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Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes/issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Effects of High-Voltage Electrostatic Field(HVEF)Treatment on the Quality of Fresh-Cut Bamboo Shoots (Acidosasa edulis) During Cold Storage
ZHOU Chengmin , YANG Ji , ZHOU Ziqiu , WENG Fangrong , ZHENG Jian
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120141
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Fresh-cut bamboo (Acidosasa edulis) shoots were subjected to high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) treatment at 600 kV/m for 120 mins and then stored at (6±1) ℃ along with 80%~85 % RH for 10 days to investigate the effects of HVEF treatment on the edible quality, lignification and enzymatic browning. The results indicated that HVEF treatment significantly (P<0.05) inhibited wound browning, slowed down the increase of respiratory rate, flesh firmness and accumulation of cellulose and lignin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, significantly (P<0.05) decreased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and also significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) during cold storage. It was suggested that HVEF treatment delayed wound browning and lignification in bamboo shoots compared with the control.
Effect of Ultraviolet Combined with γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Quality of Fresh Cut Muskmelon
LI Jing , WANG Yanhua , HUANG Chunxia , REN Xinru , LI Xiaomei , LI Xia
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021050095
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In order to investigate the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) and UV irradiation on the storage quality of fresh-cut muskmelon, the effects of different concentrations of GABA and different UV irradiation time on the weight loss rate, L*, hardness and soluble solid(TSS) content of fresh-cut muskmelon were studied. The optimal treatment concentration of GABA and the optimal time of UV irradiation were screened out, and the effects of GABA, UV irradiation and the combination of the two on the storage quality of fresh-cut muskmelon were compared. The results showed that: different concentration of GABA treatment can reduce the weight loss rate and TSS content of fresh-cut muskmelon, better maintain its hardness and color, 1% GABA treatment of weight loss rate and TSS content were the lowest, hardness and L* value were the highest, UV treatment of different time could slow down the increase of fresh-cut muskmelon weight loss rate and TSS content.The weight loss rate and TSS content of 5 min treatment were the lowest, while L* value and hardness were the highest. According to the weight loss rate, TSS content, hardness and L* value, the optimal treatment concentration of GABA was determined to be 1%, and the optimal treatment time of UV irradiation was 5 min. UV irradiation for 5 min combined with 1% GABA treatment could effectively slow down the weight loss rate and soluble solid accumulation of fresh-cut muskmelon, maintain the color and hardness of fresh-cut muskmelon, and also could delay the decrease of titratable acid content, and maintain a high soluble protein content. Therefore, UV irradiation for 5 min combined with 1% GABA treatment can better maintain the storage quality of fresh-cut muskmelon.
Study on the Nutritional Ingredientsand the Effect on the Repair of Damaged Skin Barrier Function of Donkey Bone Collagen
FAN Yumei , SHI Chuanchao , TIE Hang , ZHANG Xiaohan , ZHAO Haiqing , LIAO Feng
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010211
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In order to explore the functional components of donkey bone collagen and the repair effect of donkey bone collagen on the damaged skin barrier. The functional composition of donkey bone collagen was analyzed by UPLC-Orbitrap MS technique, the effects of donkey bone collagen on the proliferation of HaCaT cells were detected by Brdu method, and the effects on the migration of HaCaT cells were detected by scratch method. The results showed that the protein content of donkey bone collagen was 57.5%, which had a typical collagen amino acid composition. The donkey bone collagen contained abundant functional ingredients such as amino acids, vitamins, sugar and lipids. Donkey bone collagen could significantly promote the proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells, and the effect of 0.15 g/mL donkey bone collagen in promoting the proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells was similar to that of 5% fetal bovine serum, which was significantly better than the blank control group (P<0.05). Donkey bone collagen significantlypromoted proliferation and migration of HaCaT (P<0.01). It is inferred thatdonkey bone collagen could accelerate the repair of skin barrier, and its mechanism might be related to promoting keratinocytes proliferation and migration.
Protective Effect of Caffeic Acid on CCl4-Induced Injury of BRL Hepatocyte
HONG Yue , CHEN Youxia , LIU Zhenzhen , LIN Lin , ZHANG Tianyang , GAO Chunyan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020121
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This work aimed to investigate protective effect of caffeic acid on CCl4-induced BRL hepatocyte injury. The experiment was divided into control group, CCl4 model group (100 mmol/L CCl4 injury for 3 hours) and CA pretreated group (pretreated with 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL CA in DMEM for 4 hours, followed by CCl4 exposure for 3 hours). The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome C (Cyt c) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured by the kit. The expression levels of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione reductase (GSR), quinine oxidoreductase (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by qRT-PCR. Significant inhibitory effects of CA were observed on the CCl4-induced elevation of AST, ALT, LDH, ROS, Cyt c and 8-OHdG in culture medium (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, no significant differences of the mRNA expression levels of Nrf2, GSR, NQO1 and SOD gene were found inthe model group (P>0.05). However, the mRNA expression levels of all detected genes were significantly increased in CA-treated group compared with the control group and a dose-dependent manner was observed. In conclusion, CCl4 exposure induced oxidative stress in BRLhepatocytes and CA inhibited the CCl4-induced BRL hepatocyte damage by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and up-regulating the mRNA levels of antioxidant genes.
Improving Effect of Houttuynia Cordata Polysaccharide on Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Ulcerative Colitis
WU Ping , LIU Jinqian , DONG Jing , WANG Shuo , FAN Zongqiang , LI Zhen , WANG Shuaike , CHEN Fang
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030063
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Objective : To explore the effect of Houttuynia cordata polysaccharide(HCP) on dextran sulfate sodium salt(DSS) induced ulcerative colitis(UC) and its possible mechanism in mice. Methods : Fifty KM male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups(n=10): normal control group, model group, HCP low dose group(1 g/kg/day), HCP high dose group(2 g/kg/day), and Sulfasalazine positive group(SASP, 9 mg/kg/d). The UC model was induced with 2.5% DSS by water drinking for 9 days in mice. After successfully established the model in mice, the normal control group and the model group were free drinking distilled water, HCP in doses of 1 g/kg/day and 2 g/kg/day groups were given by filling to the stomach after DSS administration, and the positive group was treated with 9 mg/kg/d Sulfasalazine aqueous solution for 6 days. Assessing disease activity index(DAI) of mice in each group, observing colonic tissue structure by HE, detecting pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interferon-γ(IFN-γ), leukocyte-mediated interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) contents and detecting the liver and kidney biochemical indexs levels alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), creatinine(CR) and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) in serum by ELISA method, using 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequencing to detect the changes of intestinal flora in rat feces. Results : Compared with the model group, the DAI scores in both dosages of HCP were significantly decreased(P<0.05), the colonic tissue structures were dose-dependently improved. Also, HCP dose-dependently decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines(TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ) and the contents of liver and kidney biochemical indexs(ALT, AST, CR, BUN). In addition, the gut microbiota imbalance was modulated in HCP treated groups during colitis by increasing the gut microbial diversity. Conclusion : HCP may alleviate the symptoms of ulcerative colitis by improving the intestinal mucosal environment, reducing the level of inflammatory factors and maintaining the homeostasis of intestinal flora in mice.
Protective Effect of 2'-Fucosyllactose on Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Infectious Diarrhea in Infants
LU Menglan , CHEN Cailong , XU Jiaying , SHI Yujie , SU Hongwen , LIU Biao , QIN Liqiang
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020100239
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Infants, especially newborns, have poor digestion and immune function and immature intestinal development, leading to poor intestinal tolerance and difficulty in bacterial colonization, and highly sensitivity to necrotizing enterocolitis and infectious diarrhea. The benefits of breast feeding for infant intestinal health depend on a special oligosaccharide, and 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) is the higher content of oligosaccharides. This paper describes the safety of 2'-FL, regulation of intestinal flora and immune system, and its protective effect on necrotizing enterocolitis and infectious diarrhea in infants.
Research Progress on the Mechanism of Food-derived DPP-IV Inhibitory Peptides for Hypoglycemic Effect
ZHAO Jiani , CHEN Hong , WENG Ling , LIU Guangming , LIN Jiashi , CAO Minjie
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010002
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With the annual increase of diabetes patients all around the world, traditional treatment methods are encountering challenges. Research has found that dietary intervention is an effective way of adjuvant treatment of diabetes. Proteins in food can produce various bioactive peptides after enzymatic hydrolysis. Among them, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides, which are closely related to the hypoglycemic effect have been identified in enzymatic hydrolysis of fish and other foods. Marine organism is rich in species and they are important resources for preparation of functional foods. In this manuscript, the hypoglycemic mechanism of food-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides and the research progress of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides derived from marine organism were reviewed, with a purpose to provide a reference for the development of functional foods based on DPP-IV inhibitory peptides.
Classification and Comparative Analysis of 22 Xinyang Maojian Teas with Various Origins
ZHANG Jie , CHEN Simin , REN Xiaoying , MA Cunqiang , MA Bingsong , WANG Zihao
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020071
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To find out the impacts of picked-processing duration, production place and grade on quality components in Xinyang Maojian tea, contents of catechins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids in 22 Xinyang Maojian teas with various origins were determined by HPLC. PCA, HCA and PLS-DA confirmed that picked-processing duration was the main influence factor of quality components in teas, and various Xinyang Maojian teas were divided into Mingqian, Yuqian and Chunwei basically based on the picked-processing duration. One-way analysis of variance showed the highly significant differences (P<0.01) of 8 catechins, 5 flavonoids, 2 purine alkaloids, gallic acid and free amino acids among three picked-processing duration. Mingqian tea had highest contents of total free amino acids and (+)-catechin (C), but the lowest contents of GC, EGC, ECG, EGCG, gallic acid, rutin, myricetin, quercetin and theobromine, which showed the significant (P<0.05) or highly significant differences (P<0.01) compared with Yuqian and Chunwei. The significant (P<0.05) or highly significant differences (P<0.01) of catechins (i.e. C, ECG, EGC), flavonoids (i.e. rutin, taxifolin and myricetin), and theobromine and theophylline were found in Xinyang Maojian tea between different production place and grades. Relatively speaking, Maojian tea produced in Siwang hill had relatively higher content of non-ester catechins and lower total content of flavonoids, while Maojian tea of bud head grade had the highest contents of free amino acids and C, and lowest contents of EGC and myricetin, which had certain impact on the identification of picked-processing duration. This study was the first time to classify and compare Xinyang Maojian teas from various origins based on the quality components in tea, which provided the scientific evidences for the identification of Mingqian tea.
The Process Optimization of Vinegar Roasting of Bupleurum chinense by Entropy Weight Method Combined with Box-Behnken Response Surface Method and Its Protective Effect on Mice Liver Injury
DONG Rui , LU Ying , WANG Pan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021040008
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Objective: The concoction process of vinegar roasted Chai Hu was optimized to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Chai Hu before and after vinegar roasting on acute liver injury in mice. Methods: Combined with Box-Behnken response surface design method, the entropy weight method was applied. The indices of Saikosaponin A, Saikosaponin D and leachate were comprehensively scored to evaluate the vinegar dosage, smothering and wetting time and frying temperature so as to optimize the vinegar roasting process of Chai Hu. A model of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury in mice was established to analyze the effects on liver function, inflammation and oxidative stress before and after the vinegar roasting of Chai Hu. Results: The process parameters were 23% vinegar, 2.8 h smothering and wetting time and 145 ℃ frying temperature. The index contents were 0.65% Saikosaponin A, 0.74% Saikosaponin D and 20.67% leachate. In the Chai Hu vinegar group, the serum levels of mice were significantly reduced in alanine transaminase (ALT), glutathione transaminase (AST), tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1βP<0.05). In the liver tissues, the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased respectively, and MDA significantly reduced(P<0.05). The Chai Hu group indicated insignificant improvement in GSH-Px and GSH. Conclusion: Entropy weight method combined with Box-Behnken response surface method optimized the process of the concoction of Northern Chai Hu with vinegar roasting was stable. With better effect than that of the Chai Hu group, vinegar Chai Hu can improve acute liver injury through inhibiting inflammation and lessening oxidative stress.
Fabrication and Characterization of Antibacterial Polyvinyl Alcohol/Ag@MOF Films for Food Packing
ZHANG Meng , WANG Guohui , ZHANG Xin , ZHENG Yuqi , LI Shaoxiang , WANG Dong , LI Yanxin , QU Wenjuan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021040039
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Four different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based food packaging films (PVA/Ag@MOF, PVA/H2PYDC, PVA/Ag, PVA) were prepared by flow-casting method in order to analyze the feasibility of silver based organic framework (Ag@MOF) for food packaging. Their mechanical properties, thermodynamic properties, water barrier, antibacterial and cytotoxicity were studied. The results showed that compared with PVA and PVA/H2PYDC films, the addition of Ag@MOF improved the mechanical properties of the films, and the maximum tensile strength of the films was increased to 36.21 MPa. Compared with PVA, PVA/H2PYDC and PVA/AgNPs films, the addition of Ag@MOF enhanced the thermal stability of the films. Compared with PVA and PVA/H2PYDC films, the rigid structures of AgNPs and Ag@MOF prevented the diffusion of water and improved the performance of water resistance. The antibacterial activity of PVA/Ag@MOF membrane againsted Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was much higher than that of AgNPs and H2PYDC composite films, and it had low cytotoxicity. Therefore, PVA/Ag@MOF film is a promising food packaging material, which can reduce the interference of environmental microorganisms on food with low cytotoxicity, and improve food safety and storage cycle.
Optimization of Preparation Process of Lichi Polyphenols Microcapsules and Its Characteristic Analysis
ZHANG Hanhui , CHENG Xingan , LI Junjie , HUANG Xiang , DONG Fangyun , LIU Xin , LIU Zhanmei , JIANG Xuhong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030258
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Microcapsules of lichi polyphenols were prepared by complex coacervation method with sodium alginate and chitosan as wall materials, improving the stability of lichi polyphenols. With embedding rate as index, the preparation conditions were optimized by orthogonal experiment, and its in vitro release properties, thermal stability, antioxidant activity were investigated. The results showed that the optimum preparation process of lichi polyphenols was as follows: the mass fraction of sodium alginate, calcium chloride, chitosan and lichi polyphenols were 3.5%, 3%, 2%, 0.8%, embedding time was 1 h. The obtained microcapsules exhibited a uniform particle size and high embedding rate of 95.74%. The microcapsules had great target-releasing behavior in simulated intestinal fluid (pH6.86), the release rate of polyphenols was 19.66% and the ABTS+ free radicals scavenging rate was 20.30% at 3 h. Compared with the unembedded lichi polyphenols, the microcapsules had higher polyphenols retention rate at the same condition of temperature (increased by 2.09%~3.34%), which showed that the microcapsulation of lichi polyphenols could effectively improve the thermal stability of lichi polyphenols.
Interaction of Flavor Nucleotides with EGCG and Their Protein Complexes by UV Absorption Spectrometry and Fluorescence Spectrometry
ZHANG Yue , YU Xuelian , TIAN Yueyue , ZHANG Lixia
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020133
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In order to explore whether IMP and GMP interact with EGCG and its protein complexes to affect the taste characteristics, UV absorption spectrometry and fluorescence spectrometry were used to determine the changes in the spectrum. The results showed that: IMP, GMP interacted with EGCG and changed the spectral characteristics of EGCG, and there was only one binding mode; The interaction between GMP and EGCG was stronger than that between IMP and EGCG, and the two flavor nucleotides had the greatest interactions with EGCG when they were mixed in 1:1.IMP, GMP neither interacted with BSA alone, but when the two existed at the same time, it would produce static fluorescence quenching of BSA, the binding constant was 0.6634, and the number of binding sites was 0.88. In the interaction with EGCG protein complex, GMP existed alone. It only reacted with EGCG. When IMP and GMP coexisted, it mainly interacted with protein. The binding constant was 1.1054 and the number of binding sites was 1.49. This study can provide a clearer understanding of the taste mechanism of tea soup and provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of tea quality and the improvement of tea beverage flavor.
Dynamic Anlysis of Microbial Community Diversity in Chilled Chicken during Pre-cooling
WANG Qian , TANG Minmin , SUN Zhilan , LIU Fang , XU Weimin , WANG Daoying , LI Jinping , MA Jingjing
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030159
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In order to conduct a dynamic analysis of the microbial community structure of the pre-chilled water and chicken carcass during the pre-chilling process of broiler slaughter, and study the growth and decline of the two dominant floras. The TVC in the first-order, second-order pre-chilled water and chicken carcasses were detected, when the first batch of slaughtered chicken passed pre-cooled water for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Subsequently, a high-through put sequencing method was used to dynamically analyze the community structure of them. The result of the determination of the total number of colonies showed that during the pre-cooling process, the TVC in the first-stage, pre-cooled water increased from 103 CFU/mL to 105 CFU/mL, and the TVC in the second-stage pre-cooled water increased from 102 CFU/mL to 104 CFU/mL. Before pre-cooling, the total number of colonies in chicken carcass was 4.53 lg CFU/g, after pre-cooling, the total number of colonies on the surface of the chicken carcass was higher than that before the pre-cooling within 4 to 8 hours, indicating that the pre-cooling water had lost the effect of cleaning and reducing bacteria, and might also cause cross-contamination of the chicken carcass. High-throughput sequencing found that during the pre-cooling process, the genus of Aeromonas in the first-stage pre-cooling water decreased, while the genus of Pseudomonas and Streptococcus increased; the genus of Acinetobacter in the second-stage pre-cooling water decreased, Pseudomonas increased; compared with before pre-cooling, Vagococcus and Weissella of the chicken carcass decreased, and the Chrysobacterium and Pseudomonas increased during the pre-cooling process. This study showed that the pre-cooling process had a better bacteria-reduced effect on Aeromonas, Vagococcus and Weissella, but had a poor reduction effect on Chrysobacterium and Pseudomonas. This provided a reference for the optimization of the chicken carcass pre-cooling process after slaughter, and at the same time provided a guarantee for the quality and safety of chilled chicken products.
Effect of Soybean Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine on the Formation and Properties of Pickering Emulsion Stabilized by Hemp Protein Isolate
ZHU Xiuqing , WANG Yuan , ZHU Ying , MENG Yan , LI Zhimin , LIU Yanqing
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020124
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This paper studied the effect of soybean cephalin on hemp protein isolated Pickering emulsion properties. The emulsifying activity index, the microstructure, droplet size, Zeta potential, the influence of rheological properties and storage stability were measured. It was critical to explore the influence mechanism of hemp protein isolated Pickering. The results showed that the stability of Pickering emulsion was improved after the addition of cephalin. The optimum indexes of the Pickering emulsion were obtained when the amount of cephalin was 30%, with an emulsion activity index of 4.63 m2⁄g and a dispersion index of 0.23. The droplet size was 125 nm, and the Zeta potential was -27.12 mV. The apparent viscosity of the emulsion was small. There was no obvious droplet aggregation and oil leakage phenomenon after 7 days storage, therefore the storage stability was good. This study provided a theoretical basis for improving the stability of hemp protein isolate Pickering emulsion, which could also expand the application field of soybean cephalin.
Study on the Potential Mechanism of Synsepalum dulcificum Interfering with Tumor Immunity
CHEN Qi , CHEN Keyu , WANG Yifan , LIU Bingyi , MA Feixiang , ZHANG Xiuyan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021040035
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Objective: To study the material basis and possible mechanism of the pharmacodynamics of Synsepalum dulcificum's intervention in tumor immunity. Methods: The study used liquid phase-mass spectrometry analysis to clarify the composition of Synsepalum dulcificum, and then used the network pharmacology and bioinformatics methods to systematically study the specific impact of Synsepalum dulcificum on tumor immunity. At the same time, it was clear that Synsepalum dulcificum medicine and food were homologous.Results: The liquid-mass spectrometry experiment revealed that Synsepalum dulcificum may contain 360 components. After comparing with the tumor immunity database, 42 components related to tumor immunity and 55 related targets were obtained. After screening, key targets in the target network were obtained. These were TSHR, TP53, MAPK1, HIF1A, CA9. Further collection of experimental information in the literature and molecular docking experiments verified that the different components of Synsepalum dulcificum could affect the selection of targets and interfere with tumor immunity. Conclusion: Through the above experiments, it is found that the components of Synsepalum dulcificum may interact with tumor immune-related targets, paving the way for the research on the direct effect of Synsepalum dulcificum on tumors.
Preparation and Emulsifying Properties of Maillard Reaction Products of Soybean Protein Isolate under High Hydrostatic Pressure
WANG Zihuan , LIU Danyi , ZHENG Jiachen , XIE Yitong , HAN Jianchun , WANG Yingnan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020075
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In this paper, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on Maillard reaction products of soybean protein isolate (SPI) and fructose (Fructose, Fru) at 60 ℃ under different pressures (0.1, 100, 200, 300 MPa) were studied. The grafting degree and emulsifying activity were used as indicators, and the structural properties of the products under the optimal conditions were analyzed. The results showed that under the conditions of pressure being 200 MPa, mass ratio 0.8:1, reaction time 24 h, and solution pH8.0, the emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability of the product were improved. The emulsifying activity was (85.36±0.04) m2/g, 1.71 times higher than the SPI and Fru mixture, 2.17 times higher than the SPI, and the emulsifying stability was (27.66±0.03) min, 1.15 times higher than the SPI and Fru mixture, and 1.40 times higher than the SPI. SDS-PAGE indicated that the sugar molecules were inserted into the SPI molecule through covalent bonds. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the secondary structure of modified SPI changed under the condition of 200 MPa. Endogenous fluorescence analysis showed that the spatial structure of SPI could be changed under 200 MPa. The particle size, potential and laser scanning confocal microscope micrographs showed that the stability of protein emulsion was improved by 200 MPa pressure.
Effects of Different Processing Methods on the Volatile Components and Antioxidant Ability of the Water Extracts from Stropharia rugosoannulata
LU Qi , XUE Shujing , YANG De , WANG Shaohua , LI Lu
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021020072
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This study was aimed to compare the effects of thermal treatment (70 ℃, 90 ℃) and non-thermal treatment (room temperature, ultrasound treatment, homogenization and high hydrostatic pressure) on the volatile flavor of water extracts of Stropharia rugosoannulata with different particle sizes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electronic nose were applied to compare these volatile components, and the results indicated that the original mushroom powder without superfine grinding displayed the strong volatile flavor, and the sequence of the corresponding processing technology was followed as : Ultrasound treatment>high hydrostatic pressure>room temperature>homogenization>70 ℃>90 ℃. There were 47 volatile components were identified in those water extracts of 18 S. rugosoannulata. Among them, hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol and hexanal were dominantly existed, and the sum of these three accounted for 75.02%~95.70% of the total volatile components. Under thermal treatment, the peak area of total volatiles in the water extracts of S. rugosoannulata ranged from 819.96×106 to 4727.72×106, while they were accounted for 4063.37×106~8772.13×106 in these non-thermal treated extracts, displayed more intense flavor. Both processing method and the particle size had a significant impact on the antioxidant capacity of the water extract of S. rugosoannulata (P<0.001). Thermal treatment combined with superfine pulverization reduced the free radical scavenging ability (DPPH, ABTS) of the water extract of S. rugosoannulata, but improved its iron ion reduction (FRAP) ability. This research might provide useful reference for the intensive processing of S. rugosoannulata in the seasoning market.
Effects of Microwave Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Protein Structure Characteristics of Sorghum
LI Ren , JIANG Peng , DAI Lingyan , RUAN Changqing , ZHANG Dongjie , WANG Changyuan , LI Zhijiang
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010203
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In order to improve the physicochemical properties of sorghum protein, three kinds of sorghum were treated with microwave technology, and the changes of physicochemical properties and protein structural properties of sorghums before and after microwave treatment were measured by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results showed that microwave treatment had significant effects on the physicochemical and protein structural properties of sorghum. Microwave treatment reduced the grain size of sorghum protein and caused cracks on the protein surface. However, the infrared spectra of sorghum protein before and after treatment had the similar structural characteristics and belonged to physical denaturation. Microwave treatment significantly increased the total protein contents of the three sorghums species by 0.6% (P<0.05), decreased soluble protein contents by 0.97~1.87 mg/g, and significantly decreased in vitro digestibility by 15.55%~43.63% (P<0.05). In addition, after microwave treatment, the water holding capacity of sorghum powder was significantly increased by 0.32~0.40 g/g (P<0.05), the oil holding capacity was significantly decreased by 0.08~0.18 g/g (P<0.05), the total number of bacterial colonies and the number of molds on the surface were significantly decreased by 98.75% and 98.94% (P<0.05), respectively. And the color darkened. The present research can present reference for the development and application of sorghum food.
Research Progress of Polysaccharide - Based Hydrogel Carriers and Their Drying Method
ZHANG Ziying , DENG Lizhen , DAI Taotao , CHEN Mingshun , LIU Chengmei , LIANG Ruihong , CHEN Jun
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120172
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Polysaccharide based hydrogels can be used to protect, encapsulate and transport drugs or nutrients, and thus improve the stability of drugs or nutrients.At present, hydrogels had been developed based on chitosan, alginate, cellulose and its derivatives, pectin, starch and so on, and they had been widely used. However, it was difficult to store and transport the hydrogels due to its high moisture content. Recently, in order to improve the stability, extend the storage time and reduce the transportation costof hydrogels, the drying technology of polysaccharide-based hydrogels had become a hot research topic. The applications of polysaccharide-based hydrogels encapsulating drugs or nutrients were summarized. The effect of drying processing on polysaccharide-based hydrogels application was concluded. The paper provides theoretical support for the drying technology application of polysaccharide-based hydrogels.
Optimization of Protein Extraction from Tuna Cooking Liquid and Its Property Analysis
WANG Xinxin , CHEN Yiming , LIU Xiaoyan , WEI Zhengpeng , WANG Peng , LIU Ruizhi , YAN Mingyan , LI Yinping
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021040151
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In order to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of high nitrogen waste water from tuna processing industry. Besides, it can provide theoretical guidance for pollution reduction in the industry. On the basis of single factor experiment, the effects of liquid-to-material ratio, temperature, time, pH, and solid content on the ethanol extraction of tuna cooking liquid protein were studied by response surface test. Further, the structure of the extracted protein was characterized by Ultraviolet Scanning, Infrared Spectroscopy, Aamino Acid Analyzer and Circular Dichroism. The results showed that the optimal process conditions were temperature 36 ℃, time 2 h, liquid-to-material ratio 2.4, and the maximum protein extraction rate was 76.83%. The protein extracted by this method had the maximum absorption peak at about 218 nm, but no obvious absorption peak at 280 nm. The amino acid composition showed that the mass fraction of amino acids was 18.79%, and the content of hydroxyproline was 10.21%. The infrared spectrum had the characteristic absorption peak of gelatin. The above results indicate that the protein extracted from the cooking liquid by this process is gelatin.
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