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Effect of Poultry, Rabbit Meat and Fish Addition on Quality Attributes of Sichuan Sausages
PAN Tingting , JIHU Shili , ZHOU Pengxiang , CAO Jin , LI Chunhong , DAI Yan , ZHANG Jing
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020279
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To balance the nutrition and improve quality of sausages. This research investigated quality improvements of Sichuan sausages by 41.5% poultry, rabbit meat and fish addition. The moisture, crude fat, crude protein contents, pH, Aw, colour, texture, TBARS, protein carbonyl, free thiol groups, fatty acids composition and sensory attributes of pork, poultry, rabbit meat and fish mixture group sausages were evaluated. The results showed that the hardness of pork and rabbit meat mixture group sausages (76.37, 68.01 kg) was significant (P<0.05) higher than that of other 2 groups. The TBARS values in poultry meat and fish mixture group sausages (0.60, 0.63 mg MDA/kg) were significant (P<0.05) higher than that of rabbit meat mixture group. Only EPA and DHA were detected in fish mixture sausages. The ∑poly unsaturated fatty acids (19.96%) and ∑n-6:∑n-3 (22) in poultry meat mixture group sausages were significant (P<0.05) higher than that of other 3 groups. The overall quality scores of poultry and rabbit meat mixture group sausages (7.33, 7.05 points) were significant (P<0.05) higher than those of fish mixture groups. The results of this study indicated that the rabbit meat mixture group sausages had improved quality attributes, the yield rate management and application of liquid fat (vegetable and fish oil) addition could improve nutrition value of Sichuan sausages in the future work. The fish mixture group sausages had better fatty acids composition, and a slightly higher fat oxidation level, thus the application of antioxidates and de-fishy substances could be added in fish-based sausages to control fat oxidation and improve whole sausage quality and sensory attributes.
Ameliorative Effect of D-α-Tocopherol Acetate Complexes on D-Galactose-Induced Aging in Mice
KAN Xutian , CHEN Weili , LI Jiaxu , HE Wenjiang , DING Liugang , LI Pan , DU Bing , LI Wenzhi
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022120187
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To investigate the ameliorative effect of the D-α-tocopheryl acetate compound on D-galactose-induced aging in mice, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the compound of natural oils+phytosterols (VEO), the compound of D-α-tocopheryl acetate+phytosterol (VEZ), and the compound of D-α-tocopheryl acetat+phytosterol+astaxanthin (VEX) were measured. The aging model was established using mice injected with D-galactose on the back of the neck, while the intervention was carried out with different compounds. The results showed that all three groups of compounds had strong antioxidant effects, with the VEZ group showing better in vitro antioxidant effects. Compared with the aging model mice, the intervention of the three compounds increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.01), and a decrease in the serum inflammatory factors interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and liver function indicators alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly reduced (P<0.01). After the intervention, the mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in mice were significantly enhanced (P<0.0001). This indicated that the different combinations exerted their antioxidant effects through up-regulating the expression of Nrf2, NQO-1 and HO-1, thus achieving anti-aging effects, with the VEZ group showing the best expression effect. In conclusion, D-α-Tocopheryl acetate complex achieved their anti-aging effects by increasing the expression of antioxidant-related mRNAs and proteins, thus enhancing the levels of downstream antioxidant enzymes, among which D-α-tocopheryl acetate was more effective when combined with phytosterols.
Kinetic Study on the Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water Immersion on the Storage Quality of Fresh Gastrodia elata Slices
DENG Qiuqiu , PANG Wenting , KANG Kaijie , GAO Qing , HE Jinsong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023010148
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For the purpose of demonstrating the kinetics of immersion in slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on the storage quality of fresh-cut Gastrodia elata slices. Pretreated fresh-cut slices of Gastrodia elata were dipped in SAWE at solid-liquid ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5 g/mL, and stored at 4 ℃ for comparison with the untreated group. Establish a quality decay dynamics model system based on a 28-day storage observation experiment, recording and analyzing its physical, chemical and nutritional indicators. SAEW impregnation significantly inhibited browning rate, browning degree, and spoilage occurrence. The total number of colonies in the untreated group, the solid-liquid ratio 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5 groups were 8.25, 5.11, 5.13, and 5.10 lg CFU/g, the vitamin C content was 4.42, 5.66, 4.79, and 4.79 mg/100 g, and the gastrodin content was 0.25%, 0.24%, 0.24%, 0.24%. By kinetic fitting, the variation law of the total number of colonies of Gastrodia elata fresh slices by SAEW immersion treatment conformed to the Logistic model. The water activity index change law was derived using Expdec2. The indicator variation rules were derived from the dynamic model system, and R2 was greater than 0.8, which indicated a good match between indicators. Moreover, SAEW dip treatment effectively suppresses browning, browning rate, rot index, and the total number of colonies of Gastrodia elata fresh slices, and gastrodin and vitamin C content were slowed. For application of SAEW dipping in the storage of fresh-cut products, the relevant results might provide technical guidance.
Analysis on the Nutritional Components and Texture Characteristics of Prefabricated Grilled Fish with Different Fish Species
ZHANG Yan , WANG Shengkai , NIE Qingyu , FU Xun , FENG Tingting
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023010082
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To explore the development value of different freshwater fish productions of prefabricated grilled fish and realize the diversified development of prefabricated grilled fish categories, an analysis was hereby carried out on the nutritional and textural characteristics of prefabricated grilled fish processed from six common freshwater fish. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the moisture and ash content (P>0.05), the protein content ranged from 21.87%~24.28%, and the fat content was low in all six types of grilled fish. Besides, the content of glutamic acid, aspartic acid and lysine was high, and that of the total essential amino acids ranged from 7.71~9.42 g/100 g. Among them, that of common carp and Wuchang fish was higher, followed by tilapia and grass carp, Wuchang fish, common carp and tilapia had a high fresh amino acid content. The ratio of the essential amino acids to the total amino acids of the six grilled fish was about 40%, which was a high-quality animal protein source. According to the amino acid score, the first limiting amino acid of all six grilled fish was methionine+cysteine, common carp had the highest essential amino acid index, followed by tilapia. Besides, a total of 22 fatty acids were detected in the six grilled fish species, which had a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Tilapia and Wuchang fish contained high functional fatty acids with a high nutritional value, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Through the principal component analysis, the comprehensive score of nutritional indicators followed the order of tilapia>Wuchang fish>common carp>grass carp>crucian carp>pincer fish, while in terms of textural characteristics, the elasticity and chewiness of tilapia and Wuchang fish were significantly(P<0.05)higher than those of traditional common carp and grass carp, and the hardness was lower. In this case, it could be tentatively inferred that tilapia and Wuchang fish had a better muscle texture. As raw materials of grilled fish, all these six freshwater fish were excellent protein sources, reasonable amino acid composition and rich fatty acids, among which, tilapia and Wuchang fish produced prefabricated grilled fish with better nutrition and better taste. Overall, this study provides a theoretical basis for the development of grilled fish in multiple categories and the extension of the "breeding+processing" industry chain.
Composition Analysis of Sargassum Fusiforme in Different Marine Areas and Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides
LIANG Meina , ZHANG Lining , LIN Zhen , SU Laijin
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020132
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Sargassum fusiforme, rich in a variety of nutrients and active substances, is one of the important economic seaweeds in China and its quality could be easily affected by environmental factors such as marine areas. This paper aimed to figure out the differences in nutritional composition of Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in different marine areas. This paper used Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in seven marine areas in Zhejiang Province as the research object, and determined the basic nutrients, amino acids and fatty acids using the National Food Safety Standard. The antioxidant activities of the seven Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides were determined using DPPH· and ·OH scavenging as evaluation criteria, and the structural composition of seven kinds of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides were preliminarily analyzed. The results indicated that the moisture content of seven Sargassum fusiforme was highest, between (82.50±0.32) and (86.50±0.23) g/100 g. In addition to moisture content, the other main nutrient component was polysaccharide. The polysaccharide content of Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in No.7 marine area was the highest (P<0.05), which was 2.51 g/100 g. The fat content of Sargassum fusiforme of each marine area was relatively low, which was (0.30±0.01)~(0.40±0.01) g/100 g, indicating that Sargassum fusiforme was a kind of typically low-fat food. The amino acid content of Sargassum fusiforme varied greatly and the EAAI (Essential Amino Acid Index) values of Sargassum fusiforme in each marine area were all more than 0.9, indicating that Sargassum fusiforme in the seven marine areas were all high-quality protein sources. Furthermore, the amino acid composition ratios of Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in No.2 and No.6 marine areas were reasonable, which were closer to the ideal protein model recommended by WHO /FAO in 1937. A total of eight fatty acids were detected in Sargassum fusiforme from seven marine areas. Except for Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in No.2 marine area, the rest were mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids. The heavy metal content of Sargassum fusiforme complied with the requirements of in National Food Safety Standard - Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Foods (GB 2762-2017). The contents of Ca and K in Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in No.4 marine area were (131.44±6.36) mg/100 g and (1687.63±28.14) mg/100 g, respectively, which were good sources of Ca and K. The polysaccharide structures of Sargassum fusiforme in each marine area were similar, all of which contained sulfate groups and had the activity of scavenging ·OH and DPPH·. Among them, the polysaccharide of Sargassum fusiforme cultivated in No.5 marine area had the highest antioxidant activity, and the IC50 of scavenging ·OH and DPPH· were 0.534 mg/mL and 0.236 mg/mL, respectively. This study laid a certain foundation for the scientific breeding, processing and quality grade evaluation of Sargassum fusiforme.
Optimization of Solanum Lyratum Crude Polysaccharide Extraction Process Using Response Surface Methodology and Analysis ofIts In Vitro Antioxidant Activity
HUANG Minghao , HUANG Taiqi , DENG Lijuan
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023040182
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To optimize the extraction process of polysaccharide form Solanum lyratum and investigate its in vitro antioxidative activity.In this study, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of polysaccharides from Solanum lyratum. Single-factor experiments were conducted to explore the effects of three factors: extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid-liquid ratio on the yield. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the structure of Solanum lyratum polysaccharide, and in vitro antioxidant activity was investigated. The results revealed that the optimal extraction conditions were the material-liquid ratio of 1:57 g/mL, the extraction time of 58 min, and the extraction temperature of 65 ℃. Under these conditions, the yield of polysaccharides was 7.54%±0.12%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the extracted polysaccharides exhibited a typical polysaccharide absorbance. Moreover, the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of polysaccharides against DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals were 1.104 and 1.408 mg/mL, respectively, indicating significant in vitro antioxidant activity. The results of this study provided a theoretical foundation for the further development and utilization of Solanum lyratum polysaccharides.
Preparation and Characterization of Gummies Loaded with Melatonin and Lycium barbarum L.
SUN Wen , YAN Jianan , LAI Bin , WANG Ce , WU Haitao
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020137
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In order to expand the application of melatonin in gel food, convenient gummies loaded with melatonin and Lycium barbarum L. were developed in this study. The comprehensive effects of gelatin dose, Lycium barbarum L. powder level and drying time on the properties of melatonin gummies were investigated by color difference analysis, texture analysis, low field NMR analysis and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the gummies containing with 0.4% Lycium barbarum L. powder, 18% gelatin, 5% carrageenan, 17.5% sorbitol, 17.5% erythritol and drying for 18 h were elastic and palatable with smooth surface. The gummies had moisture content less than 20% and melatonin retention rate of 92.0%~97.7%, and high sensory evaluation with potential practical application.
Study on the Optimization of the Formula of Potato Scone andIts Texture Characteristics
FU Yuhu , XIN Shihua , WU Qing , YANG Xiaoping , LIU Huiyan , FANG Haitian
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023010187
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In order to enrich potato staple products and improve the sensory quality of scones, the rheological properties of mixed dough of potato flour and wheat flour were studied. With sensory score and texture characteristics as evaluation indexes, the formulation of potato flour scone was optimized by single factor test and orthogonal test. The results showed that potato flour could improve the water absorption of wheat flour and shorten the formation time of dough, but it would lead to the decline of dough elasticity and gluten strength and the decline of dough quality. Therefore, the appropriate substitution ratio for whole potato flour was considered to be 20%. The best process recipe for scones was based on a mixture of wheat flour and whole potato flour quality, with 20% whole potato flour added, 68% water added, 0.8% yeast added and 6% sugar added. The hardness of the scone prepared under the optimal condition was 342.63 g, and the chewiness was 106.76 N. The research results provided a theoretical basis for the quality improvement of the scones and the development of whole potato flour products.
Optimization of Extraction Process of Polysaccharide from Black Corn Kernel by Response Surface Method and Analysis ofIts Antioxidant Activity
WANG Yan , DUAN Xuewei , ZHANG Minjun , YANG Huiwen , LIU Bing , YOU Tianhui
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020118
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In order to explore the optimum extraction process of polysaccharide and antioxidant activity in vitro in black corn kernel. In this study, black corn kernel was used as raw material, ultrasonic-assisted extraction was applied to extract polysaccharides from black corn kernel. To explore the effects of ultrasonic power, solid-liquid ratio, extraction time, temperature and frequency on the yield of polysaccharide. The extraction process of polysaccharide from black corn kernel was optimized by response surface methodology and the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharide was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on DPPH·, ABTS+·, and ·OH. The results showed that the extraction yield of polysaccharide from black corn kernel could reach up to 41.09%±0.59%, in these conditions: the solid-liquid ratio was 1:20 g/mL, the extraction temperature was 74 ℃, the extraction time was 60 min and the extraction frequency was 3 times. The IC50 values of scavenging rates on DPPH·, ABTS+· and ·OH were 1.959, 1.529 and 0.3554 mg/mL, respectively, and the scavenging rates showed a certain dose-effect relationship with the sample concentration, indicating that the polysaccharide had a strong antioxidant activity, thus providing a theoretical basis for further research and utilization.
Effect and Process Conditions of Cold Plasma Combined withL-Glutamic Acid and Salt Stress on Germination and Enrichment ofγ-Aminobutyric Acid in Adzuki Bean
XU Qingpeng , JIANG Xiujie , ZHANG Jiayu , WEI Chunhong , ZHOU Hangqing , ZHANG Dongjie
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022120205
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) treatment combined with salt stress on the enrichment of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in adzuki beans after germination. The effect of CAPP voltage, frequency, and duration of treatment of seeds, on their GABA content during germination was investigated using adzuki beans as raw material. In addition, the method of germination using L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) combined with salt stress was used to investigate the effect of single factors (germination time and concentrations of CaCl2, L-Glu, and NaCl) on enrichment of GABA. The optimal process conditions for enrichment of GABA using response surface optimization experiments were also determined. The results showed that the treatment of seeds with CAPP technology had a beneficial effect on their germination and enrichment of GABA. The CAPP treatment was more effective under the following conditions: voltage of 90 kV, frequency of 120 Hz, and duration of 20 min. When the germination time was 58 h and the CaCl2, L-Glu, and NaCl concentrations were 4.4 mmol/L, 3.2 mg/mL, and 66 mmol/L, respectively, the GABA content of germinated adzuki beans was 160.23±2.91 mg/100 g, which was 7.12 times higher than that of ungerminated adzuki beans. This method is efficient, reliable, cost-effective, and provides a technical reference for the industrial production of GABA-rich foods.
Isolation and Identification of Pediococcus lactis in Human Intestinal Tract and Its Performance Analysis of Fermented Goji Berry Juice
LI Xiaojing , WEI Xiaobo , CHENG Xue , ZHANG Zhigang , LIU Hongtao , LIU Huiyan , FANG Haitian
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020207
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In order to obtain candidate strains with strong colonization ability and excellent fermentation performance of goji berry juice, 3 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated and screened from human intestinal tract. They were identified by morphological, physiological and biochemical, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic tree construction, and their acid resistance, bile salt resistance, artificial gastric fluid, intestinal fluid resistance and fermentation performance were studied. The results showed that all three strains were identified as Pediococcus lactis, numbered NXU_220218, NXU_220219 and NXU_220220, respectively. The growth rate from 2 to 8 h, the ability of NXU 220218 to produce acid was stronger, and the tolerance to acid, bile salt and artificial gastric juice was better than NXU 220219 and NXU 220220. The survival rate of NXU_220218 was 67% at pH2, 65% in bovine bile salt at 0.3% concentration, 72% tolerance to artificial gastric juice, and 95% tolerance to artificial intestinal juice. Finally, the NXU_220218 strain was inoculated and used in the preparation of fermented goji berry juice. It was found that the reducing sugar content and the free radical scavenging rate in the fermented goji berry juice were significantly reduced and increased, respectively, compared with the unfermented goji berry juice, indicating that the NXU_220218 strain had good fermentation performance for goji berry juice and could be used as a candidate strain of lactic acid bacteria for the fermentation of goji berry juice.
Characteristics of Growth and Metabolism of Thermoascus aurantiacus QH-1 Derived Hongxinqu
TANG Yijing , LAI Huanhuan , ZHAO Wei , CUI Meilin , ZHANG Xiuhong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023010052
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To explore the growth metabolic characteristics of Thermoascus aurantiacus, the optimal growth conditions, ethanol tolerance, growth curve, saccharifying power and liquefaction power of Thermoascus aurantiacus QH-1 were analyzed. The results showed that Thermoascus aurantiacus QH-1 grew rapidly and had pigment in PDA, MEA and SDA mediums with rich in nutrients, and colonies growing on synthetic medium and G25N medium grew slowly and almost no pigment. The optimal growth conditions of T.aurantiacus QH-1 strain was as follows: Temperature 45 ℃, pH4.0, inoculum concentration 3%, liquied loading volume 160 mL. The lowest and highest growth temperatures of Th. aurantiacus QH-1 were 26 and 60 ℃, respectively. Among the raw materials for brewing Daqu, sorghum rice was the best for its growth, and the concentration of 6% ethanol had no effect on the grwoth of T.aurantiacus QH-1. T.aurantiacus QH-1 grew slowly with lower saccharifying power in the early stage, and the growth rate accelerated with the higher saccharifying power at 6~8 days in solid state medium of barley and pea. The growth curve of T.aurantiacus QH-1 was similar to its change curve of saccharifying power. However, its liquefying power was detected on day 10. The results provided necessary information for the further development and utilization of T.aurantiacus QH-1.
Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on Vitis vinifera L. Cell Wall Pectin Components
YANG Yiwen , LI Dajing , BAO Yihong , NIE Meimei , LIU Chunju , LIU Chunquan , XIAO Yadong , NIU Liying , WU Haihong
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020249
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In order to clarify the content and structural changes of different pectin fractions in grape cell walls under ultrasonic treatment, the grapes were treated with different ultrasonic time and ultrasonic power in this study, and the content of pectin fractions, composition of monosaccharides and structural changes of grape cell walls were analyzed by means of carbazole sulfuric acid method, PMP pre-column derivatization, high-performance liquid gel chromatography , scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism. Results showed that the highest and the lowest contents in fresh grape cell walls were alkali-soluble pectin (NSP) and chelate pectin (CSP), respectively, and they were 27.41 mg/g AIR and 8.25 mg/g AIR. The total pectin decreased after ultrasonic treatments, in which the water-soluble pectin (WSP) increased and the CSP and NSP decreased. A total of six monosaccharides were detected in three pectins, and the monosaccharides of different pectin were not the same. The galactose and arabinose were high in WSP, the glucuronic acid was the most abundant of CSP and the rhamnose were the highest in NSP. After ultrasonic treatment, the contents of monosaccharides decreased, while the composition did not change, and the main chain structure of pectin was no change, but the linear structure and the degree of branch chain were changed. With the increase of ultrasonic times and powers, the molecular weight of different pectins declined gradually. And in the microstructure showed a more loose morphology. In addition, ultrasonic treatment had an effect on the structure and chain conformation of CSP and NSP, which made their maximum response values shift, and the effect of ultrasonic power was more significant. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment could reduce the pectin and monosaccharide contents in grape cell walls, and affect the molecular linear structure and molecular chain conformation of pectin. These results can provide theoretical basis for the quality change of grape products under ultrasonic treatment.
Effect of Water-Added Content on the Quality and Structural Characteristics of High-moisture Extruded SoybeanMeal-Based Meat Analogues
YUE Chengcheng , WANG Zhe , TONG Lifeng , XING Weichen , DUAN Yumin , WANG Zhili , XIAO Zhigang , WANG Peng
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020004
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Soybean meal is a high quality plant protein resource. Exploring the possibility of using soybean meal instead of soybean protein isolate as raw material for high water extrusion plant protein meat processing is of great significance for production enterprises to control production cost and improve the economic value of soybean meal. In this study, the soybean meal was used as raw material to systemlly explore the effect of the water-added content (10.5, 11, 11.5, 12 kg/h) on the quality and structural characteristics of high-mositure extruded vegetable protein meat through determining the hardness, elasticity, chewiness, color and luster, water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, and chemical-crosslinking force and using Fourier infrared spectrum and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the hardness, elasticity, and chewability of the vegetable protein meat were significantly decreased with the increasing water-added content during extrusion (P<0.05), while the brightness value, water-holding capacity, and oil-holding capacity showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing. When the water-added content was 11.5 kg/h, the vegetable protein meat had better quality characteristics and appearance color, and the denser fibrous filaments were formed inside, and their layered structure became clear and neat, showing the fine directional structure. The results of Fourier infrared spectroscopy and chemical-crosslinking confirmed that the water-added content had a significant effect on the structure of vegetable protein meat, and the structure was maintained by the interaction of covalent bond and non-covalent bond.
Quality Difference between Aged Brine Marinated andQuantitative Marinated Beef
WU Jingjiao , TIAN Huan , HUANG Feng , HAN Dong , JING Xiaoliang , JIA Wei , ZHANG Chunhui
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023010178
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This study aimed to analyze the quality differences of sauced beef with aged brine and quantitative marinating methods by evaluating sensory characteristics, color, shear force, texture, moisture distribution, taste nucleotides, and free amino acids. Results showed that quantitative marinated beef received a higher score in sensory evaluation than aged brine marinated beef. Additionally, quantitative marinated beef had better color, lower shear force and hardness compared to aged brine marinated beef (P<0.05). It also had a higher moisture content and more even moisture distribution. The quantitative marinating method resulted in higher levels of 5′-AMP, 5′-IMP, and 5′-GMP in the beef sauce, which enhanced its umami intensity (P<0.05). Moreover, the total free amino acid content was higher in quantitative marinated beef (475.60 mg/100 g) than aged brine marinated beef (274.66 mg/100 g). These findings suggested that the use of quantitative marinating method can significantly improve the quality of marinated beef products and promote the industry's advancement.
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Alkali Alcohol Extraction and Macroporous Resin Purification of Ferulic Acid from Corn Husk
ZHANG Naidan , ZUO Zhaohang , WANG Ying , SUN Wei , PANG Weiqiao
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023030342
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To explore the extraction and purification process of ferulic acid from corn bran, ferulic acid from corn husks was extracted by ultrasound-assisted alkali alcohol method. The best extraction conditions were obtained by using the content of ferulic acid in the crude extract of corn husk as the index through single factor tests and response surface optimization test. Further purification of corn ferulic acid was used macroporous adsorption resin method, and suitable resin was selected by static adsorption method. Determined the optimal sample loading amount in the dynamic adsorption method, and obtained the optimal purification process conditions using recovery rate as an indicator through single factor experiments and response surface optimization experiment. Results showed that, the best extraction conditions of ferulic acid from corn bran were obtained as follows: Solid-liquid ratio 1:12 g/mL, mass concentration of lye was 4%, alkali-alcohol ratio was 2:1, ultrasound time 30 min, ultrasonic thermometer 59℃, ultrasonic power 229 W, and the amount of ferulic acid extracted could reached 22.31 mg/g under these conditions. The purification of ferulic acid was performed using HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin. The optimal loading volume was 6 times the bed volume. The optimal purification process conditions are as follows: Sample loading concentration 0.3 mg/mL, loading flow rate 3 mL/min, mass concentration of ethanol 75%, elution flow rate 1 mL/min. Under these conditions, the recovery rate of ferulic acid from corn peel was up to 95.17%, and the purity of ferulic acid was 81.56%. This experiment increased the added value of corn brans, and would provide the theoretical basis and data support for the further processing of corn brans and the development of ferulic acid.
Advances in the Study of Natural Product Polysaccharides for the Relief of Depression and Their Mechanisms
BAI Yuhe
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023030197
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Depression, as a common mental disorder, is often alleviated and treated with antipsychotic drugs in clinical practice. However, long-term use of such drugs can lead to serious sequelae such as drowsiness, nausea and memory loss in patients. Therefore, effective prevention or relief of depression, reducing the pain and side effects of treatment for depressed patients and increasing the cure rate of depression have become current research hotspots. Polysaccharides are biologically active substances derived from natural products, and many studies have shown that polysaccharides in natural products are effective in alleviating depression. In this paper, we review the effects and mechanisms of polysaccharides in natural products on the alleviation of depression by modulating neuronal dysfunction in the brain, modulating HPA axis abnormalities, modulating inflammation in the body, modulating microbial-gut-brain axis functions, and propose the cross-linking of polysaccharide products with drugs as a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention, alleviation and treatment of depression in the future based on these mechanisms of action. The study also suggests new targets and candidate compounds for the treatment of depression.
Research Progress of Functional Enzymes inTraditional Fermented Food
WANG Yuyao , ZHANG Jing , YI Zhuolin , ZHAO Hai , MA Yi
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020301
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Traditional fermented foods could produce a variety of functional enzymes and plenty of flavor compounds through microbial fermentation. The production process of fermented foods would be constantly enriched with abundant enzymes, and it is the current hotspot to study these functional enzymes systematically and scientifically. In this study, the traditional isolation and culture of functional enzymes from fermented food are analyzed, and it can identify the enzyme activity of key functional enzymes. Furthermore, this work summarizes the recent research on functional enzymes in fermented foods by high-throughput technologies, such as PICRUSt analysis based on 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing, metagenome, metatranscriptome and metaproteome. It is found that, compared to analysis by traditional isolation and culture, single high-throughput technology can obtain more functional enzymes information, analyze complex metabolic pathways and identify active functional enzymes. The research on functional enzymes by combinations of high-throughput technologies is also reviewed, and it is found that combination of different methods can obtain more information to analyze the fermentation process of traditional food comprehensively and deeply. It is also found that, based on analysis of high-throughput technology, some researchers have analyzed the specific functional enzymes in traditional foods by heterologous expression. This study comprehensively summarizes results and methods of functional enzymes in various traditional fermented foods, aiming to provide technical foundation for the research and application of functional enzymes in traditional fermented foods.
Research Advances on Organic Acid Degradation Process and Its Effects on Flavor of Fermented Alcohol Beverage
DONG Bingbing , TIAN Fang , LIU Jing , CAI Luyun
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020078
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Moderate organic acids can make fermented alcohol beverage produce comfortable flavor and delicate taste, but during the fermentation process, the content of organic acids in fermented alcohol beverage is unstable. Too much can easily result in astringent and bitter taste and poor flavor. Too little can make the wine bland and tasteless. The type of organic acid also has important influence on the flavor of fermented alcohol beverage. Some methods of acid degradation are frequently used to accurately reduce the level of the primary organic acids in fermented alcohol beverage in order to improve its flavor and quality. This helps to better maintain the volatile flavor components in fermented alcohol beverage and control its flavor. In order to provide a theoretical foundation for improving the quality of fermented alcohol beverage and optimizing the brew processing, and promoting the large-scale sustainable development of fermented alcohol beverage industry, this paper describes the main acid degradation processes and their principles in fermented alcohol beverage, analyzes the benefits, drawbacks, and limitation of various processes, discusses the effects of acid degradation processes on the types of flavor substances in fermented alcohol beverage, and offers an outlook on future research for flavor regulation of fermented alcohol beverage.
Research Progress in the Application of Proteomics andMetabolomics in Bee Products
LIN Congcong , ZHAO Yan , LIU Rui , LU Qun
, Available online   , doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023020136
Abstract(5) HTML (2) PDF(1)
Bee products are gaining increasing popularity among consumers for their high nutritional value and various biological activities. However, adulteration is becoming a prominent problem in the production and sale of bee products, and the mechanisms underlying their biological activities have not been fully elucidated. Proteomics and metabolomics can provide complete and comprehensive descriptions on the overall characteristics of proteins and small-molecular metabolites. In recent years, these two omics approaches have been widely used in the field of bee products, and become a powerful means to solve the problem of adulteration in bee products and elucidate the mechanisms underlying their biological activities. This paper reviews the research progress in the application of proteomics and metabolomics in bee products. Based on an overview of the advantages of proteomics and metabolomics in simultaneous identification of whole components and screening of characteristic markers, the paper also summarizes their applications in the identification of components, discrimination and authentication, and elucidation of mechanisms for biological activities of bee products in detail. In addition, the existing problems are analyzed and the future research directions are proposed. The paper is expected to provide a reference for extensive and in-depth application of omics technologies in the research of bee products.
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