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中国精品科技期刊2020
梁贤智,骆妍妃,阳景阳,等. 不同干燥工艺对金牡丹茶树花品质及挥发性风味成分的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(15):1−11. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023070167.
引用本文: 梁贤智,骆妍妃,阳景阳,等. 不同干燥工艺对金牡丹茶树花品质及挥发性风味成分的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(15):1−11. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023070167.
LIANG Xianzhi, LUO Yanfei, YANG Jingyang, et al. Effects of Different Drying Processes on the Quality and Volatile Flavor Components of Jinmudan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Flowers[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(15): 1−11. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023070167.
Citation: LIANG Xianzhi, LUO Yanfei, YANG Jingyang, et al. Effects of Different Drying Processes on the Quality and Volatile Flavor Components of Jinmudan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Flowers[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(15): 1−11. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023070167.

不同干燥工艺对金牡丹茶树花品质及挥发性风味成分的影响

Effects of Different Drying Processes on the Quality and Volatile Flavor Components of Jinmudan Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Flowers

  • 摘要: 为探究不同干燥工艺对金牡丹茶树花品质和挥发性风味成分的影响,选择真空冷冻干燥(预冻2 h,冷冻干燥6、8、10 h,冷阱温度−50 ℃,处理1、2、3)、热风干燥(处理时间3、4、5 h,烘焙温度75 ℃,处理4、5、6)及自然干燥处理(CK)3种干燥工艺处理,分析不同干燥处理方式对茶树花感官品质、内含物及挥发性风味成分的影响。结果表明:采用真空冷冻干燥工艺所制茶树花感官品质最优,均能保留花蜜香,且处理3的茶树花感官审评总分最高,水浸出物、茶多酚及咖啡碱含量较高,总氨基酸、甜味、鲜味、必需氨基酸含量最高。3种干燥工艺条件下共鉴定出挥发性成分107种,醇类、烷类及酮类为相对含量较高的挥发性成分。基于主成分分析(PCA)进一步进行聚类分析(HCA)表明,挥发性物质分为4组,与3种干燥工艺相对应。建立偏最小二乘-判别分析(PLS-DA)模型筛选出变量重要性(VIP)值大于1的标志差异性挥发性成分35个,而苏合香醇为CK特有的挥发性成分。综上所述,采用真空冷冻干燥工艺处理最能保留茶树花香和内含物,其中处理3综合评价最优。本研究为探究干燥方式对茶树花品质和风味的影响及挥发性成分变化规律提供了理论依据。

     

    Abstract: To explore the effect of different drying methods on the floral quality and volatile flavor compounds of Jinmudan tea flowers, three drying techniques were selected including vacuum freeze-drying (pre-freezing for 2 hours, freeze-dried for 6, 8, 10 hours, cold trap temperature −50 ℃, which were treatments 1, 2 and 3 respectively), hot air drying (the treatment time was 3, 4 and 5 hours, and the baking temperature was 75 ℃, which were treatments 4, 5 and 6 respectively), and natural drying (CK). The effects of these drying processes on sensory quality, chemical composition, amino acid profile, and volatile flavor compounds of tea flowers were analyzed. The results revealed that tea flowers dried using the vacuum freeze-drying method exhibited the best sensory quality, with a distinct honey aroma preserved. Among them, the tea flowers subjected to treatment 3 obtained the highest overall sensory evaluation score, along with higher levels of water extract, tea polyphenols, and caffeine content. Furthermore, they exhibited the highest total amino acid content, sweetness amino acid content, freshness amino acid content, and essential amino acid content. A total of 107 volatile compounds were identified across the 3 drying processes, with alcohols, alkanes, and ketones comprising the predominant volatile components. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on principal component analysis (PCA) further classified the volatile substances into 4 groups corresponding to 3 drying methods. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was established to select 35 volatile components with variable importance in projection (VIP) values greater than 1, indicating differential markers. Additionally, the volatile substance patchoulol was identified as unique to the CK group. In summary, vacuum freeze-drying is the most effective method for preserving the aroma and bioactive compounds of tea flowers, with treatment 3 demonstrating the optimal overall evaluation. This study provides a theoretical basis for exploring the effects of drying methods on the quality and flavor of tea flowers and their corresponding changes in volatile components.

     

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