of composite membrane.
Frying Performance and Application of Rice Bran Oil Blend Oil
XU Zhen-bo, NIU Fu-huan, WEI Ling-ling, LIANG Jun-mei, JIANG Yuan-rong
2020, 41(16): 197-200,237. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.031
Abstract(94) PDF(8)
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The frying performance of rice oil blend oil was evaluated by comparing with palm oil frying potato chips at 180℃ and the sensory preference,texture,crispness and stickiness of potato chips. The results showed that the poly-unsaturated fatty acid of crisps fried by rice bran oil blend oil was significantly higher than that of palm oil(P<0.05). And the overall sensory preference,texture,crispness and stickiness of potato chips fried by rice bran oil blend oil was significantly better than those of potato chips fired by palm oil(P<0.05). Moreover,the acid value and peroxide value of potato chips fried by rice oil blend oil had no significant differences with those of potato chips fried by palm oil(P>0.05)under the condition of accelerated oxidation,and both were much lower than those of national standard(GB16565-2003).The oryzanol was retained well. In a word,the rice bran oil blend oil showed a good frying performance.
Optimization of Microwave-Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Polysaccharides from Basal Part of Bamboo Shoot by Response Surface Methodology
CHEN Can-hui, LIN Tong, JIANG Wen-tao, LI Shu-ting, LI Zheng-yi, CHEN Wen, ZHENG Ya-feng
2020, 41(16): 201-206,291. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.032
Abstract(107) PDF(3)
Abstract:
Bamboo shoot polysaccharide,one of the important bioactive components of bamboo shoot,exhibits various healthy functions,including antioxidant,hypoglycemic effect and so on. Using the basal part of Fujian bamboo shoot(L. oldhami Nakal)as raw materials,the technology parameters of microwave-ultrasonic assisted water extraction of polysaccharides were optimized based on single factor test and response surface analysis(RSM). The results showed that the optimum process parameters of microwave-ultrasonic assisted water extraction of polysaccharides were as follows:Solid-liquid ratio of 1:30 g/mL,95℃ water bath temperature,2.0 h water bath time,600 W ultrasonic power,300 W microwave power and 3.0 min microwave-ultrasonic time. Under these conditions,the yield of polysaccharides from the basal part of bamboo shoot was 10.05%,which was 32.06% higher than that of traditional hot water extraction method. The results showed that the content of total sugar,protein and uronic acid of the polysaccharide was 74.87%,4.05% and 1.89%,respectively. This method could significantly improve the polysaccharide yield from the basal part of bamboo shoot,which could provide some theoretical reference for the comprehensive utilization of bamboo shoot and the further development of bamboo shoot polysaccharide products.
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Food Safety
Enlightenment from Canadian Food Inspector System to the Construction of Food Inspection Team in China
LI Mei-ying, WU Cai-yan, ZHOU Bo-ya, YAN Jie
2020, 41(16): 207-213,251. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.033
Abstract(189) PDF(16)
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Food inspection,an important regulatory measure to ensure food safety,is an important responsibility given to the food regulatory departments by the Food Safety Law of China. The professional food inspector team is the key to implement the strictest inspection and ensure the quality and efficiency of inspection. Developed foreign countries and regions have always paid attention to the construction of food inspector team,while it is still under exploration in China. Canada's food safety has a high reputation in the world,and its food inspector system has its own characteristics. The responsibilities and authorities of inspectors are clearly defined in law,Canadian Food Inspection Agency is a statutory body independent of the government,the division of responsibilities of food inspectors is professional and clear,and there is a perfect inspector management and education system. Through studying the food inspection system in Canada and analyzing the current situation and the existing problems in the construction of food inspection team in China,this paper puts forward to constructive suggestions and thoughts on improving the building of professional food inspector team in China by drawing on the Canadian useful experience and practices,aiming to promote the construction of food inspector team in China.
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Analysis and Determination
Analysis and Identification of Odor-Active Compounds in Fresh Blanched Garlic Leaves
ZHEN Da-wei, DU Wen-bin, WANG Yu-tong, TAN Jia, XIE Jian-chun
2020, 41(16): 214-219. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.034
Abstract(79) PDF(8)
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To analyze and identify the odor-active compounds in fresh blanched garlic leaves,fresh blanched garlic leaves were homogenized with dichloromethane and water. The dichloromethane extracted solution was handled by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation(SAFE)apparatus. The resulted concentrated extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS)and aroma extract dilution analysis of gas chromatography-olfactometry(AEDA/GC-O). Compounds were identified by search of NIST2011 database and comparison of retention indices(RIs)and sniffed odors with those of literatures. A total of 39 volatile compounds were found,and 35 odorants were revealed from 35 olfactory regions detected in retention indices. The odorants with high FD values(log3FD ≥ 6)were 3-vinyl-1,2-dithiacyclohex-4-ene,2-ethenylthiophene,2,3-dimethylthiophene,dimethyl trisulfide,diallyl disulphide,1-oxa-4,6-diazacyclooctane-5-thione,and 2-methyldihydro-3(2H)-thiophenone,which could give great contributions to overall aroma of the fresh blanched garlic leaves. Worth mentioning,in the present work mild handling conditions were adopted to keep natural flavor of the blanched garlic leaves. The research results can provide guidance for storage,processing,and further utilization of fresh blanched garlic leaves.
Analysis of Chemical Constituents of the Extractives from Polygonum hydropiper L.with Different Number of Ultra-fine Powder
LIU Ying-bo, LU-Dan, PAN Nian-song, FENG-Hua, ZHOU De-quan
2020, 41(16): 220-226. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.035
Abstract(86) PDF(9)
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In order to analyze the chemical constituents of the extracts of Polygonum hydropiper L. with different mesh numbers. The chemical constituents of Polygonum hydropiper L. with different numbers were analyzed by time of flight mass spectrometry with super-high-performance liquid chromatography pole(UPLC-Q-TOF/Ms). The volume size of Polygonum hydropiper L. powder with different mesh decreased with the increase of mesh number;the average area size decreased from 50 mesh to 300 mesh,and then increased gradually;the surface of powder particles became more and more smooth with the increase of mesh number,and the characteristics of original medicinal materials became less and less obvious.17 compounds were isolated and identified from different mesh powder extracts,including 9 flavonoids,5 phenylpropanoids,1 organic acid,polysaccharide and tannin respectively,among which Vanicoside C was not detected in 200 mesh and 300 mesh powder;the peak area value of flavonoids gradually increased from the powder passing through the 50 mesh sieve,a higher peak area value appeared at 120 mesh,then gradually decreased from 200 to 300 mesh,and gradually increased to 500 mesh. Among them,the relative peak area value of quercetin was 47.11%;the peak area value of phenylpropanoid compounds dropped from 50 mesh to the lowest value of 300 mesh,and then showed an upward trend,of which Vanicoside B relative peak area value was 47.79%. It provides an important basis for clarifying the action mechanism of active chemical components and the basis of effective substances.
Determination of 11 Kinds of Pesticide Residues in Apple and Tomato by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
CHAO Gui-mei, ZHAO Shu-jing, CHEN Ken, MA Li, JIN Bo-yan
2020, 41(16): 227-231. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.036
Abstract(102) PDF(12)
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A method for determination of 11 kinds of pesticide residues in apple and tomato by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established in this study. The sample was extracted by acetonitrile,purified through SPE NH2 column,and then the purified solution wad concentrated,redissolved with n-hexane,and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,and quantified by external standard method. The results showed that within a certain mass concentration range,the correlation coefficients of the linear equation of 11 kinds of pesticides in the two substrates were more than 0.998,the detection limit and the quantitative limit were respectively 0.0038~0.0300 and 0.0126~0.1000 mg/kg,and the average recoveries of 6 parallel samples addition standards at 3 concentration points were between 81.4% and 118.3%,and the relative standard deviation was less than 10%. This method had the advantages of simple and rapid pretreatment,high accuracy and precision,and low detection cost relatively.
Rapid Detection of Total Viable Count in Whole Chicken Breast by An Online Near-infrared Spectroscopy System
HE Hong-ju, JIANG Sheng-qi, WANG Yang-yang, WANG Yu-ling, MA Han-jun, CHEN Fu-sheng, ZHU Ming-ming, ZHAO Sheng-ming
2020, 41(16): 232-237. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.037
Abstract(122) PDF(14)
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Taking the whole chicken breast as the research object,an online near-infrared spectroscopy(NIR)system was used to collect the spectra in the wavelength range of 900~1650 nm to explore the quantitative relationship between the spectral information and the total viable count(TVC). The collected original spectral information was preprocessed using five pretreatments including Gaussian filter smoothing(GFS)correction to construct partial least squares(PLS)models. The regression coefficients(RC)and successive projections algorithm(SPA),respectively,were used to select optimal wavelengths to build optimized PLS model and multiple linear regression(MLR)model. The results showed that the GFS-PLS model based on GFS spectra performed best in predicting TVC with rP of 0.964 and RMSEP of 0.806 lg CFU/g. SPA-GFS-MLR model based on the 25 optimal wavelengths(907.0,913.7,923.8,927.2,937.2,937.2,947.3,974.0,987.3,997.3,1007.3,1040.4,1080.1,1099.9,1132.9,1155.9,1185.5,1215.0,1241.2,1270.6,1358.2,1380.8,1403.3,1419.3,1578.9 and 1615.2nm)selected by SPA had similar accuracy and stability,with rP of 0.944 and RMSEP of 1.022 lg CFU/g,compared with GFS-PLS model. It is demonstrated that the on-line NIR system can be used to detect the TVC in the whole chicken breast in a rapid way.
Rapid Detection of Duck Derived Components in Mutton and Mutton Products by Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Immunochromatographic Test Strip
LIU Hai-bin, ZHANG Hai-xin, SONG Teng-fei, LIU Cong, NIE Fu-lei
2020, 41(16): 238-242,251. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.038
Abstract(131) PDF(9)
Abstract:
In order to realize the rapid detection of adulteration in meat and meat products,this paper combined loop mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP)with immunochromatographic test strip(ICTS)to establish a specific and sensitive method for detecting duck meat in mutton and its products. LAMP primers were designed according to six specific regions of duck specific cytochrome b(cytb)gene. Two inner primers,FIP and BIP,were labeled with biotin and digoxin respectively,and amplified at 65℃ for 30 min to produce double-strand DNA produces labeled with biotin and digoxin. The products(10 μL)was mixed with 90 μL loading buffer(PBS pH=7.4),and then the ICTS was used to realize visual detection. The LAMP-ICTS method established in this study could specifically detect duck ingredients within 40 min,and there was no cross reaction with other meats. At the same time,the detection limit of the target in meat products could reach 0.01%(w/w). The test results of commercial samples showed that there were duck-derived components in the samples of mutton slices and mutton kettles,and the test results were consistent with the industry standard method(PCR-electrophoresis). Therefore,LAMP-ICTS method had the advantages of high sensitivity,good specificity,rapid detection,low dependence on instruments,and was suitable for the rapid detection of meat adulteration in the laboratories of both regulatory agencies and commercial services.
Determination of 45 Pesticide Residues in Apples by QuEChERS-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
GAO Xia, CHEN Hui, TAN Min, LI Yu-xiu, LI Wen-jun, HE Hong-lin
2020, 41(16): 243-251. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.039
Abstract(115) PDF(7)
Abstract:
A method for the simultaneous determination of 45 pesticide residues in apple by QuEChERS-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established. Apple samples were extracted by acetonitrile containing 1%(V%)acetic acid,and purified by 25 mg PSA,25 mg C18 and 7.5 mg GCB. And detected in GC-MS selective ion monitoring(SIM)mode,and quantitatively analyzed with the matrix-matched external standard calibration curves. Test results showed that the 45 pesticides had good linearity in the range from 10~200 μg/L,and the determination coefficients of pesticides were greater than 0.995. The average recovery ranges were mainly between 69.3% and 116% at the three spiked concentration levels(30,50,100 μg/kg),and the relative standard deviations were between 0.7% and 7.9%. The LOD(limit of detection)was from 1.5 to 15.0 μg/kg,and LOQ(the limit of quantification)was from 5.0 to 50.0 μg/kg.The method is accurate,precise,simple,fast and economic. It is suitable for the detection of pesticide residues in apples.
Analysis of Volatile Components of Corn under Different Storage Conditions
QIAN Jia-cheng, SONG Wei
2020, 41(16): 252-258,265. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.040
Abstract(85) PDF(4)
Abstract:
In order to explore the quality change of corn during storage through the change of volatile substances,and find out the relevant characteristic volatiles,and provide a reference for corn safe storage. This experiment simulated different storage conditions and used electronic nose(E-NOSE)and headspace solid-phase microextraction(GC-MS)to detect volatile matter in corn,combined the principal component analysis method and the sample score chart to analyze the results. The results showed that the corn samples under different moisture temperature conditions had obvious differences in the radar chart with the storage period. The corresponding sensors showed that 15% high-moisture samples were more prone to moldy than low-moisture samples. The high-temperature and high-moisture samples were clearly distinguished from the rest of the samples on the principal component analysis chart after 3 months of storage,which indicated that the odor changed significantly. A total of 15 types of alcohols,25 types of aromatic hydrocarbons,23 types of aldehydes,59 types of esters,18 types of ketones,53 types of alkanes,22 types of olefins,and 27 types of heterocyclics were detected in the temperament test. Contributions were higher in esters,aromatic hydrocarbons,and alcohols. When the oxygen concentration was low,the volatilization of the esters was reduced,and the oxygen concentration had a small effect on alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons. And only at extremely low concentrations of 2%~5%,the volatilization of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol and 1-chlorodifluoromethoxy-4-nitro-benzene increased. When it was under low water conditions,benzyl alcohol had a large volatility. Alpha-pentyl-gama-butyrolactone,nonanoic acid and enal were more volatile under low temperature and low moisture conditions. Amides were more produced under high temperature and high moisture conditions. Vanillin had less volatility under high temperature and high moisture content. Both unsaturated olefins and enols increased with storage time. Electronic nose and GC-MS could effectively distinguish corn samples under different storage conditions,and could also judge the quality of corn by the amount of specific volatile substances. The two conditions of water and temperature had a greater impact on volatile substances. The effect of oxygen concentration was low. When the moisture content was lower than 13% and the temperature was lower than 20℃,storage under normal pressure could effectively prevent corn deterioration.
Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Yeast-fermented Soy Sauce by GC-O/MS
HE Tian-peng, ZHAO Lei, ZHONG Kui, SHI Bo-lin, CUI Ying, ZHANG Lu-lu, LIU Long-yun, XIE Ran, WANG Hou-yin
2020, 41(16): 259-265. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.041
Abstract(102) PDF(8)
Abstract:
The formations of aroma compounds in soy sauce were closely related to the metabolism of yeast. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and concentration of aroma compounds in soy sauce fermented by yeast. The aroma compounds in the fermented soy sauce were analyzed by solid phase microextraction(SPME)combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry(GC-O/MS). The results showed that all kinds of aroma compounds formed in the soy sauce added with yeast were more abundant,among which AY type yeast could produce more kinds of esters and alcohols;T type yeast could contribute to the formation of aldehydes. And AY-type yeast in the soy sauce brewing process produced esters,furanones,aldehydes and other compounds more abundant content,T-type yeast production of alcohol compounds were even more superior. Based on the calculation of OAV in soy sauce samples,the results found that the OAV of 5-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone(HEMF),2/3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde were higher than that of other samples. The OAV of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-methylthiopropionaldehyde in T soy sauce sample were higher than other samples. According to the analysis of OAV and PCA,it could be seen that the AY-type yeast fermented soy sauce had obvious advantages of aroma,and the overall aroma profiles of fermented soy sauce by T-type was cooked potato-like/mushroom-like. The overall aroma profiles of fermented soy sauce by AY-type was sweet-like/malty. Therefore,it also showed that the overall aroma in soy sauce fermented by AY-type yeasts was better than that of the soy sauce fermented by T-type yeast.
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Storage and Preservation
Effect of Different Thawing Methods on Quality of Quick-frozen Broccoli
QIU Hong-wei, WANG Hong-da, GUO Li-ping
2020, 41(16): 266-270. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.042
Abstract(134) PDF(6)
Abstract:
The effects of microwave thawing,steam thawing,natural thawing and still water thawing on total phenolics,glucosinolates,myrosinase,isothiocyanates,carotenoid,ascorbic acidand antioxidant capacity in broccoli were investigated. The results showed that the contents of total phenolics,ascorbic acid,glucosinolates and carotenoids in frozen broccoli were lower than fresh broccoli. However,isothiocyanate formationin frozen broccoli was significantly enhanced by 51.1% compared to fresh broccoli. The four thawing methods affected the quality of broccoli to different degrees. Microwave and steam thawing could shorten thawing time by 97.4% and 94.2%,respectively,compared with natural thawing. There was no significant difference in contents of total phenolics,glucosinolates and carotenoid between microwave thawing and steam thawing. However,steam thawing decreased ascorbic acid contents by 23.7% compared with microwave thawing. And still water thawing resulted in more bioactive compounds lost than natural thawing. After microwave thawing,contents of total phenolics,glucosinolates,ascorbic acid and carotenoids were 1.15,1.20,1.93 and 1.39 times of natural thawing. Thus,antioxidant capacity was higher. In addition,myrosinase activity was reduced after microwave and steam thawing,thus isothiocyanate formation was lower than natural thawing and still water thawing. In conclusion,microwave thawing method was better than other three thawing methods and had less effect on the quality of broccoli.
Effects of Thawing Methods on Sensory Characteristics and Physicochemical Indices of Oyster(Ostrea rivularis Gould)Meat
NIU Gai-gai, QIN Cheng-feng, YOU Gang, ZHANG Chen-xiao, CAI Qiu-xing, QIN Mei, ZHANG Zi-ran, DONG Qing-liang
2020, 41(16): 271-278. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.043
Abstract(123) PDF(7)
Abstract:
In order to obtain the best thawing method for frozen oyster meat,the effects of natural thawing,static water thawing,refrigeration at 4℃ for thawing(denoted as refrigerated thawing),ultrasonic thawing and microwave thawing on the sensory characteristics and physicochemical properties of oyster were studied by means of thawing time,sensory scores,texture,color difference,thawing loss rate,cooking loss rate,pH,total volatile basic nitrogen(TVB-N),thibabituric acid(TBA)and total bacterial count. The weight method of coefficient of variation was used to evaluate comprehensively the quality of thawed oyster meat. The results showed that the oyster meat by natural thawing(128 min)and refrigerated thawing(309 min)both took a long time,leading to the lowest sensory scores(4.6 and 4.4 scores,respectively),with high TVB-N and total bacterial count of oyster meat. Nevertheless,the oyster meat treated by microwave thawing(1.5 min)and ultrasonic thawing(9 min)had shorter time and higher sensory scores(6.12 and 6.0 scores,respectively),with the lowest TVB-N,TBA and total bacterial count,but exhibited higher cooking loss rate and thawing loss rate. The static water thawing of oyster meat needed 31 min,and the final products showed a higher sensory score(6.0 scores),but their TVB-N,TBA and the total bacteria count were larger. The comprehensive evaluation results showed that the thawing time,whose weight value was 0.357,had the greatest impact on the quality of oyster meat,and the score of microwave thawing(0.548)was the highest. Therefore,microwave thawing was an ideal method for frozen oyster meat,but the thawed meat had low water holding capacity,whose conditions needed to further study.
Effect of Different Packaging Materials on Quality Changes of Baked Squid during Storage
AO Xiao-lin, FU Bao-shang, QI Li-bo, LIU Dong-mei, DONG Xiu-ping
2020, 41(16): 279-285. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.044
Abstract(97) PDF(4)
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In order to develop Chinese squid(Uroteuthis chinensis)baking products and select an optimal packing material,this paper adopted 37℃ accelerated destroy experiment,investigating three different packing materials namely ordinary packing bag,cooking packing bag and aluminum foil packing bag were utilized to pack the baked squid,and changes of total volatilebasic nitrogen content,total bacterial counts,thibarbituric acid reactive substances,color,texture and sensory evaluation of baked squid during storage at 37℃ were determined. Results indicated the contents of TVB-N of baked squid in ordinary and cooking packaging bags exceeded the GB 2733-2015 standard(30 mg·100 g-1)on day 4 and 6,respectively 31.77,30.6 mg·100 g-1,but aluminum foil packing bag no exceeded the standard during storage. The TVC of baked squid in aluminum foil,ordinary and cooking packing bag exceeded the DB11/617-2009 standard(4.47lg CFU·mL-1)on day 3,4 and 6,respectively 5.17lg,5.17lg,4.97lg CFU·mL-1. The TBARS,color,texture and sensory scores of baked squid between different packaging materials were significant during storage(P<0.05). Compared with ordinary and cooking packing bag,aluminum foil packing bag could effectively inhibit the increasing of TBARS,the contents of TVB-N and TVC,delay the changing of color and texture,as well as keep the baked squid with good sensory properties,which was a prospect packing material for baked squid during storage.
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Nutrition and Healthcare
Protective Effect of American Ginseng Tea on Oxidative Damage Induced by Alcohol in Mice
CHEN Si-qi, LI Ya-qi, YU Xiao-yun, SHANG Qiang, WU Biao, NIE Ke
2020, 41(16): 286-291. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.045
Abstract(120) PDF(5)
Abstract:
Objective:The mice model of alcoholic oxidative damage was used to observe the antioxidant effect of American ginseng tea and its protective effect on liver injury. Methods:Mice were randomly divided into control group,model control group,low,medium and high(0.275 g,0.550 g,1.100 g crude drug/kg)doses of American ginseng tea group,American ginseng drink tablets soaking water group(0.500 g crude drug/kg),detection of malondialdehyde(MDA),protein carbonyl(PC),total superoxide dismutase(T-SOD),reduced glutathione(GSH)levels in serum and liver homogenate,as well as alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST)and triglyceride(TG)levels in serum,and pathological changes in liver tissue were observed. Results:Compared with the model group,American ginseng tea doses dependently reduced MDA and PC levels(P<0.01),increased T-SOD(high dose P<0.01,serum of low and medium doses P<0.05)and GSH(P<0.01)levels in serum and liver tissue,decreased ALT,AST(P<0.01)and TG(medium and high doses P<0.01,low dose P>0.05)levels in serum,and improved pathological changes in liver tissue such as liver cell necrosis,vacuolar degeneration and inflammatory infiltration. Conclusion:American ginseng tea has good anti-oxidation effect and prevents liver damage.
Effect of Nostoc sphaeroides on Laxative in Rats
LIU Yin-lu, BI Cui-cui, WEI Fen-fen, CHEN Sheng, WANG Yu-lan, ZHANG Bo
2020, 41(16): 292-296. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.046
Abstract(92) PDF(8)
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Objective:To study the effect of Nostoc sphaeroides on laxative in constipation rats and explore the related mechanisms of relieving constipation. Methods:Rats were randomly divided into control group,model group and Nostoc sphaeroides group. The model group and the Nostoc sphaeroides group were intragastrically administered with Nostoc sphaeroides for 3 weeks and then administered with loperamide hydrochloride for 1 week. The rats in the control group were given the same amount of normal saline. The first black sputum time was observed by intragastric administration of the ink. Hematoxylin-eosin(hematoxylin-eosin,HE)staining and alixin blue-periodic acid Schiff(AB-PAS)staining were used to observe colonic structure and mucus secretion. Results:Compared with the model group rats,Nostoc sphaeroides group's intervention with Nostoc sphaeroides extremely significantly increased the fecal weight and water content of constipated rats(P<0.01),and extremely significantly shortened the first black stool generation time(P<0.01). The structure of the colonic muscular and mucosal layers was improved,the number of goblet cells and the content of mucus increased significantly(P<0.05). Conclusion:Nostoc sphaeroides could significantly improve the intestinal water content,strengthen intestinal peristalsis,increase mucus secretion,protect intestinal tissues,and effectively improve constipation symptoms.
Nutritional Components Analysis from the Gastropod of Haliotis discus hannai
DING Jian-zi, YAO Yan-yan, CHANG Li-rong, NI Tian, LIU Jian-ling, LI Chang-qing
2020, 41(16): 297-303,307. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.047
Abstract(75) PDF(4)
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The general nutritional components(protein,total sugar,fat and ash)and 13 kinds of metal contents in Haliotis discus hannai meat were determined. The samples included 2 age groups and 3 different strains of the overwintering abalones in southern and cultured abalones in northern. The general nutritional components and 8 kinds of beneficial metal element(K,Ca,Na,Mg,Cu,Zn,Mn,Se)were analyzed by the method of principal component analysis. According to the principal component analysis with dimension reduction,the comprehensive analysis model was established and ordered. The results indicated that the nutritional components existed significant differences(P<0.05)among the ten different strains abalone samples. The contents of protein,total sugar,fat and ash were 60.80%~72.45%,5.09%~23.88%,1.52%~3.74% and 6.27%~7.63%,respectively. The content of 5 kinds harmful metal element(Pb,Cr,Cd Hg and As)were low and met the national limited standard. The content of beneficial metal elements were abundant and the content of trace elements Cu,Zn,Mn and Se were 1.57~2.63,2.39~3.59,0.26~0.77 and 0.031~0.069 mg/100 g,respectively. The 3 main components were extracted and their accumulative variance contribution rate reached 80.742%. The top three in the overall scores were the first age northern original abalone of Ailian Bay,the first age northern wild abalone of Changdao and the first age northern production abalone. The results showed that the northern abalones had significant advantages with the overwintering abalones and the Ailian Bay original abalone of the three strains was in a dominant position and had high nutritional value.
Hypolipidemic Activity of the Total Flavonoids from Bitter Leaf
YE Ya-qin, LI Yong-ning, LI Xiao-fen, PAN Da-ren
2020, 41(16): 304-307. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.048
Abstract(129) PDF(4)
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Objective:To study the effect of total flavonoids from Bitter Leaf in hyperlipidemia model mice. Method:Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups:Control group,high fat model group,simvastatin positive control group and bitter leaf total flavonoids in low,medium and high groups(10,50,100 mg/kg). The mice of control group were fed with normal diet and the mice of other groups were fed with high fat diets. After 4 weeks,the mice were decapitated after measuring the body weight,and the contents of triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)in serum were determined. Result:Compared with the model group,the content of TG,TC and LDL-C in the serum of the mice could be reduced with the treatment of the total flavonoids of bitter leaf,and the content of HDL-C was improved. Compared with high fat model group,the TG,TC and LDL-C in the mice serum of the bitter leaf total flavonoids group(100 mg/kg)were decreased by 28.29%,17.55% and 63.32%,respectively and HDL-C was increased by 44.20%. Conclusion:The total flavonoids of the bitter leaf have a significant hypolipidemic activity.
Intervention Effects of Chicory,Pueraria and Mulberry Leaf Formula on Reducing Uric Acid and Gouty Arthritis in Mice with High Uric Acid and Arthritis
WU Mei-yin, CHEN Shu-ning, GAO Jie, PEI Chao-ying, LIN Wei-jie, CHEN You-jun
2020, 41(16): 308-313. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.049
Abstract(129) PDF(10)
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objective:In order to investigate the potential uric acid lowering and anti-gout effect and mechanism of the formulation of chicory,pueraria and mulberry leaves. Methods:50 KM male mice were randomly divided into normal,model,allopurinol-positive(5 mg·kg-1),high-dose(2.67 g·kg-1)and low-dose(1.33 g·kg-1)groups,with 10 mice in each group. Potassium oxonate was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.1 mL/10 g to make the model mice. One hour later,the formula was gavage at a dose of 0.1 mL/10 g. On day 9 of the model,sodium urate crystal suspension(25 mg·mL-1)was used to induce gout arthritis. Inflammatory factors,uric acid(UA),xanthine oxidase(XOD)as well as liver and kidney function indexes in serum were detected,and the expression of urate transporter(URAT1)was detected by Western Blot. Results:Compared with the model group,both the high and low dose groups could reduce the index of joint inflammation in mice,and the level of joint infrared temperature,serum UA,TNF-α,CRE,BUN,AST and ALT were significantly decreased(P<0.05 or P<0.01).The degree of joint swelling and IL-1β level were decreased in the high-dose group(P<0.05),and the XOD level was significantly decreased(P<0.01). The degree of joint swelling was decreased and the morphology of liver and kidney tissues was improved. And the expression of URAT1 protein in kidney tissues was decreased(P<0.05). Conclusion:The formulations of chicory,pueraria and mulberry leaves possessed the functions of lowering uric acid and anti-gout,the mechanism of which may be related to improving liver and kidney injury,lowering serum uric acid and reducing the expression of URAT1 protein in kidney tissues.
Lipid-lowering Effect of Polysaccharides from Mixed of Schisandra chinensis and Astragalus membranaceus on Hyperlipidemia in Wistar Rats
YANG Bo, XU Zhi-ying, LIN Cheng-cheng, LI He, Sun Jing-hui, CHEN Jian-guang, WANG Chun-mei
2020, 41(16): 314-317,325. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.050
Abstract(135) PDF(4)
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To observe the regulating effect of polysaccharides from mixed of Schisandra chinensis and Astragalus membranaceus(SAP)on dyslipidemia and its mechanism,a rat model of hyperlipidemia induced by feeding with high fat diet was established. Then the SAP was administered orally to the hyperlipidemic rats for 8 weeks. During this period,the body weight of rats was recorded weekly. Subsequently,the levels of triglyceride(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)in serum of rats,the TG and TC contents in the liver tissues were measured. HE staining was performed for observing histopathological changes in liver. The expressions of cholesterol metabolism-related proteins ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1),liver X receptors α(LXRα),and ATP-binding cassette G1(ABCG1)in liver tissues were detected by western blotting analysis. The results showed that SAP(100 mg/kg)intragastric administration could significantly decrease the body weight,the levels of serum TC,TG,LDL-C,and TC and TG contents in the liver tissues(P<0.05),increase the level of serum HDL-C(P<0.05). Furthermore,SAP reduced the liver lipid deposition and improved hyperlipidemia in rats. At the same time,SAP significantly increased the expression of LXRα,ABCA1 and ABCG1 proteins in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats(P<0.05). In a conclusion,SAP could regulate the blood lipid of rats with hyperlipidemia,which may be related to the promotion of liver cholesterol metabolism.
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Reviews
Introduction of Edible Film and Its Application in Meat and Meat Products
HUANG Ming-yuan, WANG Hu-hu, XU Xing-lian, ZHOU Guang-hong
2020, 41(16): 318-325. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.051
Abstract(91) PDF(11)
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Spoilage of meat and meat products not only affects sales,but also poses a safety risk. Edible film refers to a thin layer covered or wrapped on the food surface,which can load with functional active substances,and has good barrier properties,antibacterial and anti-oxidation effects,thereby prolonging the shelf life of meat and meat products. Accordingly,this paper introduces the edible film about the main components,preparation and application in meat and meat products to provide scientific and theoretical basis for the preservation of meat and meat products.
Research Progress of Foodborne Flavonoids Interfering with Diseases by Regulating Autophagy
XU Jie, WANG Jun, TAN Xin-tong, LI Da-peng
2020, 41(16): 326-333. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.052
Abstract(115) PDF(11)
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Flavonoids are the most important class of active ingredients in plant-derived foods and have biological functions such as anti-inflammatory,anti-cancer,and cardiovascular disease prevention. Autophagy maintains homeostasis in cells by degrading damaged mitochondria,folded protein bodies,viruses and other substances. It is divided into three types:Macroautophagy,microautophagy and molecular chaperone-mediated autophagy,of which macroautophagy is the main type. The flavonoids can regulate autophagy through different signaling pathways and thus interfere with diseases. Among them,the mammalian target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/rapamycin is the main signaling pathway that regulates autophagy. In this paper,the molecular mechanism and research progress of several flavonoids commonly found in plant-derived foods through autophagy intervention in inflammation,cancer,liver disease and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed.
Research Progress on the Pharmacokinetics of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms Chemical Constituents and Its Metabolism in Vivo
ZHANG Yu-hang, QIU Zhi-dong, FU Chao-mei, GAO Han, ZHANG Xin-shu, CHANG Bai-jin, JIA Ai-ling
2020, 41(16): 334-339,345. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.053
Abstract(79) PDF(6)
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Acanthopanax senticosus(AS)is one of the major medicinal varieties in Jilin province. The classical application of AS is nourishing qi and strengthening the spleen,nourishing the kidney and soothing the nerves. It has significant anti-fatigue effect in clinic. The main chemical components of AS are glycosides,flavones,coumarins,polysaccharides,lignans and so on. The diversity of chemical constituents of AS also leads to the complexity of its pharmacokinetics. The recent advances in pharmacokinetics characteristics,absorption,distribution and metabolism of chemical compounds of AS are analysised. Metabolic process of chemical compounds from AS in vivo are deeply excavated and explored,which provides a reference for the development and utilization of bioactive substances of AS.
New Progress in the Improvement of Gluten-free Bread Processing Technology
XU Meng-yu, WU Yong, YUAN Juan-li, CHEN Hong-bing
2020, 41(16): 340-345. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.054
Abstract(105) PDF(10)
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Gluten-free bread is the most important part of gluten-free foods. The loss of gluten proteins severely affects the quality of gluten-free bread,while it can be effectively improved by the optimization of the processing technology. The selection of cheap and nutritious raw materials combined with efficient and useful additives is regarded as the first step of gluten-free bread processing. Then,raw material pre-processing methods including milling,thermal processing,microwave,high pressure,and germination can be used to improve the processability of gluten-free raw material for gluten-free bread. In addition,sourdough fermentation and chemically leavened are regarded as new methods of dough preparation.Vacuum baking,ohmic heating,and microwave-assisted baking are novel approach to bake bread. In this paper,the selection of raw materials and additives,raw material pre-processing,dough preparation,bread baking are reviewed according to processing technology for gluten-free bread.
Research Progress on Isolation and Characterization of Dietary Fiber from Edible Seaweeds
LIU Si-qi, YANG He-qi, ZHOU Hui, WANG Qiu-kuan, WU Long
2020, 41(16): 346-352. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.055
Abstract(120) PDF(12)
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Dietary fiber is known as "the seventh nutrient". Reasonable intake of dietary fiber can regulate human physiological function,improve health and prevent disease. China has abundant seaweed resources,and is the world's top producer of edible seaweeds for a long time. Recent studies from around the world have indicated that edible seaweeds are rich in dietary fiber components that cannot be digested and absorbed by the human body,the components are mainly comprised of polysaccharides which have unique physical and chemical properties and significant physiological effects. Therefore,there is considerable development potential to extract dietary fiber from edible seaweeds and utilize it in healthy food processing and manufacturing. In this paper,the separation,purification,and physicochemical characterization of typical soluble and insoluble dietary fiber components in edible red algae,brown algae and green algae are summarized,so as to provide references for the research and development work in the field of health food and deep processing of economic seaweeds in China.
Detection of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds and Its Application in Food Safety Monitoring
FANG Shu-ting, LIU Shu-qin, XIANG Zhang-min
2020, 41(16): 353-361. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.16.056
Abstract(102) PDF(7)
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Microbial volatile organic compounds(MVOCs)are important small molecular compounds produced during microbial growth and metabolism,and is one of the main indicators for the detection and prevention of microbial contamination of foods. The analysis and detection technology of microbial volatile organic compounds in food and its applications in food quality safety monitoring are comprehensively reviewed in this paper,including packaging,storage,quality,spoilage identification. Thus,this has important practical significance for the rapid,accurate and effective evaluation of food microbial contamination.
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