2020 Vol. 41, No. 19

2020, 41(19): .
2020, 41(19): .
Abstract(31) PDF(12)
Research and Investigation
Effect of Steam Explosion Pretreatment on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Tea Saponin of Oil Camellia Seed Cake Meal
LI Heng, ZHENG Xiao-yan, ZHENG Li-li, YANG Yang, XIAO Dao, AI Bin-ling, PAN Yong-gui, SHENG Zhan-wu
2020, 41(19): 1-6,19. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.001
Abstract(129) PDF(8)
The steam explosion was used to pretreat oil Camellia seed cake meal,and the effects of steam explosion on the extraction rate,physical and chemical properties,and internal microstructure of oil Camellia seed cake meal were investigated. The results showed that the best conditions for steam explosion pretreatment as followed:1.2 MPa,60 s. The surface tension of tea saponin after steam explosion treatment was 47.63 m/Nm,which was lower than the value of control group(48.07 m/Nm),and the difference in foamability was not significant(P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that surface of the oil Camellia seed cake meal after steam explosion treatment was rough and fluffy,and the original structure was destroyed,which was conducive to the release of tea saponin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the shape and basic position of the characteristic absorption peak was not changed,but the intensity of some peaks increased. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results demonstrated that the tea saponin was mainly composed of tea saponin E13,camellia saponin D5,tea saponin B5 or tea saponin C1.Therefore,steam explosion pretreatment combined with alcohol extraction method could be an efficient method for extracting of tea saponin.
Research on the Stability and Activity of Two ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Volutharpa ampullaceal perryi
LIU Xin-tong, SONG Cheng-cheng, QIAO Bian-wen, FU Ying-huan
2020, 41(19): 7-12,19. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.002
Abstract(107) PDF(6)
In this paper,the thermal stability,the ability of anti-gastrointestinal absorption,resistance to metal ions,high salt and high sugar of two ACE inhibitory peptides IVTNWDDMEK(Ile-Val-Thr-Asn-Trp-Asp-Asp-Met-Glu-Lys)and VGPAGPRG(Val-Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-Arg-Gly)separated from Volutharpa ampullacea perryi were measured using a method of reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that peptide retention rate decreased by 75% after heating at 100℃ for 6 h. The reason may be that the peptide bond was broken due to prolonged high temperature heating,which affected its physiological activity. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion studies have shown that after IVTNWDDMEK and VGPAGPRG were separately treated with gastric juice for 2 h and intestinal fluid for 6 h,the ACE inhibition rates were 30.47%,15.74%,28.01%,12.33%,respectively. The polypeptide is decomposed to small molecular peptides to some extent,but it still has ACE inhibitory activity after decomposition. The addition of metal ions(Fe3+),high salt and high sugar can reduce ACE inhibitory activity. Therefore,in the daily production and storage process,we should avoid high temperature heating for a long time,avoid the addition of metal ions(Fe3+)and reduce the intake of salt and sugar to keep the stability of ACE inhibitory peptides better.
Isolation and Purification of Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Taro and Its Effect on Immune Activity of Macrophages
KANG Qing, LIN Ying, SU Ying-jie, LAN Wei-jie, HUANG Ting, MA Er-lan
2020, 41(19): 13-19. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.003
Abstract(129) PDF(6)
In order to explore the immune activity of water-soluble polysaccharide of taro,DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column chromatography was used to isolate and purify the water-soluble crude polysaccharide of taro,which extracted by water-extracted and alcohol-immersed method. Then,Sephadex G-200 gel column chromatography,SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Fourier infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze its composition. Next,CCK-8 reagent method,neutral red phagocytosis experiment,Griess method and enzyme-linked immunosorption method were used to determine its effect on the proliferation activity,phagocytosis ability and secretion of NO and cytokines in macrophages RAW264.7. Results showed that two kinds of taro water-soluble polysaccharides(TPS1 and TPS2)with purity of 87.4% and 81.5% were obtained. The main components of TPS1 were neutral polysaccharide containing mannose and TPS2 were β-pyranic acid polysaccharide containing sulfate group. Cell experiments showed that TPS1 and TPS2 had no toxic effect on RAW264.7 in the concentration range of 25~400 μg/mL.Among them,TPS1 could significantly improve the phagocytosis of the cells(P<0.05),and the phagocytosis index was up to 2.07 times that of the blank control group. TPS2,on the other hand,played a stronger role in promoting the secretion of NO and cytokines. The secretion of NO under the action of TPS1 and TPS2 was 3.07 and 4.57 times that of control group.The secretion of TNF-α was 3.04 and 3.76 times that of control group.The secretion of IL-1β was 1.37 and 1.54 times that of control group.The above results indicate that both TPS1 and TPS2 have immunomodulatory functions and are expected to be further developed and added to food as immunomodulators.
Evaluation of Ginseng-Goat Milk Powder on Anti-fatigue Effect and Quantitative Analysis of Its Functional Components
HAN Yan-yan, WU Wei, WANG Yue-hong, LI Hui, CHEN Xue, LI Man-wei, WANG En-peng, CHEN Chang-bao
2020, 41(19): 20-25,32. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.004
Abstract(117) PDF(13)
Taking ginseng goat milk powder as the research object,rapid-resolution liquid-mass technology was used to determine the marker components in ginseng goat milk powder. The contents of ginsenoside Rg1,Re,Rb1,Rb2,Rc and Rd were compared among the six main saponins active components of ginseng goat powder prepared by dry and wet method. At the same time,the mouse model of kidney deficiency was made by subcutaneous injection of hydrocortisone(50 mg/kg)and the six indexes of weight-bearing swimming time,cumulative climbing time,blood urea nitrogen(BUN),malondialdehyde(MDA),lactic acid(LA)content and superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity were measured. To determine the preparation method and to investigate the efficacy of the corresponding dosage form of anti-fatigue. The results showed that the contents of Rg1,Re,Rb1,Rb2,Rc and Rd in ginseng goat milk powder prepared by dry method were 0.09±0.03,0.24±0.05,0.16±0.04,0.08±0.01,0.10±0.02 and 0.14±0.06 mg/g,respectively,which were higher than those in milk powder prepared by wet method. The in vivo results showed that low,medium and high dose had a certain effect on anti-fatigue. The weight-bearing swimming and climbing time of mice in three groups-low(1.580 g/kg),medium(3.167 g/kg)and high dose(6.333 g/kg)were significantly better than those in model control group(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Medium and high dose could significantly decrease the content of malondialdehyde in serum and lactic acid content after swimming for 10 min(P<0.05)and high dose could significantly decrease the content of lactic acid after swimming rest 20 min(P<0.05).Medium and high dose could significantly decrease the content of serum urea nitrogen and increase the activity of superoxide dismutase in mice(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Ginseng goat milk powder prepared by the dry method can significantly enhance the adaptation ability of the body to exercise load and can be developed into anti-fatigue health food.
Effects of Oyster Hydrolysates on the Quality of Soda Biscuits
YANG Zhao, YAO Yu-jing, LIANG Rui-jin, HUANG Jia-jia, LIANG Zhi-li, ZHANG Qiong, CHEN Li-shan
2020, 41(19): 26-32. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.005
Abstract(86) PDF(3)
In order to explore the effect of oyster hydrolysates on the quality of soda biscuits,the biscuits with 0,2%,4%,6%,8% and 10% oyster hydrolysates were prepared,and the differences in sensory,chroma and texture indexes were investigated. The volatile flavor components were analyzed and identified using headspace solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that with increasing ratio of oyster hydrolysate,the appearance,color,flavor,texture,taste,and comprehensive score of the biscuits showed significant difference. The biscuits with 6% oyster hydrolysate showed the optimum appearance,color,texture,taste and comprehensive score. The L* value and b* value of the biscuits with inclusion of oyster hydrolysate were higher than those without oyster hydrolysate addition,while the a* values were lower than those biscuits without oyster hydrolysate. The hardness,cohesion and chewiness of biscuits with oyster hydrolysate were higher than those without oyster hydrolysate. Twenty-four flavor components were identified in biscuits without oyster hydrolysate,while thirty flavor components were identified in biscuits with 6% oyster hydrolysate. The biscuits with 6% oyster hydrolysate addition were richer in flavor than those without oyster hydrolysate.
Effect of Amylose Content of Different Varieties of Long Rices on Processing Characteristics and Quality of Rice Noodle
SHI Tao-qi, ZHANG Chen, DING Wen-ping, WANG Yue-hui, CHEN Xi, ZHUANG Kun
2020, 41(19): 33-38,44. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.006
Abstract(248) PDF(10)
In order to study the effects of amylose in different long rice on the processing characteristics and quality of rice noodles,long rice varieties with amylose content between 10.26% and 24.91% from different areas were as raw materials,the physical and chemical indicators,cooking quality,crystal structure,texture characteristics,digestion characteristics and sensory evaluation were measured and analyzed. The result showed that,with the increase of amylose content,the crystallinity of long rice decreased,the thermodynamic characteristics of To,Tp,Tc,ΔH in long rice increased,the reheating time of the rice noodle product increased,the cooking loss rate and the broken bar rate decreased,the chewiness and hardness of rice noodles significantly increased,and the crystallinity of rice noodles was larger than long rice. And when the amylose content was 22.52%,the sensory evaluation of the rice noodle was the best(75.9 score). In vitro digestion experiments showed that the cooked rice noodle had the highest hydrolysis rate and the final hydrolysis rate of the original powder was the lowest. And the amylose content was significantly negatively correlated with the in vitro digestibility(P<0.05).Rice noodles processed using long rice with an amylose content of about 22.52% had better processing quality and lower digestive characteristics. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of rice noodles with low digestion characteristics and high quality.
Physicochemical Properties,Antioxidant and Antibacterial Capacities of Non-starch Polysaccharide from Dolichos lablab L.
YIN Shu-hua, WU Wen-ying, SONG Ye-hao, LI Lu, FU Wang-wei, LI Wen-juan
2020, 41(19): 39-44. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.007
Abstract(94) PDF(6)
In order to explore the characterization of non-starch polysaccharide from Dolichos lablab L. (NS-DLP)referring to its physicochemical properties,antioxidant activities and antibacterial capacities. In this work,hot water extraction was employed to extracted NS-DLP,and its physicochemical properties and apparent structure were determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscope,respectively. Furthermore,the antioxidant abilities of NS-DLP were evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging and hydroxyl free radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile,the antimicrobial activities of NS-DLP were further investigated. The results showed that pyran ring was existed in NS-DLP which molecular weights were 2.3×105 Da. Moreover,the analysis of monosaccharide composition showed that NS-DLP was composed of glucose,rhamnose,galacturonic acid,galactose,xylose and arabinose,along with the mass ratio(%)of 23.23:6.2:5.09:2.76:2.4:0.48,and sheet structures were found in NS-DLP under the scanning electron microscope. Besides,antioxidant analysis indicated that NS-DLP presented hydroxyl radical and DPPH free radical scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner up to 6.4 mg/mL,in association with their scavenging capacities of 44.43%±2.41% and 21.20%±1.33% correspondingly. Subsequently,the data of bacteriostasis test demonstrated that NS-DLP diaplayed certain inhibitory activities by inhibiting Listeria and Escherichia coli. The diameter of bacteriostatic circle of Listeria was 11.23 mm,and the diameter of bacteriostatic circle of Escherichia coli was 10.23 mm. In summary,NS-DLP presented certain antioxidant and bacteriostatic capacities,which could provide a theoretical foundation for extend processing and developing for the application of white lentil.
Effect of Four Kinds of Drying Methods on Physicochemical Property and Antioxidant Capacity of Peppers
CHEN Yu-yu, WANG Ying-rui, ZHOU Hui, YE Mei-ling, DING Sheng-hua, QIN Dan, JIANG Li-wen, DENG Fang-ming, WANG Rong-rong
2020, 41(19): 45-51,59. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.008
Abstract(131) PDF(7)
In order to provide theoretical basis for improving the quality of dried pepper,four kinds of drying methods including freeze drying,sun drying,infrared radiation drying,hot air drying,and their effects on the physicochemical property and antioxidant capacity in peppers were investigated. The results showed that,sun drying,hot air drying,and infrared radiation drying could decrease the physicochemical property and antioxidant capacity to some extent compared to freeze drying,including low color deterioration,increasing of browning degree,degradation of pectin components,decreasing of free amino acid contents and antioxidant capacity. Sun drying had limit effect on the quality than hot air drying and infrared drying. For the peppers treated by sun drying,their color deterioration was lower. Total phenols contents and antioxidant activities were also maintained at high level after sun drying. Otherwise,the degradation degree of pectin was smaller,and the contents of water solute pectin,chelate-solute pectin,and sodium carbonate solute pectin were respectively 22.39 mg GalA/g DW,1.22 mg GalA/g DW,and 16.17 mg GalA/g DW.The contents of free amino acids was 11.860 mg/g DW in sun dried peppers. Hence,comparing to other three kinds of drying methods,sun drying better retained the physicochemical property and antioxidant capacity of peppers and was suitable for pepper drying.
Analysis of Changes in Volatile Components during Parching and Boiling of Spicy Hot Pot Seasoning by GC-MS Combined with HS-SPME
YANG Li, JIA Hong-feng, YANG Fang, SONG Lu-shan, HUANG Ying, ZHANG Miao, TU Meng-jie, HE Lian
2020, 41(19): 52-59. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.009
Abstract(124) PDF(16)
To study the changes of flavor during parching and boiling,and provide scientific basis for the development and utilization,control quality and safely use of hot pot seasoning,headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to investigate the volatile components in hot pot seasoning during parching and boiling. The result showed that 53 and 50 volatile components were detected during the parching and boiling of hot pot seasoning. 7 samples were experimented,and the relative content ranges from high to low,which were alcohols,alkenes,aldehydes,acids and lipids,and ketones. During the processing of hot pot seasoning,the relative content of alcohols increased with the prolonged parching time,while decreased then increased gradually in the boiling process after affected by the soup. The relative content of alkenes was highest before processing,and decreased after processing. The relative content of aldehydes was positively related to the cooking time,which may be related to the characteristic aroma of the hot pot seasoning. The longer the processing time,the lower the relative contents of acids and lipids would be. The study also found that with the prolonged processing,a large number of substances such as ethers and benzenes appeared in hot pot seasoning,which might affect the safely use,and the mechanism need further study.
Establishment of Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Apple Quality for Regional Suitable Varieties Selection
MAO Juan, WAN Peng, LIANG Guo-ping, MA Li-juan, CHEN Bai-hong
2020, 41(19): 60-66,77. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.010
Abstract(78) PDF(5)
This study was to establish a comprehensive evaluation model of apple quality to provide reference for the introduction,breed reforming and high-quality cultivation of new apple varieties. Based on 13 quality indicators of 20 introduced apple varieties measured in the Jingning production region of Gansu province,the anomaly data was screened by the box chart method,and then the mathematical models for evaluating apple quality were established with the methods of Correlation analysis(CA),Principal component analysis(PCA),Hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA),Analytic hierarchy process(AHP). The core indicators of sugar-acid ratio,organic acid,soluble solids,single fruit weight and fruit shape index were selected from 13 quality indicators with methods of CA,PCA,HCA,and then the comprehensive evaluation model of apple quality was established by AHP as follow:Y(comprehensive value)=0.4276×standardized value of sugar-acid ratio+0.2745×standardized value of organic acid content+0.1759×standardized value of soluble solid content+0.0811×standardized value of weight+0.0409×standardized value of fruit shape index. The comprehensive evaluation results of apple quality showed that the three varieties of Yanfu 3,Chengji 1 and Miyazakifuji had the best quality in Jingning production region,which were consistent with actual production performance. This comprehensive evaluation model of apple quality could effectively improve the scientificity and rationality of apple quality evaluation,and widely used in production practice.
Effect of Rose Powder on Rheological Properties of Dough and Quality of Crisp Biscuits
CHEN Ye, DUAN Min-yan, YAN Cheng, REN Wei, YI Lin
2020, 41(19): 67-71,77. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.011
Abstract(154) PDF(10)
The influence of rose powder on the rheological properties of dough and quality characteristics of crisp biscuit was studied. Rose powder(0%、5%、10%、15%、20%)was added to low gluten wheat flour. The properties of the dough were studied,including farinograph properties,tensile properties,solvent retention capacity(SRC)and texture characteristics. The results showed that the water absorption of the dough with rose powder increased,the stabilization time shortened,the formation time prolonged and the weakening degree increased,while the hardness of the biscuit dough increased and the stickiness decreased. Compared with the control group(0% rose powder),when the content of rose powder was 15%,the hardness,crispness,brittleness and chewiness of the biscuit were 1252.875 g,0.343 g/sec,10.667 g·sec and 1995.403 g,respectively. The highest sensory score of the biscuit was 85. The rose biscuit crispy with strong rose flavor.
Effect of Different Coating Materials on the Stability of Phenolic Acid Isolated from Bayberry
HU Jie, GAO Hai-yan, FANG Xiang-jun, WU Wei-jie, CHEN Hang-jun, MU Hong-lei
2020, 41(19): 72-77. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.012
Abstract(144) PDF(3)
To enhance the stability of phenolic acids,whey protein,β-cyclodextrin(β-CD)and whey protein-pectin mixed emulsions were used to coat the phenolic acid. The effects of different environments(pH,temperature,light,artificial gastric and intestinal juice)on the stability of the embedding products were investigated in this study. The results showed that,compared with other treatments,whey protein-pectin mixed coating phenolic acid had the best(P<0.05)embedding rate(82.33%). The results of acid-base stability showed that the stability of phenolic acid gradually decreased with the increase of pH,and whey protein-pectin coating showed higher(P<0.05)stability than other treatments. After being treated at a pH of 11.0 for 120 min,the residual relative content of phenolic acid was 52.23%. The results of thermal stability and light stability showed that whey protein-pectin emulsion had highest stability than others,and the residual relative contents of phenolic acid after treatment for 120 min were 68.28%(90℃)and 77.67%(27000 lx),respectively. The results of the artificial gastric and intestinal fluid treatment showed that whey protein-pectin emulsion coating could significantly(P<0.05)improve the stability of phenolic acid. In addition,the optical microscope images showed that the whey protein-pectin mixed coating had a stronger gel network and a thicker coating structure. In summary,whey protein-pectin mixed coating can improve the stability of phenolic acid in adverse environment,which provides a theoretical basis for the application of phenolic acid in functional food.
Interaction and Antioxidant Activities of Phlorizin and Bovine Hemoglobin in Three Different Solvents
GAO Yi-xia, YANG Yan, ZHOU Xiang-jun
2020, 41(19): 78-84. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.013
Abstract(166) PDF(4)
The interaction of bovine hemoglobin(BHb)and phlorizin(PHL)and its effects on antioxidant activities of PHL were investigated using ultraviolet spectra,fluorescence spectra,synchronous fluorescence spectra,infrared spectra methods and DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays in deionized water(dH2O),10%dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO)and 10% ethanol(EtOH),respectively. The results showed that PHL had a great ability to quench BHb's fluorescence with the increase of PHL concentration,quenching mechanism was an on-radiative energy transfer in static modes,interaction force was driven mainly by Vander Waals forces and hydrogen bond,and PHL was much closer to Trp residue in three different solvents. The slight red shifts for amide band Ⅰ and amide band Ⅱ were observed in dH2O. The scavenging effects of PHL-BHb on DPPH and ABTS free radical all increased compared with PHL except for 10% EtOH-DPPH. This study showed that the interaction of BHb and PHL and its activities could be influenced by solvents polarity in different degrees.
Biochemical Characteristics of Tannase-Producing LAB Fermented Red Beans and Lentils Sourdough and Its Effects on in Vitro Digestibility of Steamed Bread
MA Zi-lin, CAO Wei-chao, ZHANG Bin-le, WU Meng, LUO Kun, ZHENG Jian-xian, HUANG Wei-ning, LI Ning, Filip Arnaut
2020, 41(19): 85-93,98. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.014
Abstract(159) PDF(8)
In this study,a strain of Lactobacillus fermentum D23 with high yield of tannase,which was selected from the naturally fermented legume flour in the previous research of this group,was used to make red beans and lentils sourdough and steamed bread. By determining the content of anti-nutritional factors such as condensed tannin,peptide molecular weight distribution,content of free total phenols and free amino acids before and after sourdough fermentation,and the in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in steamed bread,the biochemical characteristics of sourdough and in vitro digestibility of steamed bread were studied to make a comparative research. The results showed that through the fermentation of D23,the content of condensed tannin in these two kinds of legume sourdough decreased significantly(P<0.05),by 57.87% and 53.54% in red beans and lentils sourdough,respectively. The content of large molecular weight peptides decreased,and the content of small molecular peptides increased.The content of free total phenols increased by 75.74% and 65.94%,respectively. The essential amino acid content increased by 429.31% and 358.20%,respectively. The content of reducing sugar in the final digestive juice of sourdough steamed bread increased by 3.27% and 5.55%,respectively.Compared with the unfermented group,the in vitro digestibility of starch was improved,and the final in vitro digestibility of protein also increased from 67.68%,70.21% to 73.21%,76.97% respectively. Therefore,the strain D23 with high tannase activity can effectively reduce the adverse effects of anti-nutritional factors such as condensed tannins in legume matrix,and enhance the nutritional value of final steamed bread products through the process of sourdough fermentation,which gives the strain a good application potential in fermented legume products.
Recombinant Expression of Tachyplesin Ⅰ in E.coli and Its Antibacterial Activity
WANG Ruo-cheng, XIN Yu, ZHANG Liang
2020, 41(19): 94-98. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.015
Abstract(185) PDF(8)
In order to obtain antimicrobial peptide efficiently,the recombinant expression of antimicrobial peptide target gene Tachyplesin Ⅰ(TP1)in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)was studied. The expression vector pET32a-TP1 was constructed and converted to Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). IPTG induced the expression of target genes,and the fusion protein was purified by NI-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified TrxA-TP1 fusion peptide was released by hydroxylamine and recombinant TP1 was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results showed that TrxA-TP1 fusion protein was induced successfully with IPTG at 37℃. The molecular weight of TrxA-TP1 was about 20 kDa. The recombinant TP1 obtained by hydroxylamine cleavage showed strong antibacterial bioactivity against S.aureus and B.subtilis,The minimal inhibitory concentration was 6 and 10 mg/L respectively. These experiments established a useful system for further studies,application and mass production of antimicrobial peptide TP1.
Biofilm Formation and Resistances of Bifidobacterium on Insoluble Dietary Fibers under Dynamic Cultivation
CHEN Cui-cui, HANG Feng, ZHANG Hao, LI Yuan-kun, ZHAO Jian-xin, CHEN Wei, LU Wen-wei
2020, 41(19): 99-103. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.016
Abstract(192) PDF(4)
The objective of this study was to reveal the difference of biofilm formation of Bifidobacterium on insoluble dietary fibers under dynamic cultivation,and characterize the resistance of biofilms. Based on the viable cell count and structural characterization of biofilms,it was found that the grape seed fiber was the most suitable carrier for biofilm formation among the six different types of insoluble dietary fibers,followed by wheat fiber. The optimal biofilm-forming time of Bifidobacterium was investigated. The optimal biofilm formation time based on the grape seed fiber was 36 hours,while the optimal biofilm formation time based on wheat fiber was 24 hours. The experiment further compared the differences between the biofilm-forming cells and the planktonic cells on the survival rate of freeze-drying and simulated gastrointestinal fluid tolerance. The biofilm cells exhibited higher freeze-drying resistance(4~6.5×). The survival rate of simulated gastric juice was increased by 5.1-5.9 times(P<0.01),and the highest survival rate reached to 59.82%±2.32%. The survival rate of simulated intestinal fluid was increased by 10-12.6 times(P<0.01),and the highest survival rate reached to 13.53%±1.5%. These results indicated that although Bifidobacterium had different biofilm-forming capabilities on different insoluble dietary fibers,while the stress resistance could be significantly improved after biofilm formation. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the application of the food industry in the development of stress-resistant probiotics.
Study on the Preparation Technology of Solid Bacillus subtilis
ZHAO Tian-yu, PAN Zhao-yang, ZHANG Zhao-hui, SUN Jian-an, MAO Xiang-zhao
2020, 41(19): 104-111,120. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.017
Abstract(157) PDF(11)
In this study,a high-activity probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis OKF-004 which was screened by the laboratory was used for liquid fermentation culture. The single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments were used to explore the optimal liquid fermentation medium components and culture conditions for spore formation. The obtained bacterial liquid was prepared by blast drying to prepare solid microbial agent,and the process for preparing the bacterial agent was optimized. It was most suitable for the formation of spores when the Bacillus subtilis was cultured in a medium containing 2.5% corn starch,3% soybean meal,and 2% glucose at initial pH of 6.5,liquid volume of 30 mL in 250 mL erlenmeyer flask,32℃,and inoculum size of 7%. The highest number of spores could reach 1.1×1010 CFU/mL. The bacterial sludge was reconstituted with a concentration of 5% of the protective agent glycerin at a ratio of 1:7 g/mL to prepare a bacterial suspension,and the shrimp head was used as a drying carrier,and the carrier and the bacterial suspension were mixed at a ratio of 2:3 g/mL.After drying at 50℃ for 6 h,the obtained bacterial agent had the best survival rate of 140.91%. The liquid fermentation culture and the solid microbial agent preparation method are simple in preparation,low in cost and suitable for industrial production.
Screening and Identification of Limonin Degrading Strains and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions
ZHU Ping-ping, SHAN Yang, XIA Jin-lan, NIE Zhen-yuan
2020, 41(19): 112-120. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.018
Abstract(154) PDF(6)
In order to solve the debittering problem of limonin,strains degrading limonin were selected and the enzyme production conditions of the strains were optimized. Eight strains degrading limonin were selected and isolated from the soil of perennial orange orchards and vinegar during fermentation.C-1-5,C-1-2-2,and JJ-3 strains with better limonin degradation rates were identified by morphology and molecular biology.On the basis of single-factor experiments,JJ-3 strain was selected for fermentation optimization by response surface optimization. Among them,C-1-5,C-1-2-2,and JJ-3 strains had relatively high degradation rates of limonin,which were 27%,36%,and 38%,respectively. The C-1-5 strain was identified as Cellulomonas sp. by morphology and molecular biology. The JJ-3 strain and C-1-2-2 strain were identified as Ochrobactrum sp.by morphology and molecular biology.Through the single factor optimization,the limonin degradation rates of C-1-5,JJ-3,and C-1-2-2 strains were increased to 65.90%,72.79%,and 74.66%,respectively.Through the response surface experiment,the optimal fermentation process conditions for JJ-3 were:pH3.5,temperature 30℃,nitrogen source was ammonium nitrate,and the inoculation amount was 3×108 CFU/mL. Under this process condition,the degradation rate of limonin was 78.90%. The strains with optimized fermentation conditions had a higher degradation rate.This study can provide help for the research of enzymes degrading limonin.
Screening and Identification of a Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain with Antioxidant Activity from Yak Yogurt
LI Xiao, XIE Liang, YANG Yun-nan, GAO Yan-hua
2020, 41(19): 121-126. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.019
Abstract(125) PDF(9)
The study was conducted to screen and identify lactic acid bacterium with antioxidant activities from yak yogurt. The number of total bacterium and lactic acid bacterium strain was enumerated by plate counting method. The lactic acid bacterium was isolated by M17 agar supplemented with 2.5% CaCO3.The isolated strain was molecularly identified by 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing,and acid producing test and biochemical reaction test was also conducted to determine the biological characteristics of the isolated strain. Total antioxidative activity,DPPH free radical scavenging ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was analyzed to determine the in vitro antioxidant activities of the isolated strain. The results showed that the isolated gram-positive lactic acid bacterial strain X1 identified as an acid-producing bacterium,with the biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecium. Furthermore,16S rRNA gene sequencing result confirmed that the isolated strain X1 belongs to the genus Enterococcus faecium. In vitro anti-oxidative activity analysis showed that the total anti-oxidative ability and the DPPH free radical scavenging ability of the cultured supernatant was significantly greater compared with the bacterial lysates and the bacterial resuspension,respectively(P<0.05). However,the hydroxyl radical scavenging ability of the bacterial resuspension was significantly greater compared with the cultured supernatant and the lysates(P<0.05). In conclusion,in the current study, Enterococcus faecium X1 with antioxidant activities was isolated and identified successfully from yak yogurt,and the antioxidant substances mainly existed in the cultured supernatant of this strain. These results could provide references for developing yak yogurt derived lactic acid bacterium into a novel antioxidative probiotic feed additive,and would be valuable for reducing oxidative stress during animal production.
Isolation,Identification and Enzyme Properties of a β-Mannanase Producing Strain with High Thermal Stability
TIAN Geng, GAO Wei-qiang, CHEN Xiao-bo, ZHANG Chun-xiao
2020, 41(19): 127-131. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.020
Abstract(207) PDF(6)
To develop a thermostable β-mannanase,a high β-mannanase producing strain was isolated from soil based on the sole carbon source cultivation and clearing zone screening on konjac powder plates. The strain was identified by 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. The β-mannanase activity and the enzyme properties were assayed by DNS method. The results showed that the strain could hydrolyze konjac powder and the clearing zone D/d value was about 1.67. The strain was assigned to Bacillus licheniformis KD-1.The optimal pH of the enzyme was pH6.0 and the optimal temperature was 60℃. The β-mannanase was stable at pH5.0~9.0 and 60~80℃. The half-life time(T1/2)of the enzyme activity was 5.5,4.3 and 4.2 h at 60,70 and 80℃. The β-mannanase activity was promoted by 10 mmol/L Cu2+ and Mg2+,whereas the enzyme activity was inhibited by 10 mmol/L Mn2+. In this study,a strain of Bacillus licheniformis KD-1 was screened. The thermostability of β-mannanase produced by KD-1 was higher than that of β-mannanase reported at present.
Development of Duplex PCR for Vibrio parahaemolyticus Based on blaCARB-17 and toxR Genes
HU Yuan-qing, LIN Kai-ling, ZHOU Zan-hu, LI Feng-xia
2020, 41(19): 132-136. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.021
Abstract(157) PDF(5)
A duplex polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method was established to simultaneously detect the blaCARB-17 and toxR genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Two sets of primers were designed and synthesized according to the blaCARB-17 and toxR gene sequences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. PCR amplification was performed in the same reaction system. The reaction parameters(annealing temperature,annealing time and primer ratio)were optimized to determine specificity and sensitivity. The isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in our laboratory were detected by this duplex PCR. The results showed that the best annealing condition of the duplex PCR was 52℃ 30 s,and the ratio of primers was 1:1.Using two pairs of primers,303 and 350 bp fragments of blaCARB-17 and toxR genes were amplified,respectively. No amplification was observed in other control bacteria,indicating that this method had good specificity. The minimum detection limit of duplex PCR was 1×102 CFU/mL,and all the 56 isolated of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were positive for detection. The established duplex PCR method is simple,efficient,rapid,and specific. It is suitable for the detection of large-scale samples of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Mannitol Dehydrogenase from P. bacterium 1109
LU Fu-zhi, XU Wei, WU Hao, ZHANG Wen-li, GUANG Cui-e, MU Wan-meng
2020, 41(19): 137-143,165. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.022
Abstract(99) PDF(6)
the mannitol dehydrogenase(MDH)from P. bacterium 1109 was expressed and purified. Enzymatic properties of the recombinant enzyme and the process conditions to produce mannitol were studied. Results showed that recombinant enzyme was a tetramer with molecular weight of 37 kDa. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that its homology with most MDHs was less than 40%. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were 8.5 and 80℃,respectively. The activity of recombinant MDH could increase to 260% of control group with the presence of metal ion Zn2+. In addition,the recombinant MDH could retain more than 85% of residual activity after incubation at 75℃ for 6 h,indicating a higher thermal stability than most MDHs. Substrate specificity studies showed that it had a high specificity for D-fructose. The Michaelis constant(Km)and catalytic efficiency(kcat/Km)of D-fructose catalyzed by recombinant MDH were 20 mmol/L and 7.5 L/(mmol·min),respectively. The recombinant MDH could produce more than 80% mannitol in the reaction system composed of 400 mmol/L of D-fructose substrate. The optimization of the reaction conditions laid the foundation for the subsequent industrial production of mannitol.
Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Combined with Wheat Germ Oil Fermentation on the Growth Activity of Aspergillus niger
SHI Meng-jie, YAN Bo-wen, Faizan Ahmed Sadiq, FAN Da-ming, LIAN Hui-zhang, TIAN Feng-wei, ZHAO Jian-xin, ZHANG Hao, CHEN Wei
2020, 41(19): 144-148,156. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.023
Abstract(77) PDF(3)
In this paper,the antifungal activities of different lactic acid bacteria were investigated by primary screening and secondary screening,and wheat germ oil was added to the culture medium of lactic acid bacteria for fermentation,in order to clarify the effect of lactic acid bacteria and wheat germ oil fermentation on the antifungal activity of Aspergillus niger. The results showed that wheat germ oil did not have the ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger,but the inhibition rate of LF5 fermentation liquid significantly increased with the increase of wheat germ oil concentration,and the phenomenon was strain specific. By heating,neutralizing pH,adding protease and catalase,it was found that the antifungal active substances in the supernatant of Lactobacillus cooperative fermentation were mainly composed of organic acids and some non protein components with good thermal stability. In addition,Lactobacillus fermentans LF5 was used to prepare bread with wheat germ oil fermentation. On the 5th day,mold was found to be visible to the naked eye,which significantly inhibited the growth activity of Aspergillus niger compared with the blank group,providing a new direction for the application of Lactobacillus in fermented food.
Processing Technology
Preparation and Stability of ACE Inhibitory Peptides from Peony Seed Meal by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
CHEN Qiu-luan, CHEN Xue-qin, MA Qian, XIE Li-ling, XUE Wan-ru, MENG Chun, HONG Jing
2020, 41(19): 149-156. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.024
Abstract(130) PDF(11)
Angiotensin converting enzyme(ACE)inhibitory peptides were prepared by hydrolyzing peony seed meal and its stability was analyzed. Neutral protease hydrolysates were found to have the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Based on the results of single factor experiments,the hydrolysis conditions were optimized by the response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the preparation of ACE inhibitory peptides from peony seed meal were as follows:The concentration of substrate was 2%,pH7.5,dosage of enzyme was 7200 U/g,the temperature was 43℃,enzyme hydrolysis time was 2 h. The ACE inhibition rate of enzymatic hydrolysates could reach 86.93%±2.38% under these conditions. Meanwhile,the ACE inhibitory peptides had good resistance to temperature,acid and alkalinity. The ACE inhibitory activity did not change significantly(P>0.05)at the temperature of 20~100℃ and pH of 2~10(P>0.05).After simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro,the ACE inhibitory activity did not change significantly(P>0.05),and it still maintained a good inhibitory activity.
Extraction Technology and Physicochemical Properties of Pectin Polysaccharide from Okra Wine Pomace
WU Guang-bin, ZHOU Yan-qiang, CHEN Fa-he
2020, 41(19): 157-165. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.025
Abstract(128) PDF(7)
In order to explore the comprehensive utilization technology of okra wine pomace and reduce the waste of resources,the pectin polysaccharides from okra wine pomce were extracted by enzymatic method and the extraction process was optimized by single factor experiment and response surface methodology,and the monosaccharide components of pectin polysaccharide were determined by pre-column derivatization HPLC method in this paper. The results showed that the optimum conditions of the extraction process were using 1% cellulase,extraction temperature 45℃,solution pH5.5,liquid-solid ratio 1:36,extraction time 10 h,extracting two times,the extraction rate of pectic polysaccharides under this protocol was 6.85%. The results of the monosaccharide components showed that degree of esterification was 74.45%,galacturonic acid content was 20.07%,ash content was 8.52%,protein content was 2.24%,loss of drying weight rate was 18.06% and pH was 6.47,the molar ratio of monosaccharides was mannose:rhamnose:glucuronic acid:calacturonic acid:glucose:galactose:arabinose=5.2:8.8:0.8:25.6:30.6:20.4:8.7.
Preparation of Maillard Reaction Products and Its Application on Microencapsulation of Mixed Oil
CHEN Zheng-jun, ZHANG Wen-bin, YANG Rui-jin, HUA Xiao, ZHAO Wei
2020, 41(19): 166-171,178. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.026
Abstract(193) PDF(13)
Nowadays,high load oil microcapsules still face the problems such as poor physical and chemical properties,low microencapsulation efficiency,poor flowability and storage stability. In order to overcome these disadvantages,in this study,the Maillard reaction products(MRPs)was prepared by wet method with sodium caseinate and isomaltooligosaccharide,and then MRPs were adopted as wall material for microencapsulating mixed oil,which contained mainly medium chain triglycerides. The microcapsules were prepared with high pressure homogenization and spray drying. The optimal parameters were as follows for Maillard reaction:Sodium caseinate concentration was 7%,the mass ratio of sodium caseinate to isomaltooligosaccharide was 1:3 (g/g),the reaction time was 120 min,pH was 8.0,and reaction temperature was 80℃. For emulsification,2% glycerin monostearate and 1% sucrose fatty acid ester were added as emulsifiers followed by two-stage high pressure homogenization(40 and 18 MPa respectively). The surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency of the microcapsules were 3.01% and 95.66%,respectively.Carr's index and Hausner ratio of the microcapsules were 7 and 1.08,respectively. Besides,the scanning electron microscopyimage of the powder showed that the internal and external structure was smooth and compact. After storage at 60℃ for 30 days,the peroxide value of the mixed oil microcapsule was only 9.06 mmol/kg,and the oil retention rate was 90.57%.The results showed that MRPs can effectively protect the core material components and have a strong antioxidant property. Therefore,this study provides certain industrial guidance value.
Optimization of Extraction Technology of Flavonoids from Dandelion and Analysis of Principal Components
XU Shu-lai, WANG Li, REN Hong-bo, LUAN Xue-yan, CHEN Jing-quan
2020, 41(19): 172-178. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.027
Abstract(253) PDF(7)
In this experiment,the extraction process of dandelion flavonoids was experimentally studied. The effects of ultrasonic assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction on the yield of flavonoids in dandelion were studied. The total flavonoids and the contents of flavonoids in dandelion were analyzed by spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The optimal extraction conditions of dandelion flavonoids were determined by single factor test and orthogonal experiment. The ultrasonic extraction condition was as follows:Ethanol concentration 60%,the ratio of material to liquid was 1:80 g/mL,extraction time was 35 min,extraction temperature was 60℃,and the obtain rate of dandelion flavonoids was 3.97%. The better extraction condition of microwave-assisted extraction was as follows:Ethanol concentration 60%,the ratio of material to liquid was 1:80 g/mL,the extraction time was 10 min,the extraction temperature was 55℃,and the microwave power was 800 W,and the yield was 4.57%. Based on the experimental results analysis,the microwave-assisted extraction method was superior. The results of high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)showed that the crude extract of dandelion flavonoids contained rutin and the mass fraction was 12.76%. The experiment provided the useful exploration and reference for the deeply processing and comprehensive utilization of the dandelion.
Study on Iron-chelating Ability of Duck Blood Hydrolysates and Components Analysis of the Hydrolysates
YANG Yan-ru, LIU Yang, SUN Yang-ying, PAN Dao-dong
2020, 41(19): 179-185. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.028
Abstract(82) PDF(3)
In this study,in order to improve the high value utilization of duck blood,duck blood was used as raw material,the technological conditions for producing enzymatic hydrolysate with high iron-chelating ability of duck blood and the components of hydrolysates were studied. Based on the result of single factor experiments,response surface methodology(RSM)was carried out with the determination of iron-chelating rate. The results showed that the optimum hydrolysis conditions of duck blood by alcalase were as follows:Enzyme addition 9800 U/g,hydrolysis temperature 50℃,pH11,hydrolysis time 2 h. The actual iron-chelating rate of the peptides prepared under the optimized condition was 65.36%. The relative molecular weight of enzymatic hydrolysate was mainly below 1500 Da and accounted for 72.01%. Amino acid composition analysis showed that the contents of total amino acid were about 76.25% in the enzymatic hydrolysate,among which Lys,Glu,Asp and His were higher,accounting for 10.25%,13.95%,9.67% and 8.89% of the total amino acids,respectively. And these amino acids had stronger iron-chelating activity. The optimized process for the preparation of enzymatic hydrolysate with high iron-chelating ability from duck blood was reliable and reasonable,and hydrolysates had better iron-chelating activity in vitro. The results would provide some theoretical basis for the development of iron supplement in animal blood.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-Microwave Synergistic Extraction of Ergosterol and VD2 in Shiitake Mushroom Powder by Orthogonal Experiment
HU Dai-hua, LIU Teng-mei, CHEN Wang, FENG Zi-li
2020, 41(19): 186-191,197. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.029
Abstract(131) PDF(7)
The main factors affecting the ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction efficiency of extraction time,microwave power,and ultrasonic power on the yield of ergosterol and vitamin D2(VD2)in shiitake mushroom powder were investigated by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The results showed that the factors affecting the extraction efficiency of ergosterol and VD2 were as follows:Extraction time>microwave power>ultrasonic power. The optimal extraction conditions were absolute ethanol as extraction solvent,extraction time was 20 min,ratio of material to liquid was 1:20 (g/mL),the extraction temperature was room temperature,the ultrasonic power was 400 W,and the microwave power was 200 W. Under the extraction conditions,the ergosterol content was as high as(3.59±0.69) mg/g,and the VD2 content was as high as(123.52±0.69) μg/g. The average recovery of ergosterol(n=6)was 114.57%,RSD(n=6)was 3.83%,VD2 average recovery(n=6)was 102.26%,RSD(n=6)was 4.95%. The method showed higher extraction efficiency,shorter extraction and analysis time,simpler operation,and better accuracy and reproducibility compared with reported methods.
Optimization of the Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from Edgeworthia chrysantha Lindl.by Response Surface Analysis and Its Antioxidant Activities in Vitro
ZHANG Yi-li, CHENG Ru-bin, HUANG Zhen, YU Shui-sheng, ZHOU Zhang-ping, ZHONG Xiao-ming
2020, 41(19): 192-197. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.030
Abstract(146) PDF(6)
The response surface method was used to optimize the extraction process of total flavonoids from Edgeworthia chrysantha Lindl and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Based on single factor experiments,taking ethanol concentration,liquid to material ratio,extraction temperature and extraction time as optimization factors,the total flavonoid yield was an evaluation index,and the Box-Behnken method was used to optimize the extraction process of total flavonoids. The DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging experiments were used to detect the antioxidant capacity of total flavonoids. The results showed that the optimal conditions were determined to be 80% for ethanol concentration,35:1 for liquid to material ratio,83℃for extraction temperature,85 min for extraction time,the total flavonoids yield was 22.76 mg·g-1. The extract obtained under the optimal process conditions had a certain ability to scavenge free radicals,and had a significant concentration dependence on the total flavonoid content. The IC50 values of scavenging DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals in vitro were 0.75 and 0.98 mg·mL-1,respectively.
Optimization of Preparation Process and Analysis of Functional Components of Compound Instant Tea Powder
WANG Qi, ZHAO Wei-wei, CHEN Xue-ling, WU Li, DENG Ru, ZHOU Shu-lai
2020, 41(19): 198-204,239. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.031
Abstract(65) PDF(9)
In order to widen the utilization value of Dendrobium officinale flowers,the functional compound instant tea powder was developed with D. officinale flowers and green tea as raw materials. On the basis of single factor test and response surface test,the extraction conditions of D. officinale flowers were optimized,and then the mixture of D. officinale flowers extract concentrate and green tea extract were processed into compound instant tea powder. The results showed that the extraction rate of D. officinale flowers was 62.07% under the conditions of solid-liquid ratio at 1:25 (g:mL),ethanol concentration at 68%,ultrasonic temperature at 45℃ and ultrasonic time at 55 min. The compound instant tea powder with pleasant aroma and harmonious taste could be obtained by spray drying of the extracted concentrate and the same weight green tea extract,and its sensory score was 93.And the contents of amino acid,quercetin,taxifolin and kaempferol in the compound instant tea powder were 70.89,9.23,1.27 and 6.22 mg/g,respectively by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Meanwhile,the compound instant tea powder had a certain scavenging effect on DPPH· and O2-·,and the inhibitory concentration 50%(IC50)values were 0.0934 and 1.09 mg/mL,respectively. Therefore,the compound instant tea powder had excellent sensory characteristics and antioxidant activity.
Optimization of Enzymatic Preparation Process of Peptides from Pearl Gentian Grouper by Response Surface Methodology and the Antioxidant Activity of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Products
XU Jie, LIN Ze-an, LI Zi-qing, JIANG Cai-zhen, FAN Xiu-ping, SU Wei-ming
2020, 41(19): 205-211,239. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.032
Abstract(125) PDF(7)
The bioactive peptide was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of pearl gentian grouper meat. Based on the degree of hydrolysis and DPPH free radical scavenging rate,the response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation process based on the single factor experiment. And the ultra-filtration method was used to isolate and purify the enzymatic hydrolysis products,also to investigate the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of the pearl gentian grouper were as follows:The flavor protease was used,the enzyme added amount was 1050 U/g,and the enzyme was hydrolyzed for 5.5 h under the conditions of pH7.0,53℃ and the ratio of material to water 1:3.5,the degree of hydrolysis was 9.99%±0.39%. Both the enzymatic hydrolysis products and ultrafiltration components had strong DPPH free radical scavenging ability,and their IC50 values were between 0.63~0.88 mg/mL;EH-2(5~8 kDa)and EH-3(3~5 kDa)had strong scavenging ability of hydroxyl radicals,and its IC50 values were 16.94 mg/mL and 16.38 mg/mL,respectively. The enzymolysis products and ultrafiltration components had reducing ability,and the enzymolysis products had the best reducing ability. The optimized enzymatic preparation process of peptides from pearl gentian grouper was reasonable and feasible,and its enzymatic hydrolysis products and ultrafiltration components had strong antioxidant properties and can be used as the base material of functional food.
Optimization of Processing Formula of Kiwifruit Cake by Fuzzy Mathematical Sensory Evaluation
FU Zhi-feng, ZHANG Xiao-rong, ZHOU He, SHI Yan, TU Zong-cai
2020, 41(19): 212-218,351. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.033
Abstract(127) PDF(7)
Using kiwifruit pulp as material,the processing formula of kiwifruit cake was optimized by fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation method. To achieve that,the amounts of sugar,isomalt,konjac gum,carrageenan and citric acid were selected as the influencing factors,and color,texture,taste and flavor were as sensory evaluation values to complete the orthogonal experiment on the basis of the range of auxiliary materials determined in the preliminary test. The texture properties of the optimized cake were also measured in the end. Results showed that the optimized conditions were 40% sugar,10% isomalt,1.25% konjac gum,0.75% carrageenan and 0.5% citric acid(calculated by 100% of pulp). Under this condition,the fuzzy mathematics sensory score of kiwifruit cake was the highest(91.15±0.82) points. The product present uniform yellow green,tasted sour-sweet,smell pleasant,touched modest hardness,and had good chew quality. The texture properties of kiwifruit cake after optimization were determined by texture analyzer:Hardness 587.42±19.32 g,viscosity(-76.81±8.12) g/s,the degree of elasticity 0.88±0.02,cohesion 0.66±0.00,stickiness 391.24±13.40,chewiness 343.22±11.53,recovery ability 0.22±0.00. The results were all in the range of texture properties favored by consumers. This study can provide references for the deep processing of kiwifruit and the development of series of "reducing sugar" products.
Extraction of Visceral Oil from Yellow Croaker and Mass Transfer Modeling of Its Palmitic Acid Enrichment by Low Temperature Crystallization
XU Tao, ZHOU Xiao-hong, CHEN Yu-jie, LIU Tong-jie, YI Hua-xi, LI Si-ming, XIAO Guang-hui, GONG Pi-min, ZHANG Lan-wei, LENG You-bin
2020, 41(19): 219-225. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.034
Abstract(166) PDF(4)
With the lyophilized viscera as material and extraction rate as index,the extraction rate of yellow croaker fish oil by dilute alkali hydrolysis method,enzymatic hydrolysis method and microwave-assisted extraction was studied. The fatty acids composition of fish oil was detected by gas chromatography to analyze the differences in fish oil extracted by three methods,and the differences in the content and distribution of fish oil fatty acid were analyzed. The results showed that the dilute alkali hydrolysis method had the highest extraction rate of viscera oil(accounted for 84.26%±5.15%),and the highest level of DHA,ARA,sn-2 palmitic acid(accounted for 39.94%±1.11%)and relative palmitic acid(accounted for 50.55%±1.06%),which was most suitable as raw material for enrichment in palmitic acid. Then,the best conditions for palmitic acid enrichment were determined with palmitic acid as index by crystal mass transfer model of low temperature crystallization. The correlation coefficients of the predicted crystal mass equation and the palmitic acid mass equation were R2>0.97 and R2>0.94,respectively. The optimal conditions for low temperature crystallization were:Oil-to-hexane ratio 1:6,low temperature -40℃,and crystallization time 2.6 h,in which the yield of palmitic acid was 80.50%±4.39%,the content of palmitic acid was 42.62%±2.67%,and the content of sn-2 palmitic acid was 68.19%±1.47%. The model accurately simulated palmitic acid enrichment of visceral oil and the enriched glyceryl palmitate has the potential to be applied to infant milk powder to increase the sn-2 palmitic acid.
Packaging and Machinery
Study on Properties of Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether/Montmorillonite Synergistically Enhance Soybean Protein Film
LIAO Mu-rong, HUANG Jia-wen, WEI Ning-si, ZHANG Yi-fu, QIN Zhi-yong
2020, 41(19): 226-231,243. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.035
Abstract(117) PDF(12)
In order to improve the water resistance and mechanical properties,expand its application in the field of food industry of SPI materials. In this study,SPI/MMT composite film was prepared with SPI and MMT as the main raw materials and EGED as the crosslinking agent. The results showed that MMT and EGDE could effectively improve the physical and mechanical properties of the composite file. When MMT and EGDE(20%)was added to the SPI composite film,the tensile strength of the composite film was 14.95 MPa. Compared with pure SPI film,the tensile strength of the MMT/SPI composite film increased by 239.77%,the elastic modulus increased by 88.98%,the moisture content decreased by 16.12%,the moisture absorption decreased by 31.07%,the total dissolved matter decreased by 39.68%,and the water vapor transmission decreased by 35.85%.The synergistic enhancement between EGDE and MMT can make the SPI composite film more stable,improve the physical and mechanical properties and water barrier of the composite film.
Food Safety
Predicting Shelf Life of Lactose-free Ultra-high Temperature Milk by a Arrhenius Model
JIA Ling-yun, HU Zhi-he, CHENG Kai-li, ZHAO Xu-fei, XIAO Hou-dong, DING Xin-yu
2020, 41(19): 232-239. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.036
Abstract(115) PDF(6)
The objective of this work was to predict shelf life of lactose-free ultra-heat treated(UHT)milk using modern sensory evaluation techniques such as electronic eye,electronic nose and electronic tongue,combined with Arrhenius model of accelerated food storage life test(ASLT). Lactose-free UHT milk was stored at 37,27 and 4℃,color and smell and taste were taken as the main indicators to comprehensively analyze the changes between quality and storage time of lactose-free UHT milk at different storage temperatures,and Arrhenius formula was t=0.109×e-5.1882 applied to establish shelf life model. The results showed that,lactose-free UHT milk stored at 37℃ and 27℃,the color of had changed significantly(P<0.05)for 24 days and 33 days,respectively;The bitter had changed significantly(P<0.05)for 24 days and 27 days,and there was no significant change in odor(P>0.05)for 60 day. Lactose-free UHT milk stored at 4℃,there was no significant change in color,odor,and taste(P>0.05)for 60 day. Taking bitter as one evaluation indicator,the shelf life model fitted with Arrhenius formula was and the errors between the model and the actual shelf life were 9.5% and 12.5% at 37℃ and 27℃,respectively,with small errors. The predicted value of shelf life of lactose-free UHT milk at 4℃ was 71 days based on this model. Therefore,the shelf life prediction model based on sensory indicators can be used to predict the shelf life of lactose free UHT milk.
Risk Analysis and Control in the Field of Food Circulation
SHENG Ji-ping, SU Wen-fan, LUO Yun-bo
2020, 41(19): 240-243. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.037
Abstract(189) PDF(20)
In the context of the outbreak of novel coronavirus-caused pneumonia,food safety risks have once again aroused the attention of consumers. This paper analyzes the source of risk in the food circulation,and according to the risk occurring probability and magnitude of risk,establishing the risk analysis matrix to evaluate risk level in the field of food circulation,in order to facilitate subsequent in high,medium and low order to carry out food safety monitoring work,and give specific advice about risk management measures,in order to improve the level of domestic food safety regulation and to ensure the safety of the food consumption.
Analysis and Determination
HPLC Fingerprint Analysis of Morchella by Ionic Liquid-assisted Extraction
SHEN Qian-hui, HUANG Qi, LI Wen-jia, QIAN Zheng-ming, ZHANG Ji
2020, 41(19): 244-250,265. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.038
Abstract(80) PDF(6)
Objective:To establish a green and environmentally friendly HPLC fingerprint analysis method for Morchella. Methods:An ionic liquid(1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate)-water solution was as extracted-solution. The effects of experimental conditions(the type of ionic liquid,ionic liquid carbon chain length,ionic liquid mass fraction of solution,extraction time,and material-liquid ratio)on the extraction amount were optimized through the single factor test,the final extraction condition was established as 40%[OMIM]PF6 aqueous solution(material-liquid ratio 1:10)wet grinding sample for 10 min. Then green HPLC was used to analyze Morchella samples. The separation was performed on a Agilent ZORBAX SB-AQ C18 column(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm)with gradient elution by 0.2% acetic acid-ethanol as a green mobile phase system at 1.0 mL/min,column temperature was 40℃,and detection wavelength was at 260 nm. The "Chinese Medicine Chromatographic Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System(2012 Edition)"was used to evaluate the similarity of 20 batches of samples(14 batches of Morchella sextelata,6 batches of various edible medicinal fungi). And the cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on the samples by SPSS software. Results:HPLC fingerprint analysis approach of Morchella was established,calibrating 10 common peaks,and 5 nucleoside components(uracil,cytidine,uridine,guanosine,and adenosine)were identified. The similarity of 14 batches Morchella sextelata was above 0.9,and the similarity of the other 6 batches samples was among 0.25~0.65. The clustering and principal component analysis also showed that the chemical compositions between Morchella and other edible medicinal fungi were obviously different under this experimental condition. Conclusion:A convenient,green and rapid HPLC fingerprint analysis approach for Morchella was established,which would help to improve the comprehensive quality evaluation level of Morchella.
Fatty Acid Composition of Breast Milk during Different Lactation Stages in China
ZHOU Jin, RONG Shuang, WANG Ying-yao, REN Xiang-nan, YANG Yue-xin
2020, 41(19): 251-259,265. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.039
Abstract(86) PDF(10)
Nearly 15 years of available evidence on the fatty acid composition of breast milk in China were summarized and the large amount of scattered research data with the data were collected in the survey. Finally,the national aggregate data of the composition of each provincial administrative region were obtained to analyze the differences of milk fatty acids in different lactation periods. A total of 4,727 cases of milk fatty acid from 17 provincial regions were included in the analysis,including 1327 cases of colostrum,900 cases of transition milk and 2500 cases of mature milk. The variation tendency of fatty acids with lactation and their causes were investigated. The results showed that with the prolongation of lactation period,the proportion of total SFA in breast milk was rising. The contents of C6:0,C15:0 and C18:0 were relatively stable and not affected by lactation period. In the SFAs affected by lactation period,except C20:0,C22:0 and C24:0,the content of other SFAs in colostrum was significantly lower than that in transition milk or mature milk(P<0.05). The proportion of total MUFA in breast milk showed a decreasing trend with the prolongation of lactation period,which decreased significantly during the transition milk period and then became stable. Only the content of C17:1 was not affected by lactation period. In the MUFAs affected by lactation period,except C16:1,the content of other MUFAs in the colostrum was significantly higher than that in the transition milk or mature milk(P<0.05). The proportion of total PUFA in breast milk increased first and then decreased with the prolongation of lactation period,and the changes of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were consistent with this trend. The results of analysis and comparison are beneficial for us to understand the composition of breast milk fatty acids and its changes with lactation period in China. It is hoped that this article can provide basic data for the study of the composition of breast milk fatty acids,related research on infant growth and development,and the development of infant formula.
Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Three Kinds of Carotenoids by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
GUO Xue-wen, QUAN Li, JIANG Chen-chen, CHEN Lu, QIAO Jun-qin, LIAN Hong-zhen
2020, 41(19): 260-265. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.040
Abstract(162) PDF(3)
Electron paramagnetic resonance(EPR)technique was used to investigate the antioxidant activities of three carotenoids(lycopene,lutein,and β-carotene)by comparing their scavenging abilities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH·)and hydroxyl radical(·OH). The results showed that both DPPH and Fe2+(fixed Fe2+:H2O2=1:10)concentrations had a good linear relationship with the EPR signal,and the correlation coefficients R2 were greater than 0.99. The three kinds of carotenoids had certain scavenging effects on DPPH· and ·OH,and the scavenging ability increased with the increasing of concentration and time. Lycopene had the strongest antioxidant activity among the three carotenoids,and β-carotene had the weakest antioxidant activity. The scavenging values for DPPH· by lycopene,lutein and β-carotene with concentration of 0.6 mmol/L were 95.4%,76.7% and 47.7%,and for ·OH were 56.6%,29.1% and 14.0%,respectively. Compared with UV-visible spectrophotometry(UV-Vis),this method can avoid the color interference of carotenoid itself. These results provide information for improving the evaluation method of antioxidant capacity of such natural food additives.
Effects of Salt Curing on Flavor of Fried Tilapia
ZHAO Xiao-ying, YUAN Tao-jing, PANG Yi-yang, YU Yuan-jiang, LIU Xiao-ling
2020, 41(19): 266-272,278. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.041
Abstract(95) PDF(6)
In order to explore the effect of salt pickling on the flavor of fried tilapia,the contents of protein,fatty acid,free amino acid and flavor nucleotides were taken as the inspection indexes,and the effects of salt pickling on volatile flavor substances and flavor components of fried tilapia were analyzed by sensory evaluation combined with headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that the flavor of fried tilapia changed obviously before and after pickling,the result of sensory evaluation showed that the oil and meat odor of fried tilapia were enhanced by the salt pickling,and the earthy flavor was weakened. HS-SPME-GC-MS results showed that the relative content of 1-octene-3-ol in volatile odorant of fried tilapia after salt pickling decreased to 4.17%,ROAV value was 5.70,(E,E)-2,4-decadienal contents increased to 5.12%,ROAV value was 100,meat flavor and oil flavor were obviously enhanced,while earthy flavor was obviously reduced. The contents of protein and fat in fried tilapia after salt pickling treatment decreased significantly(P<0.05),the consumption of free amino acids and fatty acids increased to 38.94 mg/100 g and 2.37 mg/g respectively,and the proportion of flavor amino acids and the contents of unsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly(P<0.05),the contents of inosinic acid,IMP)and guanylic acid,GMP),which provide delicate flavor,decreased more obviously. Salt pickling had a significant effect on flavor substances and components of fried tilapia(P<0.05),the contents of protein and fat were obviously reduced,volatile substances formed by degradation were obviously improved,oil flavor,delicate flavor and meat flavor of tilapia were improved,earthy flavor and grass flavor of tilapia were reduced,and the quality of tilapia was obviously improved.
Study on Antioxidant Components and Activity Changes of Liuyang Douchi during Fermentation
CHEN Yi, LIU Yang, JIANG Li-wen, LI Pao, LIAO Lu-yan
2020, 41(19): 273-278. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.042
Abstract(97) PDF(6)
In order to investigate underling mechanism for the antioxidant activity of Liuyang Douchi,the contents of antioxidants(including polyphenols,flavonoids and soybean isoflavones)and the antioxidant activity of Liuyang Douchi during fermentation were measured. Results showed that although the content of total flavonoids of Douchi decreased gradually,the glycoside type soybean isoflavones accounted for 85.75% at the beginning of fermentation while aglyn-type soybean isoflavones accounted for 81.41% at the end of the fermentation. The total polyphenols increased from 2.78 mg/g to 5.76 mg/g by fermentation,and the total antioxidant capacity,DPPH·,hydroxide(·OH),superoxide anion(O2-·)radical-scavenging rate of Douchi increased to 1088.91 U/g,93.67%,90.23%,88.38%,respectively.In addition,the results of correlation analysis showed that aglycogenic soybean had a greater effect on the antioxidant activity of Douchi than total polyphenols.It indicated that fermentation was helpful to the increase of total polyphenols in soybean and the conversion of glycosidic soybean isoflavones to aglycone isoflavones,which was one of the key factors to enhance the antioxidant capacity and improve the functionality of Liuyang Douchi.
Simultaneous Determination of Twelve Organic Acids in Edible Plant Source Jiaosu by HPLC
WANG Zhen-zhen, SHA Ru-yi, WANG Gao-jian, XU Cheng-long, DAI Jing, GE Qing, MAO Jian-wei, ZHU Jiao-lin
2020, 41(19): 279-285. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.043
Abstract(127) PDF(7)
The high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)method for simultaneous determination of 12 kinds of organic acids was established,in order to study the changes of organic acids in the fermentation process of edible plant source Jiaosu,such as Prunus mume Jiaosu,sea-buckthorn Jiaosu,pitaya Jiaosu,boysenberry Jiaosu and gold Jiaosu. The contents of organic acid in five edible plant source Jiaosu were used as indicators for principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis heatmap to study the differences of organic acid. The optimal chromatographic conditions were as follows:Detection wavelength of 210 nm,the mobile phase composed of methanol and 0.01 mol/L K2HPO4 with pH adjusted to 2.7 by phosphoric acid(2:98,V/V)at 20℃. Ten,eleven,nine,ten and four kinds of organic acids were determined in these edible plant source Jiaosu by the HPLC method,respectively. Based on R software,the main factors affecting the organic acid content were studied by principal component analysis. Two principal components were extracted,and the cumulative variance contribution rate was 77.00%. According to the hierarchical clustering and heatmap analysis of 12 kinds of organic acid metabolites in edible plant source Jiaosu from different raw materials,the organic acids could be divided into three categories,citric acid,malic acid and citric acid. This study can provide a method basis for the monitoring and detection of organic acids in fermentation of edible plant source Jiaosu.
Determination of Folic Acid Content in Sports Nutrition Food by SPE-HPLC with Post-Column Oxidation Derivatization Fluorescence Spectrometry
CHEN Qiong, HUANG Shu-kai, HUANG Pan, XU Wei-yi, LONG Zi, PENG Li-shi
2020, 41(19): 286-290,296. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.044
Abstract(171) PDF(16)
A method for the determination of folic acid in sports nutrition food by solid phase extraction and HPLC post column oxidation derivative fluorescence was developed. The pretreatment methods of precipitated protein method,enzymolysis protein method and solid phase extraction columns were investigated respectively,and the optimized conditions of mobile phase were obtained. Weak reversed-phase anion-exchange Strata-X-AW solid-phase extraction columns were used for purification,and Venusil MP C18 columns were used for separation. Post-column derivatization instrument for oxidative derivatization(5% potassium persulfate solution),and 50 mmol potassium dihydrogen phosphate(pH3.5):acetonitrile=90:10 (V/V)was the final choice of mobile phase,and then the content of folic acid was detected by fluorescence detector. The results showed that the linearity of the method was suitable in the range of 0.232~2.318 μg/mL,R2=0.9971,the injection volume was 10 μL,the limit of quantitative of the instrument was 0.0774 μg/mL. The sensitivity was enough to meet the needs of folic acid detection in sports nutrition food,the recovery of the method was between 96.98% and 100.50%,and the standard and sample solutions were stable in 8 h. This newly developed method could not only solve the problems of extraction,purification,but also have advantages of convenience,accuracy,wide linear range,high sensitivity. Never the less,it was reproducible,specific,and robust with high recovery rate,which could meet the needs of the quantification of folic acid in sports nutrition foods.
Determination of 14 Kinds of Volatile Halogenated Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water by Headspace-GC-MS
WEI Zhen-yuan, CAI Zhi-jing, ZHANG Mi
2020, 41(19): 291-296. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.045
Abstract(131) PDF(7)
Objective:To establish a method for determination of 14 kinds of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons including 1,1-dichloroethene,dichloromethane,trans-1,2-dichloroethene,chloroprene,cis-1,2-dichloroethene,trichloromethane,tetrachloromethane,1,2-dichloroethane,trichloroethene,bromodichloromethane,tetrachloroethene,dibromochloromethane,tribromomethane,hexachloro-1,3-butadiene in drinking water. Methods:The sample were automatically headspace balanced at 60℃ for 30 min before injection. The samples were separated by capillary chromatography column DB-624 and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results:The linear relationship of 14 kinds of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons at different concentrations were good,and the correlation coefficient was 0.9950~0.9999. The recoveries were 95.75%~100.67% and the precisions were 0.41%~3.58%. Conclusion:The method is accurate and easy to determine the content of 14 kinds of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in drinking water at one time.
Storage and Preservation
Analysis of the Volatile Components of Blueberry Fruits with Different Treatments during Shelf Life by GC-MS Combined with Electronic Nose
XUE You-lin, DONG Li-chao, ZHANG Peng, LI Chun-yuan, LI Jiang-kuo
2020, 41(19): 297-303,320. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.046
Abstract(78) PDF(9)
To explore the effect of 1-methylcyclopropylene(1-MCP)combined with MAP on the volatile components of blueberries during shelf storage,headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry(HS-SPME-GC-MS)was used in combination with electronic nose technology to detect the volatile components in blueberry shelf life at 4℃after 30 days of ice temperature storage((-0.5±0.3)℃). The results showed that aldehydes(24.86%~91.98%),alcohols(0.24%~23.85%),terpenes(2.00%~43.00%)were the most volatile components during the shelf life of blueberry,and the characteristic volatile components were 2-hexenal(grass aroma),linalanol(thick green with sweet wood green breath)and geraniol(mild and sweet rose breath). Discriminant analysis was superior to principal component analysis in analyzing volatile components of blueberry. It could be seen that 3 d was the inflection point of change of major volatile components of blueberry in shelf life,and the sensor with the highest contribution rate was W5S.The combined treatment of MAP+1-MCP could delay the loss of aldehydes during shelf life,and the sequence of inhibitory effect on aldehydes loss was MAP+1-MCP>1-MCP>MAP>CK.
Effect of Temperature on Storage Quality of High-Moisture Paddy and Its Prediction Model
DUAN Yi-meng, SONG Yu, CAO Lei, TAO Shu, ZHANG Wei-hua, LIU Chao, DU Chuan-lai, ZHU Chang-bao, GU Guang-dong, CAO Sheng-nan
2020, 41(19): 304-308,326. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.047
Abstract(125) PDF(6)
In order to understand the quality change of rice during the desorption process when the water content was greater than 18%,this paper explored the quality change law of high-moisture rice at different temperatures(35,25,15℃). A prediction model for quality change was established to predict the change law of rice fatty acid value,fatty acid value was used as an indicator of rice quality deterioration. The results showed that:As the temperature rised,the moisture content of the rice decreased,simultaneously,the fatty acid value of the rice,the hardness of the rice,and the gelatinity of the rice increased. With the increase of time,the elasticity showed an upward and then a downward trend,and rice processing quality was on the rise. At three temperature conditions,the quality of high-moisture rice deteriorated faster at 35℃,and 15℃ could slow down the quality deterioration. At the same time,the prediction model for the change of fatty acid value of high-moisture rice was:lnA=0.0193e409.09/T·t+lnA0,and the relative error between the predicted value and the measured value obtained by the prediction model was less than 10%,which was lower than 15% accuracy requirements for general numerical simulation,the prediction model was credible.
Effect of Ginger Extract on the Quality Characteristics of the Spent Hen Breasts Paste during Cold Storage
DU Fang-li, ZHENG Jin-yue, SONG Li, ZHENG Duo-duo, LIU Deng-yong, SHAO Jun-hua
2020, 41(19): 309-315,331. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.048
Abstract(84) PDF(4)
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger extract with different concentrations(0.05,0.2,0.4 mg/mL)on the quality characteristics of the paste. The spent hen breasts were used as raw materials and the group without ginger extract was taken as control group. Besides,a comparative study between these four breasts paste was carried out in terms of TBARS,cooking loss,L*,a*,pH,texture,total bacterial count,low-field nuclear magnetic resonance(LF-NMR). Volatile components of the spent hen breasts paste stored at 4℃ were detected by electronic nose and analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA). The results showed that the TBARS of the three treatment groups(0.05,0.2,0.4 mg/mL)were 2.0433,1.0100,0.8133 mg/kg during the storage 12 d,which was significantly lower than the control group(P<0.05). It was indicated that,with the extension of storage time,ginger extract inhibited the lipid oxidation,decreased the cooking loss,brightness,pH,total bacterial count and improve the quality of spent hen breasts meat. In addition,ginger extract can also delay the odor change of the paste due to oxidation,and inhibit the immobilized water turn into free water. The higher the concentration of ginger extract,the better the quality of the spent hen breasts meat can be improved. Therefore,appropriate amount of ginger extract can improve the quality characteristics of the spent hen breasts during storage.
Nutrition and Healthcare
Effect of Water Extract of Amaranthus retroflexus on Blood Lipid on Mice Induced by High Fat Diet
TIAN Cheng, WANG Man-li, DU Pei-ge, AN Li-ping
2020, 41(19): 316-320. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.049
Abstract(116) PDF(6)
Objective:To study the effect of water extract of Amaranthus retroflexus on hyperlipidemia mice. Methods:The mice model of hyperlipidemia was established by high fat diet(HFD). The mice were randomly divided into five groups:Control group(Con),model group(Mod),lovastatin group(Lovastatin,10 mg/kg/d),low dose of water extract of Amaranthus retroflexus group(AR-L,430 mg/kg/d)and high dose of water extract of Amaranthus retroflexus group(AR-H,740 mg/kg/d). The control group was fed with basic feed,the rest groups were fed with high-fat feed,and the drug was given by gavage according to the dosage. After eight weeks,the contents of serum total cholesterol(TC),triglycerides(TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),superoxide dismutase(SOD),malondialdehyde(MDA),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST)levels in mice were determined.Mice liver histopathology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin(HE)staining.Results:Compared with the control group,the mice liver index extremely significantly increased(P<0.01)in the model group.The levels of mice serum TC,TG,LDL-C,ALT,AST and MDA significantly elevated and HDL-C,SOD extremely significantly reduced(P<0.01). Compared with the model group,the mice liver index extremely significantly increased(P<0.01)in the AR-H group. The levels of mice serum TC,TG and ALT extremely significantly reduced and SOD,HDL-C extremely significantly elevated(P<0.01),and the levels of mice serum MDA,AST significantly reduced(P<0.05). Compared with the model group,the mice liver index significantly increased(P<0.05)in the AR-L group. The levels of mice serum TC,TG and LDL-C significantly reduced(P<0.05),and the levels of mice serum SOD and HDL-C significantly elevated(P<0.01)and ALT extremely significantly reduced(P<0.01),and there were no significant difference in the levels of MDA and AST between the model group and AR-L group(P>0.05).The results of HE staining showed that the water extract of Amaranthus retroflexus could significantly reduce the lipid deposition and fatty degeneration of liver cells. Conclusion:The research shows that the water extract of Amaranthus retroflexus can significantly reduce the blood lipid level of hyperlipidemia model mice and improve their liver function.
Analysis of Nutritional Components and Antioxidant Activity in Vitro of Extracts from Ganoderma resinaceum
ZHONG Qian-gui, CHEN Tian-ci, QIU Ming-meng, LIU Xin-rui, LI Ying, JIANG Yu-ji, CHEN Bing-zhi
2020, 41(19): 321-326. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.050
Abstract(159) PDF(8)
In order to further explore the nutritional components and antioxidant capacity of G. resinaceum extract,G. lucidum was used as a control in this study. First,distilled water and 55% ethanol were used to extract the corresponding water extracts and alcohol extracts,and then the total sugar and total triterpene content in the four extracts were determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the vanillin-glacial acetic acid method,respectively. Next the content of free amino acids was determined by the L-8900 automatic amino acid analyzer. Finally,the 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate)(ABTS),1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH),and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of 4 kinds of extracts were measured. The results showed that the total sugar content in the water extract of G. lucidum and G. resinaceum were significantly higher than the corresponding alcohol extract(P<0.05). The total sugar content of G. resinaceum alcohol extract was 48.77%,and the total sugar content of G. lucidum alcohol extract was 51.54%,respectively. There was no significant difference in the total sugar content between the two water extracts(P>0.05). The content of total triterpenes in alcohol extracts of G. resinaceum was significantly higher than that of the other three extracts(P<0.05),reaching 25.37 mg/g,but the triterpene content of the water extract was the lowest,only 1.30 mg/g. The highest content of free essential amino acid in G. resinaceum water extract was 45.542 mg/g,while the content of G. lucidum water extract was the lowest(2.381 mg/g). G. resinaceum had the highest scavenging rates of ABTS,DPPH and hydroxyl radicals,which were 54.48%,24.42% and 10.32%,respectively. It indicated that G. resinaceum had strong antioxidant capacity. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the further development and application of G. resinaceum.
Anti-aging Effects of Carboxymethyl Chitosan in Caenorhabditis elegans
LI Zhuo-hang, YANG Min, ZHANG Feng-lun, GONG Zhu-nan, MA Shi-hong, SHU Cheng-jie
2020, 41(19): 327-331. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.051
Abstract(158) PDF(6)
Objective:To investigate the anti-aging activity of carboxymethyl chitosan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Method:The lifespan,locomotion behavior,swallowing frequency and defecation cycle of C. elegans before and after treatment with carboxymethyl chitosan were detected. Moreover,the superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT)and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)of C. elegans were detected. Result:500,1000 mg/L carboxymethyl chitosan could significantly(P<0.05,P<0.01)prolong the life of caenorhabditis elegans,while 500 mg/L could significantly(P<0.01)improve the movement of Caenorhabditis elegans,accelerate the movement of pharyngeal pump,shorten the excretion period. At the same time,100,500 and 1000 mg/L carboxymethyl chitosan could significantly increase the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in caenorhabditis elegans(P<0.01). Conclusion:500 mg/L carboxymethyl chitosan has a significant anti-aging effect and has application prospects of anti-oxidation and anti-aging.
Extraction Technology of Compound Cordyceps militaris and Its Hypoglycemic Effect in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
XU Jian, LU Xue-chun, DUAN Yi-han, WANG Shan, SHENG Yu, XU Guang-yu, AN Li-ping, DU Pei-ge, SUN Jing-bo
2020, 41(19): 332-338. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.052
Abstract(92) PDF(4)
Objective:To optimize the extraction technology of compound Cordyceps militaris(C. militaris)and study its hypoglycemic effect in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus. Method:Compound C. militaris was extracted by water decoction,and the extraction technology was optimized by single factor test and orthogonal test. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group,model group,and low-,medium- and high-dose compound C. Militaris group. The rats except those in the blank group were given streptozotocin for the establishment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. After the administration for 12 weeks,the body weight of rats in each group was measured,then the serum insulin,blood glucose,liver malondialdehyde,superoxide dismutase,glutathione peroxidase,triglyceride and total cholesterol were detected,and the morphological changes of kidney were examined by HE staining. Result:The optimal extraction technology of compound C. militaris was as follows:The ratio of material to liquid was 1:10 g/mL,compound C. militaris was extracted 3 times,1.5 h each time,and the extraction temperature was 70℃,The average extraction rate was 53.1%,the average polysaccharide yield was 5.1%,and the average total saponin yield was 1.3%. Compared with those in the model group,the related indexes of diabetic rats in compound C. militaris-treated groups were improved,in which the body weight,insulin level and GSH-Px activity of rats increased significantly(P<0.05),the SOD activity increased significantly(P<0.01),while the blood glucose value,the MDA level in the liver,and the TG and TC levels in the kidney increased significantly(P<0.01)in the high-dose compound C. militaris group. The renal injury degree of rats was significantly improved in each compound C. militaris-treated group. Conclusion:The extraction technology of compound C. militaris was optimized,and the extract by the optimal technology had a significant hypoglycemic effect in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Administration of Probiotics on Type 2 Diabetes Mice
BAI Lu, ZHANG Zhe, LIANG Xi, LV You-you, ZHOU Hui, ZHANG Jun-xue, YI Hua-xi, LIU Tong-jie, GONG Pi-min, FENG Li-rong, LENG You-bin, ZHANG Lan-wei
2020, 41(19): 339-346. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.053
Abstract(129) PDF(13)
Objective:To study the hypoglycemic effect and mechanism of probiotics on type 2 diabetic mice. Method:The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was used to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of 34 strains. The hydrophobicity and self-aggregation ability were used to evaluate probiotic properties. The type 2 diabetes mouse model was established by high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin. All mice were treated with probiotics for 8 weeks,measured the blood glucose level,glucose tolerance,glycosylated hemoglobin,insulin and insulin resistance levels,serum proinflammatory cytokines levels,glucagon-like peptide-1,and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in fecal. Result:In vitro,L. paracasei J5 and L. casei K11 showed effective inhibition of α-glucosidase,and intestinal adhesion ability. In vivo,L. casei K11 significantly reduced blood glucose level in mice(P<0.05),improved impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance(P<0.05). The strains significantly reduced serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels in mice. The level of glucagon-like peptide-1 in serum and the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in fecal were significantly increased(P<0.05). Conclusion:L. paracasei K11 could significantly regulate blood glucose in type 2 diabetic mice. The mechanism might be related to regulating the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut microbiota,promoting glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and regulating proinflammatory cytokines level.
Research Progress in Extraction,Properties and Application Status of Rice Protein
LI Qing-quan, LI De-hai
2020, 41(19): 347-351. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.054
Abstract(130) PDF(13)
Rice protein,which has high nutritional value is easily digested and absorbed. And due to its hydrolyzed peptide can function as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol,it has broad development value and application prospects. Therefore,this paper elaborates the separation and extraction techniques like alkaline extraction and acid precipitation and enzymatic methods,structural characteristics like spatial composition,like function properties foaming and emulsifying,and the current status of application of rice protein. It is hoped to provide a reference for the development and utilization of rice protein and related in-depth product processing research,and to improve the economic benefits of rice resources in China.
Research Progress in Detection and Traceability of Food-borne Microorganism
SU Li-qian, ZHANG Lun, WANG Jian, LU Xue-mei
2020, 41(19): 352-360,368. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.055
Abstract(157) PDF(12)
The detection and traceability technologies of food-borne microorganisms play crucial role in food safety supervision. The traditional methods,such as biochemical identification,drug resistance analysis and serological typing,have been widely used in microbial detection and traceability analysis. With the rapid development of molecular biology,immunology,materials science,bioinformatics as well as other related disciplines and technologies,numerous simple and easy technologies have emerged with advantages of more sensitivity,more specificity and higher flux compared with the traditional ones. This paper reviews the detection and traceability technologies of food-borne microorganisms in recent years,to provide a powerful reference for inspection institutions and corresponding researchers while choosing reasonable methods.
The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in Quality Control and Food Processing
YANG Xue-fan, ZHANG Wei, GU Xin-zhe, LI Wen-hui, WU Jin-hong, WANG Zheng-wu
2020, 41(19): 361-368. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.056
Abstract(99) PDF(8)
The characteristics of food components determine the quality of food.With the development of food fine processing technology,the requirements of rapid monitoring of food components in the food industry are increasing. As a new non-destructive testing technology,Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in food industry due to its advantages of simplicity,rapidity and accuracy. In this paper,the basic principle of Raman spectroscopy,the application of Raman spectroscopy in food component detection and Raman modeling are reviewed.The Raman spectrum characteristics of nutrients in food under typical processing are summarized,and the further development of Raman spectroscopy technology in food industry quality control is summarized and prospected.
Research Progress in the Reduction and Control Technology of Hazardous Substances in Meat Product Processing
CUI Bao-wei, LI Meng-lu, SONG Jing-cheng, WU Chen-qi, SI Wen-hui, LU Jun
2020, 41(19): 369-373,379. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.057
Abstract(102) PDF(9)
As the upgrade of consumption structure,the demand of meat products in our country is increasing by every year,as well as the safety and quality requirement of meat and meat processing products. However,most hazardous substances occurring during the processing like curing,frying,stewing,roasting may lead to carcinogenicity,which may severely impair consumers' health and inhibit the improvement of meat quality. This research focuses on the common hazardous substances such as biogenic amines,nitrosamines,trans-fatty acids,formaldehyde,hetercyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during meat processing,and analyzes their mechanism,condition and influence factors. By summarizing the research progress of the reduction and control technology of hazardous substances in meat product processing,this research provides the reference for the improvement of the high-quality meat products in our country.
Research Progress on Biogenic Amines in Salted Fish
WU Man-ling, SHI Rui, HU Jin-peng, CHENG Wen-jian
2020, 41(19): 374-379. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020.19.058
Abstract(137) PDF(10)
Biogenic amine is a general term of bioactive low molecular weight nitrogen-containing organic compounds,which is mainly produced by amino acid decarboxylase. As a traditional preserved aquatic product,salted fish is delicious and rich in a large number of free amino acids,however,it is a good carrier for the growth and reproduction of amine-producing microorganisms,resulting in the formation and accumulation of biological amines. Excessive intake of biological amines has a potential risk to human health. According to the worldwide research reports published in recent years,this review elaborates the species,functions and production mechanism of biological amines in salted fish,the factors which have influence on the formation of the biogenic amine are analyzed,the methods for controlling biological amines in the processing of salted fish products are summarized. Finally,study tendency and future hot issues on controlling biological amines in salted fish are prospected.