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Process Optimization and Functional Study of Enzymatic Preparation of Corn Husk Dietary Fiber
WANG Rui , JIANG Caixia , LIU Xiaolan , ZHENG Xiqun
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010188
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In this study, corn husk, a by-product formed during corn processing, was used as raw material, and a combination of enzymes was used to prepare corn husk dietary fiber. Single factor experiments and response surface optimization were used to determine the optimal process parameters and study its functionality. The results showed that the addition of alkaline protease was 0.742%, pH was 10, temperature was 54 ℃, and enzymatic hydrolysis was 4 h. Starch complex enzymatic hydrolysis conditions was as follows: The addtion of starch complex enzyme (amylase:saccharification enzyme=1:1 (m/m)) was 0.727%, pH was 6.76, temperature was 65 ℃, and enzymatic hydrolysis was 2 h. Under the optimal conditions, the dietary fiber content of corn husk reached the highest (86.65%±0.72%). Its water holding capacity was 3.93±0.17 g/g, and its swelling property was 3.70±0.20 mL/g. The oil holding capacity for soybean oil, corn oil, rapeseed oil and lard oil were 1.80±0.04, 2.59±0.01, 2.53±0.06, 3.47±0.19 g/g, respectively. Cholesterol adsorption in gastric environment and intestinal environment were 0.63±0.03 mg/g and 0.31±0.02 mg/g, respectively. The corn husk dietary fiber had good adsorption to different concentrations of glucose solution, and had a strong ability to inhibit fat digestion in vitro.
Quality Analysis of Large-leaf Yellow Tea Made from Different Tea Cultivars (Strains)
ZHENG Lin , LIU Panpan , JIN Xiaofang , NING Jingming , FENG Lin , GAO Shiwei , TENG Jing , WANG Xueping , HAN Yanna , ZHENG Pengcheng
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010045
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In order to explore the differences of flavor characteristics among different cultivars (strains) of large-leaf yellow tea, the main tea tree varieties (strains) in Hubei Province were used as materials to process large-leaf yellow tea. The differences in sensory quality, taste and aroma components were analyzed, and chemometrics analysis was used to explore the relationship between taste-characteristic attributes and chemical compositions. The results showed that large-leaf yellow tea of B6-1 and 07-7-44 strains had the best total sensory scores with long-lasting roasting aroma and sweet floral fragrance, the large-leaf yellow tea of D12 and B6-1 strains had the higher contents of non-ester catechins and amino acids, while large-leaf yellow tea of D12, B6-1 and 07-7-44 strains had the lower ratio of tea polyphenols/amino acids, showed the characteristics of mellow and sweet aftertaste. Correlation analysis showed that taste score and total sensory score were significantly positively correlated with the contents of water extracts, amino acids and soluble sugars (P<0.01), while significantly negatively correlated with the contents of flavonoids, the ratio of tea polyphenols/amino acids and the ratio of ester catechins/non-ester catechins (P<0.01). The contents of linalool and its oxides, 1-ethyl-2-formylpyrrole, methyl salicylate, furfural and other substances in large-leaf yellow tea produced by B6-1 and 07-7-44 strains were higher, components such as linalool and its oxides, methyl salicylate presented floral, sweet flavor, meanwhile, furfural and 1-ethyl-2-formylpyrrole have the aroma of baking, nutty or caramel, which together constituted the material basis of unique baking fragrance, sweet and floral flavor. In conclusion, the B6-1 and 07-7-44 strains had certain advantages for processing high-quality large-leaf yellow tea. The research results provided an important theoretical basis for the selection, processing and comprehensive utilization of suitable varieties of large-leaf yellow tea.
Studied on Detection Methods and Changes of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Instant Roasted Fish with Different Processes
ZHANG Yan , WANG Shengkai , CHENG Yan , XIAO Yuehua , FU Xun , FENG Tingting
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020031
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Objective: In order to establish the detection method for 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in instant roasted fish, the effects of different cooking methods on the types and contents of PAHs in roast fish were analyzed. Methods: The samples were extracted with n-hexane, purified by solid phase extraction column, eluted with dichloromethane and determined by HPLC. Results: The correlation coefficient of 16 PAHs were 0.9993~0.9998 and the limits of detection were between 0.20~2.50 μg/kg; The recoveries were 64.25%~122.8%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.38%~7.13%. Under the three different cooking methods of carbon roasting, frying and electric roasting, addition of seasonings in roasted fish reduced PAHs production. The types and contents of PAHs in roasted fish were carbon roasting> frying> electric roasting; The contents of naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene and pyrene in the samples were higher than others, and the total PAHs up to 58.74 μg/kg, which was significantly higher than that of fried and electric roasted samples; Cooking time and temperature had an impact on the types and contents of PAHs in roasted fish. With the increased of frying time and temperature, the detected types and contents of PAHs increased significantly. The contents of naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene increased by 3~5 times; With the increased of electric roasting time and temperature, the detected types and total amount of PAHs increased; Through risk assessment, the heating time of roasted fish was controlled within 6 minutes, the temperature was within 200 ℃, the intake frequency was less than twice a month, the consumption risk was low. Conclusion: A method for the detection of 16 PAHs in roasted fish was established; The types, contents changes and risk assessment of PAHs in roasted fish with different cooking technology were analyzed to provide basis for the selection of instant roasted fish cooking technology.
Qualitative and Quantitative Detection for Different Adulterants of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy
ZHAO Xin , LIU Xin , WANG Yunpeng , ZHAO Zhilei , WANG Xianyou , WANG Tingxin , LIU Mengchen
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010028
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In this paper, near infrared spectroscopy technology was used to study the qualitative and quantitative detection of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and its three kinds of counterfeits, Ziziphus mauritiana lam, Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and Lens culinaris. Different single-adulterant samples were prepared with adulterant concentration in range of 1%~90%. Multiple-adulterants samples were also prepared by adding the three kinds of counterfeits simultaneously. Near-infrared spectroscopy data in the range of 800~2500 nm were acquired. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used firstly to qualitatively identify Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and three kinds of counterfeits. For single-adulterant samples, five different pretreatment methods were applied to denoising. Partial least squares regression was used to establish PLS1 models to quantitatively predict concentrations of the adulterants. Successive projection algorithm (SPA) was used to select the optimal wavelength to optimize the PLS1 models. Three-wavelength prediction model for the adulteration detection of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam was established, with determination coefficient R2p for prediction set of 0.9659 and root mean square error (RMSEP) of 6.1910%. Eight-wavelength prediction model for the adulteration detection of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. was established, with R2p of 0.9491 and RMSEP of 7.6232%. Five-wavelength prediction model for the Lens culinaris adulteration detection was established, with R2p of 0.9666 and RMSEP of 6.1437%. For the multiple-adulterants samples, PLS2 models were established to determine concentrations of the different counterfeits simultaneously. The prediction results for Ziziphi Spinosae Semen were the best with R2p≥0.7115, while the results for Hovenia dulcis Thunb. were the worst with R2p≥0.2007. The results showed that the near infrared spectroscopy could be used to inspect different counterfeits adulterated in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. The established method provided a theoretical basis for the subsequent development of portable detection equipment for authenticity of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. It was also as a reference for other studies on quality inspection for seed Chinese medicinal materials. The method was of an important social significance for ensuring quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials.
Evaluating the Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen Based on 1H NMR and GC-MS Approach
XIE Yujun , YAN Yan , LI Ze , PEI Xiangping , WANG Rui , DU Chenhui
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120334
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The drying is an important part of the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) in the producing area and has an important effect on the quality of ZSS. In this study, an integrated 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to reveal the effects of vacuum drying (VD), freeze-drying (FD), and hot air drying (HAD) method on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ZSS. Then the effects of different drying methods on the quality of ZSS were investigated. The results showed that the VD produced high contents of 6 fatty acids (palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleinic acid, stearic acid, squalene, and γ-tocopherol), 7 amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamine, and threonine), and 2 carbohydrates (α-glucose and β-glucose), but exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS cation radical scavenging activity and FRAP antioxidant activity (FD>VD>HAD). However, FD gave an improved secondary metabolite profile retention, such as jujuboside A, betulinic acid, magnoflorine, and 6ʹʹʹ-feruloylspinosin, thereby resulting in a superior DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 2.82±0.15 mg/mL), ABTS cation radical scavenging activity (IC50: 0.86±0.02 mg/mL) and FRAP antioxidant activity (58.91±2.87 mg VC/g). Thus, FD was a suitable drying method to maximize the product quality retention of ZSS. This study can provide a scientific reference for the establishment of reasonable processing technical specifications of ZSS and provide an experimental basis for improving the quality of ZSS.
Extraction Process Optimization,Purification and Characterization Analysis of Glycoprotein from the Mucus of Chinese Giant Salamander
TANG Jiacheng , BAO Jianqiang , CHEN Yanjie , SHAN Qianyi , HUANG Kecheng , GONG Xuan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030284
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The extraction process of crude glycoprotein from Chinese giant salamander (MGP) mucus cultured in Lishui was optimized. The crude glycoprotein was further purified, of which characterization was analysed. Based on single factor experiment, the extraction process was optimized by response surface methodology with solid-liquid ratio, temperature, extraction concentration, extraction time as factors, and glycoprotein yield as index. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were solid-liquid ratio of 1:30.5 g/mL, extraction temperature of 51 ℃, extraction concentration of 0.32 mol/L, extraction time of 5.2 h, the highest yield of MGP was 5.22%±0.71%, which was basically consistent with the expected results. The electrophoresis pure of purified glycoprotein was determined. The lyophilized MGP was white, loose powder, of which molecular weight was about 29 kDa. The contents of essential amino acids and medicinal amino acids in MGP were 37.21 g/100 g and 33.39 g/100 g, respectively. MGP had a typical glycoprotein structure of UV full wavelength absorption image, containing o-glycopeptide bond, pyranose ring structure and β-glycosidic bond. The secondary structure of MGP was mainly composed of 87% β-folded, which provided a theoretical basis for further research on the biological activity of glycoprotein from the mucus of Chinese giant salamander
Optimization Extraction of Pectin from Ganzhou Navel Orange Peel and Investigation of Its Physicochemical Properties and Biological Activities Before and After Modification
DU Chao , LIU Jiaci , CAO Manyu , ZUO Feng , ZANG Yanqing
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020242
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In order to realize the resource utilization of Ganzhou navel orange peel, the pectin (GOP) was extracted by ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction from Ganzhou navel orange peel. Box-behnken experiment was used to optimize the process parameters. The modified pectin (MGOP) was obtained by pH modification of GOP. The changes of physicochemical properties of GOP and MGOP were evaluated. On this basis, the antioxidant activities and their effects on corn starch gelatinization and in vitro digestion were studied. The results showed that the highest yield of GOP (18.25%±0.31%) was observed under optimal condition (microwave power 550 W, microwave time 30 min, pH2.4, liquid-solid ratio 25.00 mL/g. After modification, the esterification degree of pectin decreased from 74.10%±2.73% to 33.27%±2.47%, the content of galacturonic acid increased from 74.65%±1.11% to 88.19%±2.98%, significantly. GOP and MGOP showed good antioxidant activity. After modification, the antioxidant capacity of pectin was enhanced. When the concentration of MGOP was 8 mg/mL, the scavenging rate of DPPH and ABTS free radicals reached 84.35%±0.28% and 87.33±0.43%, respectively. Adding 6% GOP and 6% MGOP could significantly increase SDS to 32.05%±0.65% and 43.83%±0.48%, and RS to 14.61%±1.40% and 19.84%±2.76%, respectively. In addition, the addition of pectin also increased the proportion of small particles in starch paste, inhibited the swelling of starch particles, and thus inhibited the digestion of starch. Compared with GOP, MGOP had more significant effects. The results of this study provided theoretical basis and technical support for the development and utilization of Ganzhou navel orange peel pectin.
Composition Analysis, Anticancer and Immune Activities of Polysaccharides from Poria cocos Residues in Vitro
GUAN Yuting , WEN Simeng , FENG Xue , BAI Yunpeng , CHEN Ruirui , SHEN Xiaoyong , FENG Jianing , CHANG Shimin , CHENG Xinying
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010168
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Objective: The monosaccharide composition of Poria cocos polysaccharide (PCOS) from Poria cocos residue extracted by hot water, as well as its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory factors and immune activities were studied, providing a theoretical foundation for the development of PCOS related products. Methods: The monosaccharide composition of water-extracted PCOS was analyzed by HPLC and FTIR, and the anti-tumor and immune activities of water-extracted PCOS were studied by CCK-8 method. Results: The polysaccharide content of PCOS was 76%, mainly composed of glucose, mannose, galactose and fucose, and the molar ratio was 1:0.107:0.079:0.018, with obvious polysaccharide characteristic absorption peak. The proliferation of gastric cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and liver cancer cells was decreased, with the best inhibition impact on gastric cancer cells (IC50=1096 µg/mL), and spleen lymphocyte proliferation in mice was enhanced. Conclusion: The water-extracted PCOS has good anti-cancer and immune activities in vitro.
Formulation, Characterization, and Pharmacokinetic Studies of Pinus Koraiensis Nuts Oil Based Coenzyme Q10 Loaded Nanoemulsion
WANG Zhongjuan , LI Zihan , ZHANG Xiujuan , LIU Zhiting , CHEN Xiaoqiang , ZHANG Ying
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020080
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Coenzyme Q10 nanoemulsion (CoQ10-NE) was improved and made utilizing Pinus koraiensis nuts oil as the oil phase, soybean lecithin as the surfactant, and ethanol as the cosurfactant in this study. The effects of different factors on the mean particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) of CoQ10-NE were studied, and the quality was evaluated by DLS, TEM, FT-IR, stability, in vitro release behavior and in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments in rats.The results showed that when the mass ratio of CoQ10 to mixed surfactant was 3:40, the mass ratio of CoQ10 to Pinus koraiensis nuts oil was 1:4, the homogenizing pressure was 800 bar, and the number of cycles was 6 times, the CoQ10-NE of mean particle size of 150.30±1.43 nm and PDI of 0.234±0.012 was obtained. The morphology and microstructure showed that the CoQ10-NE was round and non-adhesive at the size of 500 nm and 1 µm. FT-IR results showed that CoQ10 was completely encapsulated in nanoemulsion. The stability experiment showed that there was no significant difference in the mean particle size and PDI (P>0.05). CoQ10-NE had good stability. In vitro release experiments showed that the cumulative dissolution rate of CoQ10-NE was 4.7-fold that of the CoQ10 suspension at 120 min. The dissolution rate was significantly improved. According to the results of pharmacokinetic investigations in rats, the maximum plasma concentration Cmax of CoQ10-NE was 2.80-fold that of CoQ10 suspension, the drug concentration of CoQ10-NE in rats was greatly enhanced. The area ${\rm{AUC}}_{0{\text -}\infty} $ was 3.25-fold that of the CoQ10 suspension, demonstrating that CoQ10-NE bioavailability and absorption were greatly increased. The CoQ10-NE developed in this study provides a theoretical foundation for investigating the creation of new CoQ10 formulations and their potential application as a functional ingredient in food.
Simultaneous Determination of 9 Mycotoxins in Fruits by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
NI Yang , YANG Junjun , SHI Lei , ZHANG Yingying , XIONG Rong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010031
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An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 mycotoxins in fruit. Sample extraction, purification conditions and instrument conditions were optimized. The samples were ultrasonic extracted with 10 mmol/L citric acid acetonitrile solution and salted out by adding NaCl. After centrifugation, the supernatant was cleaned up by C18 sorbent and separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column. The analytes were detected in the multiple reaction monitoring mode after being ionized by an electrospray positive ion. Quantitative analysis was performed by the external standard method using matrix-matched calibration curves. The results showed that all the 9 mycotoxins were well separated in 5 min. The coefficients of determination (R2) were greater than 0.999, suggesting good linearity of the method in the mass concentration range. The method limits of detection (3S/N) and limits of quantification (10S/N) were 0.004~1.676 μg/kg and 0.014~5.587 μg/kg, respectively. The recovery experiments were performed with peach and cherry samples at three spiked levels (low, medium and high) were 84.5%~113.2% with the relative standard deviations were 0.7%~4.0% (n=6). This method was used to analyze the contamination status of 9 mycotoxins in fruit samples (strawberry, cherry, grape, apple and pear). The results showed that beauvericin, patulin and Altenuene toxins were found in cherry and grape samples, and their contents were ranged from ND (not detected) ~12.47 µg/kg. The method is proved to be stable, accurate, sensitive and rapid, and can meet the requirements for the analysis of 9 mycotoxins residues in a variety of fruit samples.
Optimization of the Ratio of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Sodium Alginate and Guar Gum in Ternary Mixed Film and Performance Analysis of the Film
SONG Yu , WANG Juanjuan , MENG Lingdong , LI Shixin , LI Yun
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120281
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The edible film with barrier property can restrain food oxidation rancidity and improve the effect of storage and preservation when applied to food. In this study, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and guar gum were used as film forming materials, oxygen resistance and water vapor permeability were used as indicators, and the process optimization of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-sodium alginate-guar gum ternary mixed membrane was carried out through single factor experiment and D-optimal mixture design. The light transmittance, rheological properties, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermodynamic properties of the edible films were analyzed and compared. The results showed that when 1.25% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose:2% sodium alginate:0.75% guar gum was 35:49:16, the reciprocal of the water vapor permeability was 505224 and the oxygen resistance was 0.52 of the edible film, indicating the best barrier. Compared with the single membrane, the optimized mixed membrane significantly improved its properties, the components had good coordination, and the structure of the mixed membrane had good compatibility and integrity. The study of the edible ternary mixed membrane can provide a reference for the development of new edible film.
Quality Analysis and Evaluation Standard Construction of Fresh Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) Pulp
LU Lu , YAN Yamei , MI Jia , ZHONG Siyi , JIN Bo , LUO Qing , ZENG Xiaoxiong , CAO Youlong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020178
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In this paper, 46 fresh goji pulp products randomly selected from the market were compared and analyzed through the main components, color, flavor and other indicators, and the evaluation standard was preliminarily established. The results showed that the samples of fresh goji pulp showed good nutritional and flavor characteristics, but the quality of different products varied greatly. The pH ranged from 4.04~4.62, the viscosity ranged from 6.63~116.60 cP, the soluble solids ranged from 12.77%~30.63%, the total sugar content ranged from 93.19~220.26 mg/g, the flavonoid content ranged from 23.43~87.27 μg/g, and the total carotenoid content ranged from 3.23~1579.47 μg/g. The color of the samples was bright orange-red, and the samples responded to the eight flavor characteristics of umami, sour, astringency and saltness. Alkanes, alcohols, and volatile sulfides were the most varied compounds in the odor analysis. Based on principal component analysis, the correlation degree and contribution degree of each index and the main component were obtained, the quality evaluation index of fresh goji pulp was established, the grading standard of evaluation index was established by probability classification, and the evaluation standard of quality was constructed by analytic hierarchy process, and the comprehensive score of each sample of fresh goji pulp was obtained, which provided data reference for quality evaluation and standard formulation of fresh goji pulp.
Optimization of Preparation Technology and in Vitro Digestion Analysis of Hydrolysates Origin from By-products of Mandarin Fish
WU Zhanchun , LI Ling , ZHOU Yingqin , XIE Ningning , FANG Xubo , CHEN Xiaoe
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010184
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The by-products of mandarin fish were hydrolyzed with alcalase, while its optimized preparing process was performed with the single factor and response surface experiments, which were based on the degree of hydrolysis. Additionally, the in vitro digestion of prepared hydrolysates was further analyzed. The results showed that: The optimum condition of the hydrolysis processing was that the ratio of solid-liquid was 1:4 g/mL, the pH was 9.1, the temperature was 57.0 ℃, the enzyme dosage was 2.02%, and the hydrolysis time was 4 h, with the degree of hydrolysis of which was 18.38%. During the simulated gastric digestion and the simulated intestinal digestion, the content of soluble peptides respectively decreased by 17.76% and 50.97%. Furthermore, after the whole gastrointestinal digestion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging rate, respectively, survived with values of 51.36% and 48.67%, which indicated that the prepared hydrolysates exerted relatively higher bioaccessibility. The results suggest that the by-products of mandarin fish might be utilized as a candidate for developing functional foods.
Identification and Screening of Bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum and Its Effects on Preservation of Large Yellow Croaker
XU Huadi , GAO Tengqi , CUI Zihang , LIU Chunsheng , PAN Saikun , YANG Jie
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050162
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In this study, the screening of lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented food was carried out by enrichment culture, dilution separation, and agar plate diffusion experiments. Physiological and biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence homology analysis were used to identify the lactic acid bacteria. Then, the main antibacterial substances produced by the lactic acid bacteria were determined by acid excretion, hydrogen peroxide exclusion, and protease hydrolysis. Finally, the bacteriocin crude extract was obtained by alcohol precipitation and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography, and then was applied to the preserving the whole large yellow croaker. To evaluate the preservation effect of the bacteriocin crude extract on the large yellow croaker, sensory evaluation, pH determination, viable cell counts, TVB-N determination and texture profile analysis were systematically carried out every 3 days. The experimental results showed that the lactic acid bacteria isolated from shrimp paste was Lactobacillus plantarum and named MMB-11. Meanwhile, the bacteriocin produced by MMB-11 was sensitive to protease and had notable acid tolerance and thermal stability. With the application of the bacteriocin on the preservation of large yellow croaker, the viable cell counts in MMB-11 group, control group and Nisin-treated group after 12 d of storage were 3.50×104, 1.10×105 and 4.50×104 CFU/g, respectively. Furthermore, after 12 d of storage, the TVB-N treated with MMB-11 group, control group and Nisin group were 20.91±0.0.66、31.37±0.21和21.44±0.45 mg/100 g, respectively. Overall, the results showed that the crude bacteriocin extract of MMB-11 had a better preservation effect on large yellow croaker than the Nisin-treated group and control group. This study provides a fundamental knowledge for developing safe and harmless biological preservatives for large yellow croaker.
Preparation and Antioxidant Activity Analysis of Hydrolyzed Peptides from Eucommia ulmoides Seed Meal
GE Zhenzhen , XU Mingyue , ZHAO Yuxiang , ZHAO Guangyuan , ZONG Wei
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020050
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Eucommia ulmoides seed meal protein prepared by alkali extraction and acid precipitation was utilized as raw material. On the basis of single factor experiment, the total evaluation value of the hydrolysis degree and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) as response value was used to optimize the addition of enzyme, hydrolysis time and substrate concentration. And the Box-Behnken method was used for three factors and three levels response surface test design to determine the best enzymatic preparation process of hydrolyzed peptides from Eucommia ulmoides seed meal. The antioxidant activity of the obtained hydrolyzed peptides was determined in vitro. The results showed that neutral protease was the best protease, and the best enzymatic hydrolysis condition were enzyme was 10000 U/g, hydrolysis time 1.50 h and substrate concentration 20 g/L. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis and T-AOC of hydrolyzed peptides were 47.45%±1.50% and 30.62±0.59 μmol/L, separately; the IC50 for DPPH free radical, superoxide anion radical and ABTS free radical scavenging rates were 0.731, 4.258 and 0.407 mg/mL, respectively. The Eucommia ulmoides seed meal peptides prepared under these conditions had great antioxidant capacity and provided a theoretical basis for the high-value utilization of Eucommia ulmoides seed meal and the development of antioxidant peptide functional products.
Effects of Ratios between Maltodextrin and Compound Sugars on Whipping Properties and Qualities of Sugar-reduced Whipped Creams
ZENG Yongchao , ZENG Di , DENG Xinlun , ZHAO Mouming , ZHAO Qiangzhong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010207
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In this work, sugar-reduced whipped creams were prepared using maltodextrin and compound sugars (composed of glucose, sucrose and corn syrup) with a total sugar content of 18.60 wt%. The effects of the different radio between maltodextrin and compound sugars (0:20~9:11) on whipping properties and qualities of sugar-reduced whipped creams were investigated. The water distribution, interfacial protein concentration, partial coalescence, optimum whipping time, overrun, firmness, sensory evaluation and storage stability were compared. The results indicated that the interfacial protein concentration and firmness of whipped creams significantly increased, the storage stability improved, but the sensory evaluation slightly decreased, as the ratio between maltodextrin and compound sugars increased from 0:20 to 3:17. When the ratio between maltodextrin and compound sugars increased to 9:11, lower partial coalescence, overrun, sensory evaluation and storage stability of whipped creams were observed, and the whipping properties and qualities were relatively poor. In summary, considering the effects of whipping properties and qualities, when the ratios between maltodextrin and compound sugars were 3:17 and 5:15, the overrun and firmness of sugar-reduced whipped creams reached 353.3%, 342.2% and 325.6 g, 329.1 g, respectively, and smooth cross-sections were observed, which exhibited good whipping properties and qualities.
Optimization of Ultra-high Pressure Extraction and the Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins from Blueberry Pomace
CHEN Zhiling , MA Jian , WEN Bo , HUANG Wuyang , MA Yanhong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010180
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The objective of this study was to optimize the ultra-high pressure extraction (UPE) process of anthocyanins extracted from blueberry pomace and to investigate the antioxidant activity of the anthocyanin extracts. In the present study, the extraction process of anthocyanins was optimized by single factor experiments and Box-Behnken response surface methodology, using blueberry pomace as raw extraction material. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate, hydroxyl radical scavenging rate, and FRAP iron ion reducing ability of the extracts were determined to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of blueberry pomace anthocyanins, with vitamin C (VC) used as a positive control. The components of anthocyanins extracted from blueberry pomace were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum conditions of the anthocyanins extraction from blueberry pomac were as follows: extraction pressure at 400 MPa, extraction time for 9 min, 60% ethanol concentration, solid-liquidratio at 1:20 g/mL. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of blueberry pomace anthocyanins was 5.93±0.06 mg/g. Compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (USE), ultra-high pressure-assisted extraction (UPE) had the better extraction effect, with the extraction yield of blueberry pomace anthocyanins increased 25.11% and 10.02%, respectively. Blueberry pomace anthocyanins had strong DPPH free radical scavenging effect, which was comparable to the same concentration of VC (P>0.05). However, the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and the FRAP iron ion reducing ability of blueberry pomace anthocyanins were significantly lower than those of VC at the same concentration (P<0.05). The 13 peaks of the anthocyanin extracts from blueberry pomace were tentatively identied by HPLC analysis, among which the content of malvidin-3-galactoside was the highest. These results indicated that UPE was an efficient method for extracting blueberry pomace anthocyanins which have potential application value to be used as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical due to their antioxidant activity.
Optimization of Lyophilized Protective Agent Formulation of Lactobacillus casei LTL1361 based on Artificial Neural Network Coupled Genetic Algorithm (BP-GA)
ZHANG Xiyu , LI Ruiding , MO Minggui , MEI Lihua , LIU Yuping , ZHU Wenjun , LI Quanyang
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010143
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To improve the freeze-drying survival rate of Lactobacillus casei LTL1361 in the vacuum freeze-drying process, the single factor and Plackett-Burman designs were first conducted to verify the main factors affecting the freeze-drying survival rate of Lactobacillus casei LTL1361. According to the experimental results, the artificial network coupling genetic algorithm was constructed using the Box Behnken design. The artificial network coupled genetic algorithm (BP-GA) model was constructed to simulate and predict the lyophilized protective agent formulation of Lactobacillus casei LTL1361. The results showed that the three main factors affecting the lyophilisation survival rate of the strain were: Alginate, glutamic acid and mannitol, which were selected by single-factor and Plackett-Burman tests, and the three factors and the base skim milk were identified as the optimisation conditions for subsequent optimisation tests. The BP-GA model was used to find the optimum concentration of protectant for Lactobacillus casei LTL1361, which was 10.3% skim milk, 0.8% glutamic acid, 6.7% alginate and 4.0% mannitol, and the maximum lyophilisation survival rate of the strain was 89.56%. Using the BP-GA model, this study explored a probiotic lyophilisation protectant formulation with a high lyophilisation survival rate, and provided a reference for the preparation of lyophilised formulations of highly active strains and the development of commercial direct-injection ferments.
Antagonistic Bacteria of Bacillus Subtilis:Screening, Identification and Antibacterial Substance Characterizing
GUO Lidan , ZHANG Xiaoyan , ZHOU Wanting , ZHANG Xiuqin , CHEN Yuying , YANG Zilu , WANG Liping
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020257
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Abstract:
This study aimed to screen an antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-produced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against Bacillus subtilis from Kraut, and to analyze the properties and antibacterial effect of the antimicrobial peptide preliminarily. Bacillus subtilis B39 was used as the indicator, and a strain of LAB with strong inhibitory effect was obtained by primary screening with calcium-dissolving method and re-screening with double-layer agar diffusion method. Morphological observation, physiological and biochemical identification and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene were subsequently carried out. The best purification method of the AMP was explored by ammonium sulfate precipitation and organic solvent extraction, then the purified AMP was characterized by UV full wavelength scanning, and a series of antibacterial properties were studied. Results showed that, a strain of AMP-produced LAB with strong inhibitory effect against B39 was screened from Kraut samples of Wuhan Ganghua market. The strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by 16 S rDNA sequence (GenBank accession number: MZ751041.1) and phylogenetic tree analysis, and was named L. plantarum WUH3. Through comparison, it was found that the AMP purified by organic solvent-ethyl acetate extraction method, could best retain its antibacterial activity. UV full-wavelength scanning showed that the peptide characteristic absorption peak of the purified substance was significant. According to the growth curve and antibacterial activity curve of WUH3, the strain could reach maximum yield of the AMP at stationary growth stage. The MIC of the AMP against B39 was 16 μg/mL measured by doubling dilution method, and the time-kill curve indicated the AMP had bactericidal effect on B39. This study can be helpful in exploring the biological antagonistic bacteria against Bacillus subtilis, and it lays a foundation for the development and application of L. plantarum WUH3 in the field of natural preservatives.
Optimization of Conditions for Removing Ochratoxin A from Wheat Bran by Biological Fermentation and Evaluation of Volatile Flavor Substances before and after Fermentation
ZOU Dong , YANG Yang , HUANG Heyang , JI Jian , SUN Xiulan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020179
Abstract(10) HTML (2) PDF(1)
Abstract:
A strain of Aspergillus niger FS-UV-21 with obvious removal effect on ochratoxin A (OTA) was used as a fermentation strain to ferment and detoxify wheat bran contaminated by OTA. Taking the removal rate of OTA as the index, the effects of fermentation time, temperature, inoculation amount and solid-liquid ratio on the removal effect of OTA were studied, and the solid-state fermentation conditions of wheat bran were optimized by response surface methodology. At the same time, the volatile flavor compounds of wheat bran before and after fermentation under the optimal fermentation conditions were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that under the conditions of inoculation amount of 15%, fermentation temperature of 32 ℃, fermentation time of 5 d and feed water ratio of 1:3.3 g/mL, the highest removal rate of OTA was 60.89%. The relative error with the theoretical value was 2.65%, which showed that the optimized parameter was feasible and had practical application value. The flavor substances before and after fermentation were studied by headspace solid phase microextraction and GC-MS. It was found that volatile compounds increased significantly after fermentation, including a variety of substances with unique flavor, such as nonanol, vanillin, and so on. This study provides technical support for the safe utilization of wheat bran.
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