2022 Vol. 43, No. 11

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2022, 43(11)
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Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee
Food Allergen Testing Standards and Labeling Status
YANG Ruoting, DAI Zhiyong, PAN Lina, PENG Xiaoyu, LI Xin, CHEN Hongbing
2022, 43(11): 1-10. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120149
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With the continuous improvement of people's living standards and health awareness, more and more attention has been paid to food safety. It follows that the research and management of the types and labels of food allergens also need to be more and more strict. Therefore, the regulation of food allergens needs to be more and more stringent. This summary reviews the current status of food allergen testing methods and standards in China. Also, the labelling of food allergen types in China, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the United States, the European Union, Canada and Japan is systematically summarized. By systematically reviewing the labeling management of food allergens in various countries and regions, it is hoped to provide reference for Chinese food allergen labeling management, and to continuously improve our country's food allergen detection methods and labeling standards.
Study on Quick Test Model for the Quality of Frying Oil from Western-style Fast Food Restaurants by Near Infrared Spectroscopy
HU Mingming, ZHANG Quan, NING Shuxian, WU Sifen, ZHANG Guowen, HU Xing
2022, 43(11): 11-17. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120181
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In order to quickly detect the quality of frying oil from western-style fast food restaurants, calibration models of acid value and total polar compounds were established using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) to evaluate the frying oil quality. The findings presented that the correction coefficient of calibration model of acid value and total polar compounds were both 0.9974. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEC) were 0.111 and 0.359, respectively. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.171 and 0.562, respectively. The results of blind samples verification showed that the correlation coefficients between prediction value and true value for acid value and total polar compounds of frying oil were 0.9944 and 0.9761, respectively; the precision test showed that the relative standard deviations (RSD) of acid value and total polar components using the calibration models for the same frying oil sample were 0.934% and 1.278%, respectively, which indicated that the models of quantitative analysis of acid value and total polar compounds of frying oils were good with excellent prediction abilities and reproducibility. Therefore, the rapid detection model based on near infrared spectroscopy could rapidly and accurately detect the quality of frying oil from western-style fast food restaurants.
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Future Food
Research Progress of 1H NMR-based Metabonomics for Food Adulteration and Traceability Analysis
LI Zhanming, DAI Yuqi, SONG Jiahui, HE Guangyun, CHEN Minghuang, FU Caili, HOU Xue
2022, 43(11): 18-23. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090284
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Due to various influences in the process of origin, processing, storage and transportation, food products are complex and changeable. Therefore, it is challenging to analyze and determine the adulteration and traceability of food. The existing food adulteration traceability methods mainly focus on physical and chemical testing and molecular biology technology, and the accuracy of relevant identification needs to be improved. The combination of metabonomics technology based on 1H NMR and multivariate statistical analysis can describe the overall characteristics of food and collect food origin and quality information. Recently, it has been widely used in the food field and has become a powerful tool for food adulteration and traceability analysis. Therefore, this paper describes the progress of 1H NMR omics technology in the adulteration and traceability analysis of food. Based on the overview of the principle of 1H NMR technology, the combination and application of 1H NMR and chemometrics analysis are introduced, and the applications of adulteration and traceability in typical food products are summarized, providing theoretical reference for the research and application of 1H NMR omics technology in food quality analysis.
The Effect of Polysaccharide of Poria cocos on Key Metabolites of Bifidobacterium BB-12
ZHANG Tianyang, ZHANG Xuyan, WANG Danping, XU Xiaoxi
2022, 43(11): 24-33. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110200
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In order to explore the key metabolites of Bifidobacterium animalis spp. lactis BB-12 metabolizing polysaccharides of Poria cocos, a non-targeted metabolomics method based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used, and glucose was used as a control. The effects of polysaccharides of Poria cocos on key metabolites of Bifidobacterium animalis spp. lactis BB-12 were analyzed. The results showed that polysaccharides of Poria cocos could significantly promote the growth of Bifidobacterium BB-12. By using component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), some representative differential metabolites were screened out such as palmatine and ganolucidic acid, etc. There were 12 kinds of key differential metabolites, and 17 differential metabolic pathways were significantly enriched such as ABC transporters, linoleic acid metabolism, and galactose metabolism. These metabolites and pathways demonstrated that Bifidobacterium BB-12 exhibited better growth performance and prebiotic efficacy in the case of fermenting polysaccharides of Poria cocos. This experiment analyzed the metabolites produced by polysaccharides of Poria cocos from the level of small molecular metabolites which were metabolized by Bifidobacterium animalis spp. lactis BB-12. The results provide the theoretical basis and guidance for further study on the probiotic effect of polysaccharides of Poria cocos and Bifidobacterium animalis spp. lactis BB-12 in human bodies.
Research Progress of Signal Amplification Strategies in Immunochromatographic Test Strip
YAN Lingzhi
2022, 43(11): 34-44. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120234
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Immunochromatographic Test Strip (ICTS), a detection technology based on capillary column chromatography and specific immune interaction between antibody and antigen, is widely utilized in the field of rapid detection of food safety detection due to its cost-effectiveness, easy operation, non-professional personnel, short assay time, high specificity and naked eye visualization. Conventional spherical gold nanoparticles-based ICTS is the most common detection method. However, the conventional ICTS can help achieve simple qualitative or semiquantitative analysis, its low sensitivity is an obstacle to meet the current detection requirements. Therefore, there has been a growing interest focusing on the signal amplification method to improve the sensitivity of ICTS devices. This paper summarizes signal amplification strategies to enhance the sensitivity of ICTS and proposes the future perspectives, which provides technical references for the development of rapid detection methods for food safety.
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Research and Investigation
Extraction, Acetylation Modification and Structure Characterization of Hemicelluloses from Corncob
PENG Qiao, ZHAO Sijiu, FAN Guozhi, CHENG Qunpeng, SONG Guangsen
2022, 43(11): 45-51. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080087
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Hemicellulose was extracted from corncob and further modified by acetylation. Ultrasonic-assisted alkali method was employed for the extraction, in which sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and elemental iodine (I2) were used as co-catalyst for the acetylation of hemicellulose, respectively. Corncob hemicellulose and its acetylated products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The yield and extraction rate of corncob hemicellulose were 33.7% and 81.0%, and the hemicellulose content reached 85.3wt%. The acetylation of corncob hemicellulose gave 84.6% yield and 1.27 degree of substitution (DS), respectively. The separation of hemicellulose from corncob using alkali method was effectively shortened by ultrasonic assistance, and the yield and extraction rate of corncob hemicellulose were improved. Concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and elemental iodine (I2) were effective co-catalyst for the acetylation of corncob hemicellulose. The results of IR and NMR showed that hemicelluloses were acetylated successfully, and TGA revealed that the thermal stability of the acetylated hemicellulose was improved. Moreover, the DS value of the acetylated product was moderate. Therefore, the acetylated product is expected to be used to prepare biodegradable materials for food packaging.
Properties of Polysaccharides from Polygonatum sibiricum Extracted with Deep Eutectic Solvents
LIU Xu, MENG Jikun, GE Xinhui, ZHANG Nan, PEI Haisheng, ZHANG Xiuqing
2022, 43(11): 52-57. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080114
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In order to understand the effect of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) extraction conditions on the properties changes and antioxidant activity in vitro of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSP), Polygonatum sibiricum was taken as the main raw material, and the relative molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted with DESs were analyzed. The results showed that compared with the traditional water extraction method, the yield of polysaccharides extracted by 70 ℃ DESs was 18%, which was 36% higher than that by traditional water extraction. The molecular weight of PSP decreased and the galactose content increased; the molecular weight of HDPSP which extracted at 100 ℃ was lower, and the main component was glucose. The scavenging rates of hydroxyl free radical and DPPH free radical and the total antioxidant capacity of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide showed that the antioxidant capacity of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide extracted with DESs at 70 ℃ was significantly higher than that of polysaccharide extracted at 100 ℃ and water extraction. When the concentration was 3.0 mg/mL, the total antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides extracted at 70 ℃ was 4.5 U/mL, 4.3 times that of water-extracted polysaccharides, and 7.4 times that of polysaccharides extracted at 100 ℃. Deep eutectic solvent can reduce molecular weight and improve antioxidant activity of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide. The results can provide reference for the application of deep eutectic solvent in polysaccharide extraction.
Hot Air Drying Characteristics and Shrinkage Dynamics Model of Potato Chips
LIU He, JIAO Junhua, TIAN You, LIU Jiaao, WANG Yanling, WU Xuehong
2022, 43(11): 58-64. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080327
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In order to improve the drying efficiency and quality of potato chips, and to control the shrinkage deformation during hot air drying, the effects of temperature (45, 55, 65, 75 ℃) and slice thickness (3, 5, 7, 9 mm) on the drying characteristic curve, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of potato chips were studied. The results showed that the drying rate would increase with the increase of the hot air temperature or the decrease of the slice thickness of potato chips. Within the scope of the study, the effective moisture diffusivity of potato chips was between the range of 5.02×10−10~11.53×10−10 m2/s. And its value would increase with the increase of the hot air temperature and/or the decrease of slice thickness. Besides, it was found that the Weibull distribution function could describe the reduction rate stage of drying and shrinkage dynamics model of potato chips. According to Arrhenius equation, the activation energy of drying and shrinkage of potato slices were 27.35 and 46.44 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating that the activation energy of drying was less than that of shrinkage of potato slices. This work provided theoretical basis and technical support for the prediction of moisture transfer and shrinkage deformation of potato chips during hot air drying.
Study on the Construction and Gel Properties of Plant Simulated Egg Liquid System
NIU Wei, YU Jiao, XUE Changhu, XUE Yong
2022, 43(11): 65-73. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080353
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In this study, mung bean protein, methyl cellulose, κ-carrageenan (KC) and high acyl gellan gum (HA) were used as raw materials to construct a simulated egg liquid system based on mung bean protein. The effects of the ratios of KC and HA on the textural properties, rheological properties, water holding capacity (WHC) and microstructure of simulated egg liquid were investigated by measuring the textural results, dynamic rheology, WHC and microstructure. The textural analysis and WHC results suggested that KC was the decisive factor for the gel strength and hardness of the simulated egg liquid gels, HA contributed significantly to the springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and WHC. The temperature scanning results showed that G′ and G" of the simulated egg liquid and natrual egg liquid increased gradually during heating and cooling, and G' was always greater than G", indicating that the two systems were dominated by elasticity. As the proportion of HA increased, the viscosity, the storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of the compound sol system increased, showing that HA could improve viscoelasticity properties of the simulated egg liquid sol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that KC and HA might form separate and interpenetrating polymer networks and the gel network structure was formed due to the certain compatibility and crosslinking between KC and HA. The sensory evaluation results showed that when the KC/HA ratio was 1.2:0.4, the comprehensive sensory score of the simulated fried egg was the highest, which was the closest to the natural fried egg in terms of taste, structure and flavor. In summary, this study could provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of plant-based egg simulation products by investigating mechanical properties and interaction mechanism of simulated egg liquid system with different ratios of KC/HA.
Effects of 60Co-Gamma Irradiation on Wheat Processing Quality and Final Product Texture Properties
WANG Xiaojie, HAO Baozhen, XIE Yike, MA Jingli, CHANG Xia
2022, 43(11): 74-82. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090092
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To clarify the effects of 60Co-gamma irradiation on the quality of wheat, dry seeds of wheat was irradiated by 60Co-gamma irradiation of different doses (0, 35, 50, 75, 90, 120, 150, 200, 300, 400 Gy), the quality of M1 generation on gluten content of wheat flour, dough rheological properties, steamed bread texture and sensory evaluation were analyzed. The results showed that irradiation treatment made the gluten content develop in the direction of high and low; In the dough rheological properties, 4 different types of dough characteristics were obtained by irradiation treatment, the energy, 50 mm extension resistance, 50 mm extension ratio, maximum extension resistance, maximum extension ratio of 400 Gy irradiation treatment were showed the biggest (except for fermentation time 90 min), 75 Gy irradiation treatment were moderated in extension ratio; In the texture of steamed bread, the hardness and chewiness of irradiation treatment were reduced, the cohesion and recovery were not significant (P>0.05); In the sensory score, 75 Gy irradiation treatment showed the best quality, followed by 90, 50, 200 Gy, other irradiation treatment had no obvious influence on sensory score compared with the control (P>0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the hardness was negatively correlated with stable time and farinograph property (P<0.05), steamed bread flavor was negatively correlated with wet gluten content and softening degree (P<0.05), and positively correlated with gluten index and stable time (P<0.05). Thus, the objectives of mutation breeding were determined according to sensitivity of materials and doses.
Effect of Adding Glutamine Transaminase on the Quality of Set-style Yogurt
HUO Chenchen, HU Zhihe, LU Dingqiang, ZHU Yuting, XIAO Houdong, YI Wan, LI Mingrui
2022, 43(11): 83-95. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090097
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The objective of this work was to study the difference of physical and chemical indexes and sensory indexes between set-style yogurt with TG enzyme and plain set-style yogurt (without TG enzyme) in the fermentation process. The changes of acidity, viscosity, hardness, water holding capacity and viable count of yogurt during fermentation were measured by phenolphthalein indicator method, rheometer, texture analyzer, centrifugation and plate counting method, respectively. The changes of color, taste and smell were measured by electronic eye, electronic tongue and electronic nose, respectively, and sensory evaluation was carried out. The results showed that adding 0~5 U TG enzyme per gram of milk protein, the acidity of yogurt at the end of fermentation was within the range of 71.12~73.64 oT, and there was no significant difference in the acidity of yogurt (P>0.05). During the fermentation process, the viscosity and hardness increased significantly after 3 h (P<0.05), and the viscosity and hardness of set-style yogurt with TG enzyme increased significantly at the end of fermentation (P<0.05). With the increase of TG enzyme content, the water holding capacity increased significantly (P<0.05). Adding different concentrations of TG enzyme had no significant effect on the number of viable bacteria in set-style yogurt (P>0.05). The main color number of TG enzyme set-style yoghurt and common set-style yoghurt were both 4095, and there was no significant difference in color at the end of fermentation (P>0.05). By principal component analysis, adding different concentrations of TG enzyme after fermentation had no significant effect on the taste and smell of yogurt (P>0.05). According to sensory evaluation, yogurt that 1 g milk protein supplemented with 2 U TG enzyme had the best sensory. Therefore, compared with the plain set-style yogurt without TG enzyme, the coagulated yogurt with TG enzyme was not significantly different in acidity, live bacteria count, color, taste and odor (P>0.05); it was significantly higher in viscosity, hardness and water-holding capacity (P<0.05), and the addition of appropriate amount of TG enzyme was beneficial to the improvement of the quality of coagulated yogurt.
Effects of Different Feeding Patterns on Muscle Fiber Type Composition and Mutton Quality of Sunit Sheep
SUN Bing, HOU Yanru, XU Liyuan, WANG Chenlei, JIN Ye, ZHAO Lihua, TU Ya, SU Lin
2022, 43(11): 96-103. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090100
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The study of feeding regimens (pasture, grazing supplementary and confinement) on slaughter performance, meat quality in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Sunit sheep were determined. Afterwards, quantitative classification of muscle fiber types was conducted by ATPase histochemical staining and real-time fluorescence quantitative quantification to explore the difference of feeding patterns on types composition of muscle fiber , in order to explore the internal reasons for the difference of meat quality in different feeding methods. The experimental results indicated that the slaughter performance indexes such as total weight gain, net meat weight, net meat rate, slaughter rate and meat production rate, and carcass quality indexes such as backfat thickness and carcass weight of the the grazing supplementary and confinement feeding patterns were increased remarkably than those of the pasture pattern (P < 0.05), the ratio of bone to meat of the pasture pattern was significantly higher than that in confinement and grazing supplementary feeding patterns (P < 0.05). The pH24 h of the confinement pattern was remarkable lower than that of the pasture and grazing supplementary feeding patterns (P < 0.05), and the shear force of the pasture pattern was remarkable lower than that of the confinement pattern (P < 0.05). The diameter and area proportion of typeⅡb muscle fiber in pasture pattern and grazing supplementary feeding pattern were significantly higher than those in confinement pattern (P < 0.05), and the gene expression of MyHCⅡb mRNA was significantly lowr than that in confinement pattern (P < 0.05). The diameter, cross section area of typeⅠandⅡa muscle fibers, the enzyme activity of LDH in the confinement pattern were significantly elevated than those in the pasture pattern (P < 0.05), the number and area percentage of Ⅱa, the gene expression of MyHCⅠmRNA, the muscle fiber density and the enzyme activity of MDH in the confinement pattern were markedly lower than those in the grazing supplementary feeding and pasture pattern (P<0.05), the genes expression level of MyHCⅡx, MyHCⅡa mRNA and the enzyme activity of SDH in confinement pattern were reduced significantly than those in pasture pattern (P < 0.05). Therefore, different feeding regimens of Sunit sheep have their own advantages, and the slaughter performance and carcass quality of Sunit sheep under confinement and grazing supplementary feeding are better. Pasture and grazing supplementary feeding have better meat quality due to their ability to enhance muscle oxidative metabolism and higher proportion of oxidized muscle fibers.
Study on Structure and Functional Properties of Tannic Acid Modified Gelatin Fat Substitute
WANG Xiaoting, KANG Mingli, SONG Lijun, ZHAO Ru, ZHANG Qin
2022, 43(11): 104-111. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090109
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In order to improve the melting phenomenon of gelatin due to poor thermal stability during heating, gelatin was modified with tannic acid to explore the effects of modified gelatin fat substitutes on the structure and functional properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), freeze-thaw stability, cooking resistance, water holding capacity and texture properties were used to explore the effects of tannic acid modified gelatin fat substitutes on the structure and functional properties. The results showed that when the pH value was 5, the mass ratio of gelatin to tannic acid was 1.2:1, and heated at 36 ℃ for 30 min, the functional groups between tannic acid and gelatin combined with each other, the two reacted and changed the protein structure of gelatin, and the microstructure changed from dense and uniform mass structure to loose and porous pore structure; Freeze thaw stability and cooking resistance increased, water holding capacity and swelling capacity decreased, hardness and chewability increased, elasticity, cohesion and adhesion decreased, and L*, a* and b* increased. After modification, the thermal stability of gelatin fat substitute was improved, the structural characteristics of gelatin fat substitute were improved, and the product texture was improved, which provided a theoretical basis for the preparation of fat substitute of polyphenol modified gelatin.
Corporate Effect of Vacuum Mixing and Freezing-thawing Treatment on Microstructure and Quality of Quick-frozen Youtiao Dough
LIU Xingli, ZHANG Jing, WU Hao, YANG Xiaojuan, WANG Hongwei, ZHANG Yanyan, ZHANG Hua
2022, 43(11): 112-118. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090143
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In order to investigate the corporate effect of vacuum mixing and freezing-thawing treatment on microstructure and quality of quick-frozen Youtiao dough and fritters, frozen Youtiao dough was prepared under the vacuum mixing (0~0.08 MPa) and freezing-thawing treatment (0~3 times). Combined analytical methods covering multiple instruments (e.g., low field nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and fourier infrared spectrum analyzer) were used to investigate the water distribution, microstructure, and secondary structure of treated frozen Youtiao dough. Meanwhile, the oil content, water content, specific volume and textural quality of Youtiao were analyzed. Results showed that freezing-thawing treatment destroyed the structure of the dough, declined the strong bonding water content of dough and α-helical content in gluten (14.80%~13.61%), resulting in the loose and disordered protein structure. However, with the increase of vacuum degree, the strong bonding water content in quick-frozen Youtiao dough gradually increased, and the ordered degree of protein network structure in dough also improved. Furthermore, freezing-thawing treatment could also decrease the volume (1.82 cm3/g~1.47 cm3/g), increase the oil content (15.08%~16.88%) and reduce the textural quality of Youtiao, while vacuum mixing could effectively decrease the oil content (15.08%~12.64%), improve volume (1.82 cm3/g~2.38 cm3/g), reduce hardness and improve other qualities of Youtiao. These results indicated that vacuum mixing could reduce the quality deterioration caused by freezing-thawing treatment by regulating the water distribution and protein structure in quick-frozen Youtiao dough. Therefore, this study can provide theoretical basis and guidance for large-scale production of quick-frozen Youtiao.
Study on Structure Characterization and Anti Digestion Properties of Mung Bean Resistant Dextrin
LIU Dezhi, WANG Weihao, QUAN Zhigang, ZHAO Shuting, WU Yunjiao, WANG Yifei, SU Youtao, CAO Longkui
2022, 43(11): 119-125. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090154
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In order to explore the structural characterization and anti-digestion characteristics of mung bean resistant dextrin, mung bean starch was used as raw material to prepare mung bean resistant dextrin by acid heat method. Its surface morphology, crystal form, polarized light, functional groups and glycosidic bonds were characterized, and its anti-digestion characteristics were explored by simulating in vitro digestion. The results showed that compared with mung bean starch, the structure of mung bean resistant dextrin was fragmented with different sizes and irregular shapes. The polarized light cross disappeared, and the chemical groups were similar. The peak positions of each functional group remained unchanged and no new peaks were generated. The crystal structure was amorphous, and the molecular weight MW of molecular degradation was 5.24×103 g/mol. The glycosidic bond was broken and a new digestion-resistant glycosidic bond was generated. The simulated in vitro digestion experiment showed that mung bean resistant dextrin had strong anti-digestion ability, and the anti-digestion content was 92.28%. This experiment aims to provide theoretical and data support for the development of functional dietary fiber.
Drying Characteristics and Quality Analysis of Jasmine with Combined Microwave and Hot Air Drying
SHENG Jinfeng, CHEN Kun, LEI Yawen, WANG Xuefeng, TANG Yayuan, YE Dongqing, CHEN Xi, SUN Jian
2022, 43(11): 126-135. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090267
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In this paper, the effects of three kinds of microwave (MVD, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 min) and hot air (HAD) drying at 60 ℃ on the drying characteristics and quality of jasmine were compared and analyzed. The results showed that in microwave drying stage, the water content of jasmine decreased rapidly, which accelerated the moisture decline in jasmine in hot air drying stage. The water-soluble extract, hydroxyl radical inhibitory ability, total amino acid and essential amino acid content of jasmine flower dried by combined microwave and hot air drying were higher than those of HAD group. The color and peak area of total volatile components, benzyl alcohol and α-fendene and of jasmine flowers in MVD2.0+HAD and MVD2.5+HAD groups were higher than those in HAD, which indicated that the typical fragrance of jasmine dried by MVD1.5+HAD and MVD2.0+HAD could be better retained. The difference of volatile components of jasmine dried by combined microwave and hot air drying could be distinguished by LDA analysis in electronic nose. In conclusion, jasmine dried by MVD2.0+HAD had the best quality.
Study on Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Sea Cucumber Peptides Prepared by Internal and External Enzymes
LIU Chang, ZHANG Huiyan, CHANG Yuqing, DENG Xianhui, SONG Zhiyuan, ZHAO Qiancheng, QI Yanxia
2022, 43(11): 136-143. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090308
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In order to compare the composition and antioxidant properties of sea cucumber peptides prepared by different methods, sea cucumber peptides were prepared by endogenous enzyme (sea cucumber autolysis) and compared with those prepared by exogenous enzyme (neutral protease, alkaline protease and trypsin). The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis of sea cucumber crude peptide prepared by autolysis method was autolysis 8 h method>autolysis 4 h method>autolysis 2 h method, and the degree of hydrolysis of sea cucumber crude peptide prepared by exogenous enzyme was trypsin method>alkaline protease method>neutral protease method. More than 94% of sea cucumber peptides produced by autolysis for 2, 4 and 8 h were less than 314 Da. The molecular weight of sea cucumber peptides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis was mainly distributed in 1~8.5 kDa; With the increase of autolysis time, the types of amino acids of sea cucumber peptides prepared by autolysis gradually increased, and the content of flavor amino acids was higher at 8 h. The sea cucumber peptides prepared by autolysis for 2, 4 and 8 h had better hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, DPPH radical scavenging ability and Fe3+ reducing ability than those prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis. At the concentration of 10 mg/mL, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate of autolysis for 8 h was 93.4%, DPPH radical scavenging rate was 85.8% and Fe3+ reducing force was 0.740. In conclusion, sea cucumber peptides prepared by autolysis method had their own unique advantages. This study can provide theoretical support for the preparation of sea cucumber peptides.
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Bioengineering
Effect of Ginseng Extract Stress Culture with Lactobacillus paracasei JLUs66 on Strain Growth Characteristics and Tolerances
DONG Shuyue, ZHU Ziyi, YANG Tao, JI Yaoyao, DIAO Mengxue, YE Haiqing, ZHANG Tiehua
2022, 43(11): 144-150. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090253
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In this paper, the effects of adding ginseng extract with concentrations (w/v) of 0‰, 1‰, 3‰, 5‰, 8‰, and 10‰ to the culture medium on the strain characteristics and tolerance of stress cultured Lactobacillus paracasei JLUs66 were studied. The results showed that after adding different concentrations of ginseng extract, the growth rate, viable count, acid production rate and heat tolerance of Lactobacillus paracasei JLUs66 were negatively correlated with ginseng extract. However, the extracellular polysaccharide production, low temperature tolerance and bile salt tolerance increased with the increase of the ginseng extract concentration in the low concentration range. The low pH tolerance and NaCl tolerance of the strain showed a trend of increasing and then decreasing with the increase of ginseng extract concentration. Through comprehensive comparison, it could be concluded that the stress cultured Lactobacillus paracasei JLUs66 by 3‰ concentration of ginseng extrac had the best strain characteristics and the strongest tolerance.
Fermentation Conditions of Chitinase Producing by the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt028 Isolated from Sour Orange
XU Qinqian, ZHANG Zeyu, TAO Xueting, ZHAO Ziling, LI Ziyuan, HAO Zaibin, LI Haiyun
2022, 43(11): 151-158. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100183
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In order to improve the chitinase production performance of an endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt028 isolated from sour orange fruit, the effects of medium composition and fermentation conditions on chitinase production were investigated by single factor test and the shaking flask fermentation conditions of chitinase production were optimized by response surface methodology. The results of single factor test showed that concentration of colloidal chitin, temperature and initial pH had obvious effects on chitinase production. The results of response surface test showed that the optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: Colloidal chitin concentration was 0.8%, yeast powder concentration was 1%, the initial pH was 6.9, inoculation amount was 3%, liquid volume was 100 mL/250 mL, cultured temperature was 30 ℃ and culture time was 48 h. Under these conditions, the highest enzyme activity of the strain fermentation broth was 10.48 U/mL. The studied results laid a foundation for the further development and application of the chitinase produced by Bacillus thuringiensis Bt028.
Separation, Purification and Characterization of Chitinase of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt028 Isolated from Sour Orange
XU Qinqian, ZHU Guowei, ZHAO Ziling, TAO Xueting, LI Ziyuan, HAO Zaibin, LI Haiyun
2022, 43(11): 159-166. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100184
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In order to reveal the basic enzymatic properties of the chitinase produced by an endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt028 isolated from sour orange fruit, the chitinase in the strain fermentation broth were purified by centrifugation, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dextran gel G-100 chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the optimum temperature, optimum pH and catalytic kinetic parameters of the chitinase were also investigated. The results showed that electrophoretic pure chitinase was obtained by centrifugation, ammonium sulfate precipitation and dextran G-100 gel chromatography from fermentation broth of the strain Bt028, with the specific activity of 681.78 U/mg, the purification factor of 3.21 and enzymatic activity recovery of 15.52%, and the molecular mass of the chitinase was determined to be 65 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzymatic characteristics study results showed that the optimum reaction temperature of the chitinase was 60 ℃ with good stability when temperature lower than 60 ℃; and the optimum reaction pH was 6.5 with good stability at pH5.5~7.5. Mg2+, Ca2+, Hg2+ and Co2+ had inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity, while Cu2+ and Fe3+ had a certain promotion effect. Low concentrations of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and dimethyl sulfoxide increased the enzymatic activity, however, the chitinase would be inhibited when the concentration of these organic solvents were increased to a certain level. The chitinase could be activated by acetone but inhibited by formaldehyde. Under the optimal catalytic conditions, the value of Km, Vmax and Kcat of the chitinase-catalyzed reaction were 29.533 mg/mL, 108.696 μmoL/(L·min) and 0.527/min, respectively. Research results provide technical parameters for the practical application of the chitinase.
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Processing Technology
Preparation and Properties of Rice Resistant Octenyl Succiniate Anhydrate (OSA) Starch
YANG Xue, WANG Shuwen, LIU Qingqing, YANG Hao, LI Wenyue, BAO Qingbin
2022, 43(11): 167-174. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090064
Abstract(64) HTML (20) PDF(16)
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In order to explore new ways to prepare resistant starch and improve the utilization value of rice, especially broken rice resources, octenyl succiniate anhydrate (OSA) starch was prepared by water-phase using rice starch as raw material. Taking the degree of substitution DS and reaction efficiency RE as the investigation indicators, the effects of the reaction temperature, reaction pH, octenyl succiniate anhydride dropping time and starch concentration on DS and RE were studied. The OSA starch was subjected to wet heat treatment to explore the influence of the time of wet heat treatment on the content and physical and chemical properties of resistant starch, and to conduct an in vitro digestion test. The suitable process conditions were as follows: Reaction temperature was 40 ℃, reaction pH was 9.0, acid anhydride dripping time was 4 h, starch concentration was 30%, OSA starch DS=1.3915 and RE=78.2% obtained under these conditions. The OSA starch obtained under this condition was moist and heat treated for 18 h to prepare resistant starch octenyl succinate (resistant OSA starch), the resistant starch content increased from 25.2% to 42.2%, digestion experiments showed that the digestion and hydrolysis rate of resistant OSA starch in the simulated gastrointestinal tract was 58.8%.
Optimization Preparation and Property Analysis of Sulfate Polysaccharide from Eucheuma spinosum by Probiotic Fermentation
ZHANG Jun, GU Fudie, LIU Yan, ZHOU Yu, LIU Qingmei, LIU Guangming
2022, 43(11): 175-184. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090160
Abstract(59) HTML (16) PDF(29)
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To prepare Eucheuma spinosum sulfated polysaccharides with low viscosity, high solubility and high bioavailability, fermented Eucheuma spinosum sulfate polysaccharides (F-ESP) was prepared by fermenting Lactobacillus rhamnoides, a common probiotic bacteria in fermented food, response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation process with the yield of crude polysaccharide as the index. Low temperature freeze-thaw Eucheuma spinosum sulfate polysaccharide (L-ESP) was used as control. After purification by DEAE-52 column chromatography, the contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, sulfate and other substances and monosaccharide composition were determined, and the chemical composition of F-ESP was analyzed. The physical properties of F-ESP were characterized by viscosity, solubility, molecular weight and microstructure. The functional group structure of F-ESP was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The antiallergic activity of F-ESP was evaluated by Rat Basophilic Leukemia-2H3 (RBL-2H3) degranulation assay. When the ratio of material to liquid was 1:70, the inoculation amount was 5%, and the fermentation time was 24 h, the yield of crude polysaccharide was the highest (41.70%±2.00%). The purified F-ESP-3 monosaccharide structure was mainly composed of galactose, and the total sugar content was 97.77%±1.10%. The sulfate content was 28.40%±1.40%. Compared with L-ESP-3, the reducing sugar content of F-ESP-3 (7.87%±0.09%) was significantly higher, the molecular weight (33.58 kD) was significantly decreased (P<0.01), the specific viscosity (0.01±0.002 dL/g) was significantly lower (P<0.01), and the solubility (89.33%±3.10%) was significantly higher (P<0.0l). Under scanning electron microscope, L-ESP-3 was smooth and dense flake, and F-ESP-3 was rough and irregular granule. The sugar chain structure of F-ESP-3 prepared by fermentation did not change. It was a kind of α-pyranose sulfate containing 3-methylether-galactose residue, and inhibit the activation of basophils by inhibit the release of β-hexosaminidase. To sum up, probiotic fermentation could be used as a way to prepare Eucheuma spinosum sulfated polysaccharides, and its anti-allergic activity could be significantly improved by changing its physical properties. This result provides data support and theoretical basis for the industrial production, development and utilization of Eucheuma spinosum polysaccharides.
Pilot Extraction and Component Analysis of Fat-Soluble Substances from Lycium barbarum L. and the Preparation of Major Carotenoids Monomer
MI Jia, LUO Qing, LU Lu, JIN Bo, LI Xiaoying, CAO Youlong, YAN Yamei
2022, 43(11): 185-191. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090164
Abstract(27) HTML (10) PDF(8)
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In order to study the pilot production process for supercritical CO2 extraction of fat-soluble substances from Lycium barbarum L., and for obtaining the preparation process of zeaxanthin dipalmitate monomer. The effect of pressure, temperature, time and co-solvent on the extraction yield of Lycium barbarum L. fat-soluble substances was studied, the orthogonal test was then used to optimize the extraction rate based on single factor experiment. The carotenoids and fatty acids in the fat-soluble substance of Lycium barbarum L. were analyzed by colorimetry, HPLC and GC-MS, and the zeaxanthin dipalmitate monomer was prepared by high performance preparative liquid chromatography. The results showed that the best pilot production process was that 15% ethanol was added, the extract temperature reached 50 ℃ and pressure reached 30 MPa, and extract for 1.5 h, when the yield and quality of fat-soluble substances were both considered. Under this process, the extraction rate of fat-soluble substances, unsaturated fatty acids and their proportion in total fatty acids, and the content of total carotenoids were relatively higher. While the extraction rate of fat-soluble substances was 8.55%, the content of unsaturated fatty acids was 80.958%, which accounts for 87.94% of the total fatty acid content, the content of total carotenoid and zeaxanthin dipalmitate was 37.64 mg·g−1 and 29.54 mg·g−1, respectively. The monomer of zeaxanthin dipalmitate with purity greater than 99% was prepared by pre-HPLC. In this study, the pilot-scale extraction process for supercritical CO2 extract of fat-soluble substance and the preparation conditions of the zeaxanthin dipalmitate monomer from Lycium barbarum L. were obtained, which provided a basis for the research, development and utilization of the fat-soluble substances of Lycium barbarum L..
Effect of Incubation Conditions on the Protease Activity and Protein Property of Wheat Germ
ZHANG Yao, SHEN Haijiong, YANG Tianyi, YU Yue, WANG Dongxu, GUO Yuanxin
2022, 43(11): 192-199. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090168
Abstract(32) HTML (11) PDF(6)
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Degreased wheat germ, after microwave treatment (600 W, 10 s), was incubated by different conditions for enhancing the activity of its endogenous proteases and increasing the level of polypeptides, including the incubation temperature and time, pH value of incubation solutions and ratio of the solution volume to the wheat germ weight. The results showed that enzymatic activities and polypeptides contents were both significantly affected by the temperature and time, pH value and ratio (P<0.05). A response surface optimization experiment was then conducted by using a Box-Behnken assay, revealing that the highest protease activity and polypeptide level, 3812.34 U/g and 303.12 mg/g, were obtained by a combination of the incubation temperature of 50 ℃ and duration of 6 h, pH of 4.5 and ration of 10:1 mL/g. These results revealed that optimization of culture conditions of wheat germ after degreasing and microwave treatments could effectively enhance the protease activity and polypeptide amount.
Optimization of Mulberry Leaf Instant Solid Tea Formula by Fuzzy Mathematics Sensory Evaluation Method
SHA Rui, DING Jie, CHEN Jing, NIU Ben
2022, 43(11): 200-207. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090235
Abstract(67) HTML (12) PDF(19)
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Objective: Mulberry leaves were used as raw materials. The instant solid tea with hypoglycemic effect was obtained by extraction, concentration, drying and granulation. Methods: Through the weight analysis of particle size, color, taste and solubility of granules, the sensory evaluation method of fuzzy mathematics was established, and the fuzzy comprehensive sensory score was taken as the index. The formula of mulberry leaf instant solid tea prepared by mulberry leaf extract dry powder was optimized by single factor and response surface test. Results: The optimal formula of mulberry leaf instant solid tea was 34% dry powder of extract, 29% mannitol, 35% maltodextrin, 1.8% stevioside and 0.2% menthol, the fuzzy comprehensive sensory score was 90.43, which was basically the same as the predicted value of the model. Conclusion: The granule prepared by this formula has uniform particles, brown color, good solubility, bright brown solution and sweet taste, which can effectively improve the bitter taste of mulberry leaves.
Optimization of Low-sodium Compound Salt Formula for Salt-baked Chicken Thighs by Response Surface Methodology and Analysis of Volatile Flavor Compounds
ZHANG Jie, DONG Huafa, FENG Meiqin, HAN Minyi, SUN Jian
2022, 43(11): 208-217. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090245
Abstract(35) HTML (16) PDF(12)
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In order to develop a salt-baked product with unchanged quality and low-sodium, potassium chloride, calcium lactate and yeast extract were selected for single-factor experiment. And the best substitution ratio was obtained through fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation score, chromatic aberration and texture. And optimization was carried out by response surface experiment. The best formula of low sodium compound salt was obtained according to the actual operation. Then gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry was used to detect volatile flavor compounds in salt-baked chicken thighs. The results showed that the optimal formula optimized by response surface was 30% potassium chloride, 9% calcium lactate, and 10% yeast extract. The sensory score of the salt-baked chicken thighs was 92.00, the yellowness was 38.43, and the chewiness was 796.66 g, which was close to the predicted value of the model. Compared with the control group, the sodium content decreased by 37.29%, K+ and Ca2+ content increased significantly (P<0.05), and the content of important flavor compounds (such as 2-Heptanone, M-Benzaldehyde, Nonanal, etc) increased. Using this formula to make salt-baked chicken thighs can significantly reduce the sodium content (P<0.05), ensure its original flavor and quality and provide certain theoretical guidance for making low-sodium products.
Optimization of Multi-enzymatic Extraction of Polysaccharide from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge and Its Immunomodulatory Activity
WANG Xintong, LI Pengyue, WU Lanfang, WU Yingjie, ZHENG Yuguang, LIU Congying, YAN Yuping, JING Songsong
2022, 43(11): 218-227. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090249
Abstract(39) HTML (8) PDF(10)
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In this study, the extraction process and immune activity of polysaccharide from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge were studied, in order to provide a theoretical basis for its development and utilization. Crude polysaccharide was obtained by complex enzyme method from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. On the basis of orthogonal experiment to determine compound enzyme ratio, the extraction conditions of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge polysaccharide by enzyme complex were optimized by using response surface methodology and mono-factor experiments, and the optimum technological conditions were obtained. Four polysaccharide components, APSE-0, APSE-1, APSE-2 and APSE-3, were isolated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography column. The effects of the polysaccharide fractions on the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells were determined by MTT assay, and the release capacity of nitrogen monoxide NO was determined by the Griess kit. The results showed that compound enzyme ratio was papain 16000 U/g, cellulose 1200 U/g, and pectinase 1600 U/g. The optimum extraction conditions were hydrolysis time of 2 h, liquid-solid of 15:1 (mL/g), temperature of enzymatic hydrolysis of 52 ℃. Under these conditions the extraction yield was (10.58%±0.03%). The results of in vitro immunoassay proved that four polysaccharides could significantly promote the proliferation of RAW246.7 cells, and APSE-0, APSE-2 and APSE-3 significantly induced NO production, among which APSE-2 showed the strongest immunoregulatory activity. APSE-2 could be explored as a potential source for immunomodulatory agents of the functional foods or dietary complementary for people with compromised immune system.
Process Optimization of Lactobacillus plantarum-Gm4 Fermentation for Sourdough Powder
ZHANG Guohua, HE Xiaxia, WEI Xiaorong, ZHAO Mingli, ZHANG Yueyang
2022, 43(11): 228-234. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090364
Abstract(27) HTML (13) PDF(6)
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This study determined to investigate a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum-Gm4 (LP-GM4) isolated from the traditional sourdough. A response surface experiment was designed according to Box-Behnken central combination principle to optimize the fermentation conditions of LP-Gm4 based on the single factor experiment, and low temperature drying technology was used to prepare sourdough powder. The results showed that the optimal fermentation parameters of LP-GM4 were as follows: fermentation temperature of 31.8 ℃, fermentation time of 13.5 h and LP-Gm4 adding amount of 10 lg(CFU/g) wheat flour. The pH, TTA value and LP-GM4 bacteria count of the sourdough powder were 3.51, 17.8 and 7.2×108 CFU/g, respectively. The sourdough inoculated with LP-Gm4 and active dry yeast were used to prepare the steamed bread, using the single time fermentation progress. The skin structure, internal elasticity, taste and smell of the steamed bread were determined to be superior compared to the yeast steamed bread.
Study on Extraction Optimization of Anti-oxidants from Roots of Angiopteris fokiensis Hieron.
SHI Xinyi, FENG Yunqian, LI Yunping, LUO Guoyong, ZHANG Jingjie
2022, 43(11): 235-243. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100212
Abstract(52) HTML (8) PDF(16)
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This study was performed to clarify the antioxidant capacity and components of roots of Angiopteris fokiensis. With Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) as the index, single factor experiments combined with orthogonal tests were carried out to optimize the extraction process of antioxidant components. The antioxidant capacity was also evaluated based on DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The chromogenic method of NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH and Folin-phenol was employed separately to determine the content of total flavonoids and total phenols, of which the correlation with VCEAC values was then analyzed based on Pearson method. The results demonstrated that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: No.3 sieve, feed liquid ratio was 1:40 g/mL, volume fraction was 50%, extraction temperature was 60 ℃. Under these conditions, the sample was extracted with antioxidant capacity equivalent to 24.44 mg VC. The antioxidant capacity differed significantly between 11 batches of A. fokiensis: VCEAC values ranged from 9.41 to 29.32 mg/g; IC50 values ranged from 0.85 to 3.03 mg/mL determined by DPPH assay, and from 1.02 to 3.81 mg/mL determined by ABTS assay. The content of total flavonoids and total phenols ranged from 8.75 to 30.18 mg/g, and from 5.19 to 17.84 mg/g, respectively. The pearson analysis indicated that the content of total flavonoids or total phenols was correlated significantly with the VCEAC values of A. fokiensis (P<0.05). In conclusion, total flavonoids and total phenols in A. fokiensis were determined as the main antioxidant components with potential for further development.
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions and Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus bisporus Stipe Enzyme
SHAO Yangyang, GAO Haiyan, LIU Ruiling, LI Bin, CHEN Hangjun
2022, 43(11): 244-251. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021200270
Abstract(57) HTML (21) PDF(23)
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In this paper, Agaricus bisporus stipe was used as the raw material, Lactobacillus plantarum inoculation amount, sugar addition amount and fermentation time were the main factors, and the total phenol content was used as the evaluation index. Based on single factor experiments, the Agaricus bisporus stipe enzyme was optimized by response surface experiments. Fermentation process, and the antioxidant capacity of the enzyme products before and after fermentation and storage at 4 ℃ and 25 ℃ for 5 d were studied. The results showed that the optimal process conditions for fermentation of Agaricus bisporus stipe enzyme were: Lactobacillus plantarum inoculation amount was 3%, 9.50% of sugar added, and fermentation time was 24 h. The total phenol content of the enzyme product could reach 2.20 mg/mL, which was equal to the predicted value of 2.19 mg/mL. The study found that the contents of total phenol and ascorbic acid in the Agaricus bisporus stipe enzyme were 2.20 mg/mL and 44.40 µg/mL, respectively. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, ABTS free radical scavenging capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power and total antioxidant capacity were 51.93%, 52.11%, 0.70, 28.09 U/mL, respectively, which were significantly higher than those before fermentation. Further analysis of the antioxidant activity of the enzymes under the storage conditions of 4 ℃ and 25 ℃ showed that the enzymes stored at 4 ℃ had stronger DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, iron ion reducing ability and antioxidant ability at 0 d storage. After 1 d storage, the antioxidant capacity of the enzyme began to decline sharply, and the antioxidant capacity of the enzyme stored at 25 °C was significantly lower than that stored at 4 °C (P<0.05).
Preparation Process Optimization and Property Analysis of Nano-cellulose-Starch Film Based on Corn Stalk
ZHANG Aiwu, SONG Ting, ZHANG Liyuan, YU Runzhong
2022, 43(11): 252-259. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010187
Abstract(52) HTML (7) PDF(13)
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In this work, corn stalk nano-cellulose and corn stalk starch were used as film-forming substrates to prepare corn stalk nano-cellulose-starch film by blending-flow casting method. The properties of nano-cellulose-starch film were determined on the basis of single factor and orthogonal test. The effects of each material of film-forming on mechanical properties, moisture permeability, light transmittance, water solubility and oxygen permeability of nano-cellulose-starch film were investigated. Finally, the optimal formula combination of film-forming liquid was determined as follows: The starch was 10.0% (W/V), nano-cellulose was 5% (W/V), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was 1.6% (W/V) and glycerol was 2.3% (V/V). Under optimal conditions, the nano-cellulose-starch film has the best comprehensive effect. The performance indexes were measured, and the membrane thickness was (0.063±0.050) mm, tensile strength was 14.92 MPa, elongation at break was 64.75%, moisture permeability coefficient was 2.19×10−12 g·m/m2·s·Pa, light transmittance was 87.60%, hydrolysis time was 97.00 s, oxygen permeability was 2.75×10−14 cm3·cm/cm2·s·Pa.
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Packaging and Machinery
Preparation and Properties of Agar/Konjac Glucomannan/Ethyl Cellulose Composite Film
HU Wanting, LUO Man, LU Jieyi, HUANG Yuchun, QIAO Dongling
2022, 43(11): 260-266. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090150
Abstract(82) HTML (23) PDF(35)
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To develop a kind of food packaging material with good hydrophobicity, agar/konjac glucomannan (AK) composite film incorporated with ethyl cellulose (EC) was developed. The effect of the addition of EC on the microstructure, mechanical properties and water resistance ability (swelling rate, dissolution rate and water vapor transmittance) of the composite film were explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and texture analyzer. The results showed that the EC molecular chain in AKE composite film was not completely extended, and the addition of EC inhibited the crystallization of agar. Compared with AK composite film, the AKE-25% composite film had the highest elongation at break (15.08%) and water vapor transmittance (9.88×10−12·g·cm/(cm2·s·Pa)). The dissolution rate decreased from 40.70% to 25.64%. Therefore, the inclusion of EC improved the ductility and water resistance for Agar/KGM/EC composites.
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Analysis and Determination
Simultaneous Determination of Six Sugars in Beef Hydrolysates by Ion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection
CHEN Xiuhong, JI Peng, HE Guoliang, XIA Ran, LI Zuming, LIU Jia
2022, 43(11): 267-275. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070122
Abstract(30) HTML (11) PDF(17)
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The aim of this study is to establish an ion chromatography method for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose, mannose and ribose in beef hydrolysates. The pretreatment and chromatography conditions were optimized. Finally, the protein was precipitated by 1% trichloroacetic acid and polysaccharide was hydrolyzed by 4 mol/L sulfuric acid. The CarboPacTM PA20 column was selected for separation. 5 mmol/L sodium hydroxide solution was used as the eluent for gradient elution, with the detection of pulse amperometric detector(PAD). The results showed that the six sugars could be separated completely under the above conditions, the linear relationship of glucose and other sugars within the range of 0.25~2.50 μg/mL and 0.025~0.25 μg/mL, respectively, was good. And the correlation coefficient was more than 0.998. The RSD of method was within 2.3%~5.5%, and the recovery was within 79.6%~116.5%. The method has the advantages of simple operation, high sensitivity and good resolution, and can be used to determine the content of sugars in beef hydrolysates accurately and rapidly.
Determination and Analysis of Free Amino Acid Composition of Xinjiang Black Bee Honey in Nilka
SHI Fengfeng, YIN Xin, ZHANG Haifeng, ZHANG Min, ZHANG Zhihao, ZHANG Jinzhen, ZHOU Jinhui, SUN Liping
2022, 43(11): 276-283. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080274
Abstract(42) HTML (12) PDF(13)
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In order to explore the composition and content characteristics of free amino acids in Xinjiang black bee honey from Nilka County, and analyze the origin of honey. In this study, the content of free amino acids was determined by the industrial standard method in Xinjiang black bee honey from seven producing areas in Nilka. The essential amino acids, medicinal amino acids and taste amino acids were analyzed, and the characteristics of free amino acids in Xinjiang black bee honey from Nilka were discussed by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that the total free amino acid content of Xinjiang black bee honey from seven producing areas in Nilka County was 458.98~805.94 mg/kg, the proportion of essential amino acids was 33.73%~51.84%, and the proportion of medicinal amino acids was 37.92%~57.94%. The taste amino acids were mainly aromatic amino acids and sweet amino acids. The total free amino acid content of honey from A3 producing area (805.94 mg/kg) was far higher than that from other six producing areas (458.98~619.82 mg/kg), and the phenylalanine, proline, serine, histidine, glycine, alanine, tyrosine, valine and isoleucine were the highest in seven producing areas. Cluster analysis showed that honey from A3 producing area could be well-separated from honey from other producing areas. In summary, Nilka Xinjiang black bee honey is rich in free amino acid species, phenylalanine content accounts for a relatively high amount of pharmacodynamic amino acids and taste amino acids, and honey from all production areas can be distinguished by free amino acid content, which has the potential to be developed into medicinal bee honey with unique taste.
Effects of Lotus Seedpod Procyanidins on AGEs Inhibition and Sensory Quality of Waffles
TAN Jiangying, CHEN Ziting, QIN Jiabin, WANG Yilin, WU Qian
2022, 43(11): 284-294. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080330
Abstract(71) HTML (16) PDF(20)
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In this paper, the inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the effects of lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPC) on sensory quality of waffles were analyzed for the first time. Using flour and eggs as raw materials, different concentrations of LSPC (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mg/g) were added to prepare waffles (170 ℃, 20 min). The inhibitory effect of LSPC on AGEs in waffles was detected by measuring the content of AGEs, carboxymethyl lysine content (CML), and antioxidant properties, while the effect of LSPC on the sensory quality of waffles was detected by chroma, texture, temperament, and electronic nose. The results showed that the contents of AGEs and CML in waffles decreased significantly with the increase of LSPC concentration (P<0.05), and the content of total phenols increased significantly with the increase of LSPC concentration (P<0.05); The antioxidant properties of waffles increased significantly with the increase of LSPC concentration (P<0.05); The addition of LSPC also affected the baking quality of waffles. The hardness of waffles decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the elasticity and cohesiveness increased significantly (P<0.05); the color of the waffles was significantly deepened (P<0.05); the flavor increased significantly with the addition of lotus seedpod procyanidins (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that lotus seedpod procyanidins has an inhibitory effect on AGEs in waffles and on sensory qualities, it makes the waffles mouth feel more spongy and palatable, at the same time, this paper provides a theoretical support for the in-depth study of the inhibitory effect of lotus seedpod procyanidins on AGEs and sensory quality during thermal processing of foods.
Study on Origin Tracing of Dried Tangerine Peel Using Mineral Element Fingerprints
LI Furong, LIU Wenwen, WEN Dian, XU Aiping, LI Lei, CHEN Yongjian, CHEN Chuguo, WANG Xu
2022, 43(11): 295-302. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090119
Abstract(35) HTML (12) PDF(11)
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By analyzing the differences of mineral element contents in dried tangerine peel from different producing areas, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, the effective origin traceability indexes based on mineral element fingerprint analysis technology were selected to construct its discrimination model of different origin identification. In this study, 206 dried tangerine peel samples were collected from three different producing areas as Guangdong, Fujian and Chongqing. The contents of 32 mineral elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Combined with analysis of variance, principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, a discriminant model of dried tangerine peel producing area was established. The results showed that 26 of the 32 mineral elements in the dried tangerine peel samples had significant differences between Guangdong and other two producing areas, and 11 of them had significant differences between the three different regions. After principal component analysis, four principal components could be extracted from the 32 mineral elements, representing 70.0% of the total index. Based on the principal component analysis, the dried tangerine peel samples could be preliminarily clustered according to their different origin. The main variables of the first two principal components were Dy, Sm, Gd, Pr, Nd, Y, La, Fe, Be, V, Ce, Sc, Co, P, Mo, As, Pb and B. Through linear discriminant analysis, 21 mineral elements K, P, Ca, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, V, Ni, B, Li, Pb, As, Sr, Ti, Th, Gd, Sc, Nd, Pr and Y were determined as effective traceability indexes of the dried tangerine peel. Additionally, based on the discriminant model established by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, the importance of 13 elements Sc, B, Y, Co, Nd, La, Pr, Be, Gd, Dy, Sm, Mo and Fe were determined. For the discrimination models established by the two above-mentioned discrimination analysis methods, their overall correct discrimination rates of cross validation and external sample validation were both 100%, which basically achieved the origin discrimination of dried tangerine peel. The research suggested that the mineral element fingerprint analysis technology can be used for the origin traceability discrimination of dried tangerine peel.
Identification, Confirmation and Determination of Tert-Butylhydroquinone Degradation Products in Vegetable Oil
FAN Xiaolong, ZHU Zhengwei, WU Wanqin, HU Wei, HUANG Kun, JIANG Feng
2022, 43(11): 303-309. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090133
Abstract(31) HTML (26) PDF(7)
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Objective: By simulating the heating process of edible oil in daily life, the transformation and degradation conditions of tert butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in vegetable oil samples containing TBHQ were determined. The two transformation products of TBHQ, tert butyl p-benzoquinone (TQ) and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TBK), were finally determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and matching of unknown compounds with the database. And a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of tert-Butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) and its two degradation products 2-tert-Butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TQ) and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TBK) in vegetableoil. Methods: The sample was dissolved in n-hexane saturated with acetonitrile and extracted with acetonitrile saturated with n-hexane. The acetonitrile layer was extracted twice, and the acetonitrile layer was combined. The acetonitrile layer was concentrated to nearly dry in 40 ℃ water bath and then redissolved with methanol, HP-5MS UI capillary column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) was used without splitter injection. Then selected the ion monitoring mode, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination, external standard method quantitative. Results: The linear range of the three compounds was good (R2>0.995). Under the three levels of concentration, the recoveries were 83.40%~107.71%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) was less than 8.5%. The limits of quantitation (loqs) of TBHQ and TBK were 10 μg/kg and TQ was 50 μg/kg. 25 batches of samples were measured. TQ was measured in two batches of samples, and TBK was measured after heating treatment. Conclusion: The method is simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of TBHQ and its degradation products in vegetable oil.
Determination of Cyhalofop-butyl and Cyhalofop-acid Residues in Cereals and Oilseeds by QuEChERS-UPLC
PENG Hongxia, LIU Ya, YANG Li, LV Xinming, XU Xinzhong, XU Xin, WANG Ke
2022, 43(11): 310-317. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090139
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Objective: The method of QuEChERS-UPLC was established for the simultaneous determination of cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop-acid residues in cereals and oilseeds. Methods: The accurately weighed 2.0 g and 5.0 g sample was extracted with 0.1% formic acid water-acetonitrile (1:1, V/V) as extractant, and then purified with dispersive solid phase extraction adsorbents, such as N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA), C18, sodium chloride, anhydrous magnesium sulfate, etc. After the purified solution was filtered through a 0.22 μm filter membrane, it was eluted with 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution-methanol-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution, separated by ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) chromatographic column, analyzed and detected by UPLC, and quantified by external standard method. Results: In the range of 0.002~5 μg/mL, the mass concentration of cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop-acid showed a good linear relationship with the peak area, and the limits of quantification in grains and oilseeds were 0.01 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop-acid in cereals were 89.23%~101.12% and 87.98%~100.02%. Those in oilseeds were 85.12%~92.34% and 82.63%~89.55% respectively. The relative standard deviation was 1.1%~3.3%. Conclusion: The method used in this experiment has a simple pretreatment process, accurate and efficient detection process, and its sensitivity and accuracy meet the requirements of pesticide residue detection. It is suitable for the detection of cyhalofop-butyl and cyhalofop-acid residues in grains and oilseeds.
Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Activities of Different Parts of Cistanche tubulosa in Qinghai Province
ZHAO Yan, YU Xinmiao, WEI Yuping, BAI Bingyao, ZHANG Li, ZHANG Bin, PAN Leiqing, SONG Lijun
2022, 43(11): 318-325. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090145
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In this paper, the bioactive components and antioxidant activities of Cistanche tubulosa (CT) cultivated in Qinghai Province were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that the bioactive components in different parts of Cistanche tubulosa were significantly different (P<0.05). Contents of total polyphenols, total polysaccharides, total triterpenes, echinoside and verbascoside in bottom part were significantly higher than those in the middle and top parts. Especially, the contents of the total echinoside and verbascoside content was 4.67%, which was higher than the standard of Chinese pharmacopoeia 2020 edition. The IC50 values of ABTS free radical scavenging abilities of root, middle and top parts were 0.91, 1.59, 2.32 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of DPPH free radical scavenging activities were 0.77, 5.16, 10.66 mg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of different parts of Cistanche tubulosa were closely related to the contents of various bioactive substances, the IC50 value of ABTS and DPPH were negatively correlated with the contents of total polyphenols, total triterpenoids, total polysaccharides, echinoside and verbascoside, and the correlation coefficient was high. The results will provide a theoretical basis for the medicine, food safety and utilization of Cistanche tubulosa in Qinghai Province.
Study on the Nutrient Components and Physicochemical Properties of Broccoli Flour
LIU Peixiu, ZHAO Meixuan, YANG Mei, LEI Xiaoying, LIU Wenqiang, YANG Min, LI Yupeng
2022, 43(11): 326-333. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090257
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In order to promote the edible utilization of broccoli stalks and leaves, as well as solve environmental issues from broccoli residues, the whole broccoli was chosen as materials and divided into florets, stalks and leaves to analyze the nutrients and minerals contents, thermal stability and the morphology of freeze-dried broccoli flours. The chromaticity, density, swelling capacity, water-holding and oil-holding capacities of broccoli florets, stalks and leaves were also measured. The results showed that the content of flavone in broccoli leaves was 19.82±0.86 mg/g, chlorophyll of 11.35±0.65 mg/g, calcium of 11.27±0.48 mg/g, copper of 20.23±0.81 μg/g, manganese of 29.62±0.71 μg/g, which were all higher than those in stalks and florets significantly (P<0.05). There were differences in particle size and specific surface area among samples at the same mesh, in which broccoli stalks had the highest size and lowest specific surface area. The compressibility of three samples increased with decreasing in particle size. The broccoli leaves and stalks had higher compressibility under 180-mesh than florets. However, the compressibility of leaves at 180-mesh was different from stalks insignificantly (P>0.05). The leaves and florets had high swelling capacity, but stalks and florets had high water-holding and oil-holding capacities. The florets had the highest water-holding and oil-holding capacities among three samples at 140-mesh, which were 13.18±0.46 g/g and 1.77±0.13 g/g, respectively. With consideration of processing costs, 140-mesh was the optimum size for florets, stalks and leaves of broccoli flours.
Determination of Nine Metal Elements in Oil Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion
QIN Huifang, WANG Ying, PENG Qiao, JIAN Yinghong
2022, 43(11): 334-341. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100066
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To establish an accurate determination method of metal elements in oils, 5 edible oils and 2 gutter oils were chose as raw material, and a new microwave digestion method was established to pretreat oils in this paper. The contents of metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The programs and conditions of microwave digestion were designed and optimized, and finally a new program for microwave digestion containing 5 steps was obtained, which was with a maximum digestion pressure of 35 atm, a maximum temperature of 190 ℃ and a retention time of 20 min. The performances of the established method were investigated and listed as follows: The linear relations of 9 metal elements were good in their concentration ranges, the determination coefficient ranged was from 0.9982 to 0.9994, the limits of detection was ranged from 0.0013 to 0.0122 μg/mL, and the standard recoveries of samples were ranged from 98.94% to 101.45%, RSD≤4% (n=6). The contents of 9 metal elements in 7 oil samples were determined using this method. The results showed that the nutritional elements in 5 edible oils were rich, and the contents of Cr , Cd and Pb were not detected, therefore, estimated preliminary, the nutritional value and safety of the oils were high. However, Cr, Cd and Pb in gutter oils were all detected, and the contents of Pb are far higher than the threshold limit value of national standard, so the gutter oils are not suitable for consumption. These applications showed that the method has many advantages of simple operation and high accuracy, the needs of determination of metal elements in oils can be satisfied.
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Storage and Preservation
Effect of Freezing-Thawing Times on Quality Characteristics of Tibetan Mutton
ZHOU Yuyu, MAO Yun, WANG Lina, WANG Linlin, CHEN Lianhong, HUANG Qian
2022, 43(11): 342-349. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080348
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In order to study the effects of freezing-thawing times on the quality characteristics of frozen mutton. After freezing and thawing repeatedly for 0, 1, 3, 5 times and then refrigerated at 4 ℃ for 1, 3, 5, 7 days, the nutritional quality, edible quality, texture characteristics and lipid oxidation degree of Oula Tibetan mutton were determined. The results showed that with the increase of freeze-thaw times, the nutritional quality of Tibetan mutton deteriorated significantly, the moisture content and protein content decreased significantly (P < 0.05); The overall eating quality of Tibetan mutton decreased significantly, especially after 5 freeze-thaw cycles, the color stability and water holding capacity decreased significantly (P < 0.05), the tenderness decreased slightly, but the change was not significant, and the meat hardness and chewiness decreased, while the viscosity, elasticity and adhesiveness increased; Meanwhile, peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS) reached the maximum after 5 freeze-thaw cycles (P < 0.05), indicating that the degree of lipid oxidation increased with the increase of freeze-thaw cycles; At the same time, the longer the cold storage time, the worse the meat quality. The above results showed that the increase of freeze-thaw cycles had a great impact on the meat quality, and the repeated freeze-thaw phenomenon should be avoided in the actual production, processing and transportation of meat.
Change of Biogenic Amines and Quality of Salmon Fillets during Different Storage Temperature
ZHAO Donghan, ZHAO Nan, LIANG Meijia, WANG Huisen, GAO Wenjiao, LIU Qingqiu, LI Yingchang
2022, 43(11): 350-355. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090147
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In order to ensure the quality and safety of salmon, changes of biogenic amines and quality of salmon slices were studied in this paper at 25, 4, 0 ℃ and −20 ℃. The salmon slices were stored at 25, 4, 0 ℃ and −20 ℃, respectively, and the biogenic amine content, total viablecount, TBA, pH and sensory score were determined. The results showed that the main biogenic amine in salmon slices were phenethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and histamine, and the five biogenic amine in salmon slices were all at low levels at the beginning of storage. As storage time increased, the contents of biogenic amines increased significantly at 25, 4 and 0 ℃. At 25 ℃, the contents of biogenic amines increased 5.6, 32.65, 15.81, 7.22 times and 54.12 times at the end of storage, respectively. Spermine and spermidine did not change significantly during storage. During −20 ℃ storage, there was no significant change in biogenic amine content, which remained at a low level all the time. At 25, 4 and 0 ℃, the microbial and thiobarbituric acid values of salmon slices showed a significant increase trend, and the higher the temperature, the faster the increase. Sensory score showed a downward trend, and the lower the temperature, the slower the decrease. The freshness indexes of salmon slices stored at −20 ℃ were better than those stored at 25, 4 and 0 ℃. Temperature has a significant effect on the changes of biogenic amines in salmon slices during storage, and low temperature storage can effectively control the production of biogenic amines in salmon filletsand slow down the deterioration of quality.
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Nutrition and Healthcare
Component Analysis and Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory Effect of Crude Polysaccharide from Tibetan Opuntia ficus-indica Stems
CHENG Xiufeng, ZHANG Jinchao, ZHAO Qian, LUO Zhang, LIU Zhendong
2022, 43(11): 356-362. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080309
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In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of crude polysaccharide from Tibetan Opuntia ficus-indica stems, the impacts of crude polysaccharide contents on the foot swelling in mice caused by carrageenin, and on the contents of inflammatory factors in mice’s plasma were studied, through the infrared spectroscopy analysis of the crude polysaccharide from Opuntia ficus-indica stems, and the determination of the molecular weight and contents of total sugar as well as monosaccharide composition and contents. The results showed that the characteristic groups of crude polysaccharide from Tibetan Opuntia ficus-indica stems were mainly centered on stretching vibration and bending vibration. The stretching vibration was manifested as primary amine and -NH stretching vibration of primary amine, -C=C- and C-O stretching vibration; the bending vibration as -OH bending vibration, C-O asymmetric shrinking vibration and C-CO-C bending vibration in plane. The contents of total sugar was 405.724 mg/g, the molecular peak (Mp) of total sugar was 24915 Da, and the monosaccharide was mainly composed of D-glucose (Glc). In the range of 100~400 mg/kg, with the increasing of the polysaccharide dose, the degree of foot swelling of mice decreased and the inhibitory rate of foot swelling increased. The inhibitory rate of polysaccharide from the stem of Tibetan Opuntia ficus-indica on mouse foot swelling was better, showing a dose-dependent trend. The expression levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α inflammatory factors in the high-dose team of crude polysaccharide from stems were closest to the expression levels in its positive control dexamethasone acetate team. The expression levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α inflammatory factors decreased as the concentration of crude polysaccharide from stems increased, which explained that crude polysaccharide from Tibetan Opuntia ficus-indica stems had a favorable anti-inflammatory effect.
Immunomodulatory Effect of Triple Probiotics and Fructo-Oligosaccharide Compound Powder in Mice
SU Shuonan, HOU Linzhong
2022, 43(11): 363-368. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090063
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Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate immunomodulatory effects of triple probiotics (Bifidobacterium lactis V9/Lactobacillus plantarum P-8/Lactobacillus casei Zhang) and fructo-oligosaccharide (BLLF) in mice and its mechanism. Methods: C57BL/6J mice received intragastric administration of distilled water (control group 0.1 mL/10 g) and different doses of BLLF (triple probiotics 0.01 mg/kg+fructo-oligosaccharide 0.1 g/kg, triple probiotics 0.02 mg/kg+fructo-oligosaccharide 0.1 g/kg, and triple probiotics 0.06 mg/kg+fructo-oligosaccharide 0.1 g/kg) 0.1 mL/10 g once daily for 30 days. The immunity of mice was evaluated by organ ratios. The function of cellular immunity, monocyte macrophage, humoral immunity, and NK cell activities of the mice were further evaluated. Results: Compared with the control group, low, medium and high dose BLLF showed no significant effects on body weights and organ ratios of the mice(P>0.05). BLLF showed no significant effects on ConA-induced mouse splenic lymphocyte proliferations(P>0.05). Medium and high dose BLLF significantly increased the delayed hypersensitivity induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice (P < 0.05). The macrophage carbon clearance function of mice in high dose BLLF group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Medium and high dose BLLF significantly increased the mouse peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis of chicken red blood cells(P < 0.05). Medium and high dose BLLF significantly increased hemolytic activity and number of antibody producing cells in mice (P < 0.05). Medium and high dose BLLF significantly increased NK cell activities in mice (P < 0.05). Conclusions: BLLF exhibited potent immunomodulatory effects by increasing cellular immunity, humoral immunity, function of monocyte macrophage, and NK cell activity.
Ameliorative Effect of Acanathopanax senticosus Polysaccharides on Depressive Behavior in Rats by Regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway
DING Jihong, JIANG Chunyu, YANG Le, WANG Xianyan
2022, 43(11): 369-375. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090141
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To explore the ameliorative effect of Acanathopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPs) on depressive behavior and possible mechanism, Wistar rats were divided into normal control group, model control group, fluoxetine hydrochloride group (2.1 mg/kg) and low-dose and high-dose ASPs groups (60 and 120 mg/kg, n=10). The depression model was established by solitary confinement and chronic mild unknown stress stimulation for 28 d, and the rats were given intragastric administration on the first day of modeling. Depressive behaviors were evaluated by open box experiment, sugar water preference experiment and forced swimming experiment. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Nissl staining were used to detect hippocampal histopathology, and the indexes changes of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (p-PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in each group were compared. The results proved that compared with normal control group, the number of horizontal activities and sugar water preference of model control group were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the immobile swimming time was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the pathological changes of hippocampal tissue were obvious; compared with model control group, the number of horizontal activities and sugar water preference of low-dose and high-dose ASPs groups were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the immobile swimming time was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the pathological changes of hippocampal structure were improved. Meanwhile, compared with normal control group, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MDA in model control group were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the activities of CAT and SOD and the protein expressions of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR were significantly decreased (P<0.01); compared with model control group, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MDA were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the activities of CAT and SOD and the protein expressions of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in low-dose and high-dose ASPs groups. These results suggest that ASPs can ameliorative depressive behavior in depression model rats, and its mechanism is related to the regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant stress effects.
Effects of Ilex paraguariensis on Redox Status in High-fat Diet Fed Mice
LI Xianghui, LIU Ruixia, ZHAO Junfang, ZHANG Yuanyuan, WANG Jiao
2022, 43(11): 376-382. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100191
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Objective: To investigate the effects of Ilex paraguariensis on redox status in high-fat diet fed mice. Methods: Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice of six-week-old were randomly divided into 4 groups, normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HF), high-fat diet+1 g/kg Ilex paraguariensis (HFL), high-fat diet+2 g/kg Ilex paraguariensis (HFH). The mice were sacrificed six weeks later. Hepatic redox status-related indicators were measured. The expression of FoxO3a, catalase and MnSOD genes in liver were analyzed. Results: Compared with the ND group, the levels of ROS and MDA in the liver of the HF group were increased significantly (P < 0.05), CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GSH/GSSG values and T-AOC were reduced significantly (P < 0.05), the expression of FoxO3a, catalase and MnSOD genes in the liver were decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the HF group, the levels of ROS and MDA in the liver of the HFL and HFH groups were reduced significantly (P < 0.05), CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, GSH/GSSG values and T-AOC were increased significantly (P < 0.05), the expression of FoxO3a, catalase and MnSOD genes in the liver were increased significantly (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that ROS and FoxO3a, catalase, MnSOD genes expression were significantly negative correlation (P < 0.01), CAT, SOD, GSH-Px and FoxO3a, catalase, MnSOD genes expression were significantly positive correlation (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Appropriate amount of Ilex paraguariensis can improve the redox state imbalance of mice caused by high-fat diet, which has a certain relationship with FoxO3a gene pathway.
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Reviews
Progress in the Removal of Pesticide Residues from Fruits and Vegetables by Ozone Technology
GUO Boru, XIE Yunfei, YU Hang, YAO Weirong
2022, 43(11): 383-390. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120111
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In recent years, ozone technology has shown good results in the degradation of pesticide residues, and is considered a green treatment technology as it does not cause secondary pollution to fruits and vegetables. Its application methods are mainly fumigation and immersion. This paper reviews the effects of ozone fumigation and ozone water immersion on the degradation of many pesticides commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Then the comparison of the two methods and the factors in the effect of ozone, including gas-phase temperature and humidity, water temperature, ozone bubble size and pH are introduced. These provide theoretical guidance for the practical application of ozone technology for the degradation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.
Research Progress on Microencapsulation, Stability and Bioavailability of Lycopene
FU Cong, DONG Hongchun, LIU Yueting, WANG Xiaozhen, REN Dandan, HE Yunhai, WANG Qiukuan
2022, 43(11): 391-397. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021050175
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Lycopene is a very unstable fat-soluble pigment and is easily oxidized or isomerized during processing and storage. In recent years, microencapsulation has been used to improve the instability of lycopene. The microencapsulated lycopene can reduce the contact with the outside world, avoiding the adverse effects of the external environment, increasing the storage stability of lycopene, and improve its bioavailability in the intestine. The preparation, storage stability and bioavailability of lycopene microcapsules are reviewed in this paper, in order to provide a reference for the application of lycopene microcapsule technology.
Research Progress on Composition Analysis and Physiological Function of Essential Oils of Pines
LEI Chengyue, ZHOU Xiaoqin, WANG Qi, GUO Tinghao, LI Dehai, YANG Kai
2022, 43(11): 398-405. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021050240
Abstract(60) HTML (13) PDF(12)
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In recent years, studies have shown that pine essential oil which has antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, refreshing and other physiological functions is a good natural preservative and antioxidant with high security. However, there are many kinds of pine, and the essential oils of different species and different parts of the same pines have different chemical compositions, and their physiological functions are also significantly different. This paper summarizes the chemical components, structure and nature of different varieties and parts of pine essential oil in detail, and summarizes the mechanism of physiological functions of pine essential oil such as antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, hypoglycemic activity, anticancer activity and so on, in order to provide reference for the development of pine resources and the application of pine essential oil in natural food additives.
Research Progress of Fluorescence Spectrum Analysis Technology in Food Detection
SHI Xin, LUO Yongkang, ZHANG Jiaran, SHI Ce, ZHAO Zhiyao
2022, 43(11): 406-414. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060015
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As a testing technology for food, fluorescence spectrometry has the advantages of convenient, sensitive and efficient detection of complex and trace components in food. This article introduces the basic principles of fluorescence spectrum analysis technology, and systematically summarizes several fluorescence spectrum analysis technologies currently used in the field of food inspection, including atomic fluorescence spectrometry, two dimensional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrices, front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, (total) synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy imaging technology, etc. The fluorescence spectrum analysis technology is used in the detection of different types of food such as grain and oil, livestock and poultry, aquatic products, dairy products, fruits and vegetables. The application methods and effects of fluorescence spectroscopy are summarized, and the existing problems and future development trends of fluorescence spectroscopy are analyzed.
Research Progress on Anti-inflammatory Activity Mechanism and Structure-activity Relationship of Plant Polysaccharides
LIU Chuang, WU Xianhua, LIU Jing, ZHANG Rentang
2022, 43(11): 415-425. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060210
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Plant polysaccharides, one of the main sources of polysaccharides, has many important pharmacological functions. This paper reviews the research progress of anti-inflammatory activity of plant polysaccharides in recent years, focusing on the anti-inflammatory mechanism from four perspectives: Antioxidant stress, regulating cytokine secretion, regulating neutrophils, improving intestinal flora and intestinal mucosal barrier. At the same time, this paper also analyzes the structure-activity relationship of anti-inflammatory activity of plant polysaccharides, such as average molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic bond types, main chain and side chain, chemical modification and high-level structure, and summarizes the research progress of plant polysaccharide anti-inflammatory activity, which lays a foundation in theory for the further development and application of anti-inflammatory drugs and foods.
Research Development of the Improvement of the Quality of Low-Fat Emulsified Meat Products by Adding Food Hydrocolloids
YUAN Dongxue, YIN Yongchao, CHANG Jingyao, KONG Baohua, LIU Qian
2022, 43(11): 426-433. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060267
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Animal fat of emulsified meat products plays an important role in the juiciness and flavor of the product. It contains lots of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which easily cause potential harm to the human body due to excessively intaking. However, simply reducing the fat content in the emulsified meat product will have a negative impact on the quality of the product. How to reduce the fat content in emulsified meat products and improve the quality of the products has become an urgent problem in the meat industry. Different sources (plant, animal, microbial, and synthetic) of hydrocolloids have good thickening, gelling, stability, water retention and emulsification capabilities. Hydrocolloids can ndow low-fat products with lubricating and mellow taste to reduce the fat content of emulsified meat products to a certain extent, improving the quality characteristics of the final product. Therefore, the mechanism and application of hydrocolloids to improve the quality of low-fat emulsified meat products are viewed comprehensively. This study will provide theoretical basis for the development of new healthy low fat emulsified meat products.
Research Progress on Extraction, Chemical Structure and Biological Activities of Oudemansiella Polysaccharides
HUANG Min, MIAO Jingnan, WANG Yong, QIU Junqiang, LI Haixia
2022, 43(11): 434-439. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070107
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In recent years, edible and medicinal mushroom have been widely concerned by researchers at home and abroad for their unique biological activities. As one of the most potential mushrooms, Oudemansiella is high in protein, and low in fat and fiber, which has high value in food and medicine. Many studies have shown that the Oudemansiella polysaccharides have a wide range of biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antifungal, regulate intestinal flora and so on. This paper reviews the extraction method, chemical structure and biological activities of Oudemansiella polysaccharides in recent years to provide references for the further development and utilization of Oudemansiella edible mushroom.
Research Progress of Bound Polyphenols in Improving Intestinal Oxidative Stress and Intestinal Barrier
ZHUANG Guodong, TANG Dan, CHEN Yongsheng
2022, 43(11): 440-448. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070114
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Food is abundant in phenolic compounds and phenols are perceived as a rich source of natural antioxidants and vital functional factors. Bound polyphenols are a form of phenolic compounds that exist in the residue from which free polyphenols have been extracted and are combined with other substances through ester bonds, glycosidic bonds, ether glycosidic bonds, etc. As the forefront of human immune defense, the intestine is prone to exogenous and metabolic oxygen radical damage, which triggers intestinal oxidative stress. Intestinal oxidative stress can disrupt the tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells through various pathways, leading to intestinal epithelial barrier functional impairment and increasing intestinal permeability, which can induce various diseases. Bound polyphenols, as a natural antioxidant, have structural integrity and activity stability in the intestine. These components feature an ameliorative effect on intestinal oxidative stress as well as impaired intestinal barrier function by modulating immune function and regulating the expression of inflammatory factors, antioxidant enzymes and barrier proteins.
Research Progress on Depuration Technology of Bivalves
LIN Hengzong, GAO Jialong, FAN Xiuping, LIN Haisheng, CAO Wenhong, LIANG Zhiyuan, HUANG Yanping, ZHANG Chaohua, QIN Xiaoming
2022, 43(11): 449-457. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070148
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To improve the quality and food safety of live shellfish, solve the problems of low depuration efficiency, difficulty in pollutants desorption and the loss during depuration. In this paper, the accumulation and metabolism of pollutants, depuration methods, key factors of depuration effect of shellfish are discussed, combination and optimization of depuration methods, cold sterilization technology are recommended to use during depuration. Research on the application of probiotic in the depuration, development of green and efficient safe purification agents and new depuration equipment, modern depuration plants design, timely formulate and update industry standards for shellfish depuration are presented as suggestions in the paper to provide a reference for in-depth research on shellfish depuration.
Research Progress on the Extraction, Purification and Biological Activity of Ttriterpenoids from the Ganoderma lucidum
XU Yao, XU Shulai, LIU Zhibin, ZHU Sichen
2022, 43(11): 458-464. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070172
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The triterpenes are the typical bioactive components in the Ganoderma lucidum, which has high valuable application and development in the field of medicine and health food. In this paper, by consulting literature and summarizing data, the main techniques and methods of extraction, separation and purification of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes and their biological activities are reviewed, and the problems existing in the research and application development of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes are analyzed. Moreover, the future research and application development of the biological activities are prospected in order to provide corresponding reference for the research, application and development of the Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes.
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