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中国精品科技期刊2020
史家浩,徐幸莲,朱纯,等. 低温慢烫对淘汰蛋鸡去羽效果及胸肉过熟的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(17):1−8. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090044.
引用本文: 史家浩,徐幸莲,朱纯,等. 低温慢烫对淘汰蛋鸡去羽效果及胸肉过熟的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(17):1−8. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090044.
SHI Jiahao, XU Xinglian, ZHU Chun, et al. Effect of Low Temperature and Long Duration Scalding on Feather Removing and Breast Meat Over Heated of Spent Laying Hens[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(17): 1−8. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090044.
Citation: SHI Jiahao, XU Xinglian, ZHU Chun, et al. Effect of Low Temperature and Long Duration Scalding on Feather Removing and Breast Meat Over Heated of Spent Laying Hens[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(17): 1−8. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022090044.

低温慢烫对淘汰蛋鸡去羽效果及胸肉过熟的影响

Effect of Low Temperature and Long Duration Scalding on Feather Removing and Breast Meat Over Heated of Spent Laying Hens

  • 摘要: 本研究目的在于通过调整浸烫参数的方式减少淘汰蛋鸡在屠宰加工中的损失。以饲养日龄为400 d的淘汰蛋鸡作为研究对象,探究不同浸烫方式对其羽毛去除效果及皮下肌肉过熟程度的影响。分别设置三种温度和时间的浸烫组合:65 ℃-3 min(高温浸烫,High Temperature Scald,HS)、60 ℃-4 min 20 s(中温慢烫,Middle Temperature Slow Scald,MSS)、58 ℃-4 min 20 s(低温慢烫,Low Temperature Slow Scald,LSS),并以未经浸烫的淘汰蛋鸡作为对照组。通过测定浸烫后去羽力(Feather Retention Force,FRF)及计数残留羽毛数量表征浸烫脱毛效果。通过测定肉色、测量过熟区域深度、DSC扫描、拉曼光谱扫描表征不同浸烫处理对皮下肌肉过熟程度。浸烫后淘汰蛋鸡HS组与LSS组羽毛去除效果无显著差异,MSS组去羽力与残留羽毛数量显著低于另外两处理组(P<0.05),两种残留羽毛计数结果显示采用长时间浸烫能够使毛根数量减少。浸烫后鸡胸肉L*值显著高于对照组(P<0.05),其中HS组L*值比LSS、MSS组分别显著高出5.33与4.75(P<0.05)。沿肌纤维方向切割鸡胸肉发现截面出现明显分层(白色肉与正常肉),HS组白色肉厚度相比LSS组与MSS显著增加。DSC结果显示虽然三种浸烫处理均会使淘汰蛋鸡胸肉肌球蛋白变性,但是HS组胸肉中肌浆蛋白或胶原蛋白以及肌动蛋白的变性程度均高于其他两处理组。蛋白质二级结构相对含量显示HS组胸肉蛋白质变性程度最高。综合羽毛去除效果结果与胸肉过熟结果,得到淘汰蛋鸡最适浸烫参数为:60 ℃-4 min 20 s。本研究在抑制浸烫中皮下肌肉过熟程度的同时提升了浸烫脱毛效果,为企业屠宰淘汰蛋鸡提供技术参考。

     

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to reduce the loss of spent laying hens during slaughtering by adjusting the parameters of scalding. The research object of this study was the spent laying hens with a rearing age of more than 400 days. The research meant to explore the effect of scalding methods on feather removing and muscle overheating. Three scalding parameters were set as follow: 65℃- 3 min (high temperature scalding, HS), 60 ℃-4 min 20 s (medium temperature and slow scalding, MSS), and 58 ℃-4 min 20 s (low temperature and slow scalding, LSS). Broilers without scalding were set as the control group. The defeathering effect was characterized by measuring the feather retention force (FRF) and counting the number of feathers remaining after defeathering. The overheating degree of breast muscle was characterized by measuring meat color, depth of overheating area, DSC scanning and Raman spectrum scanning. The results showed that no significant difference in feather removal effects between HS treatments and LSS treatments, while the feather retention force and residual feather number of MSS treatment were significantly lower than those of the other two groups (P<0.05). Residual feather counting results showed that the number of feather roots could be reduced by using long time scalding. The L* value of chicken breast after scalding was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05), and the L* value in HS treatments was 5.33 and 4.75 significantly higher than that in LSS and MSS treatments (P<0.05), respectively. When the breast meat was cut along the direction of muscle fiber, it was found that the cross section was significantly stratified (white meat and normal meat). The thickness of white meat in HS treatments was significantly higher than that in LSS treatments and MSS treatments, indicating that the two slow scalding treatments could significantly reduce the degree of breast meat overheating. DSC results showed that although all three scalding treatments resulted in denaturation of myosin, HS treatment induced more denaturation degree of sarcoplasmic protein, collagen and actin compared to the other two treatments. The protein secondary structure relative content showed that the protein denaturation of breast in HS group was the highest. Based on the results of feather removal and breast meat overheating, the optimal scalding parameter combination for laying hens was 60℃-4 min 20 s. This study not only reduced the degree of overheating of breast muscles, but also improved the effect of feather removing, which provided technical reference for enterprises to slaughter spent laying hens.

     

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