为提升干制辣椒品质提供理论依据,本实验以小米椒为原料,研究冷冻干燥、自然晾晒、热风干燥和红外干燥对小米椒理化性质及抗氧化能力的影响,包括色泽、褐变度、果胶组分、游离氨基酸、总酚和抗氧化能力。结果表明,与冷冻干燥相比,自然晾晒、热风干燥和红外干燥均在一定程度上降低了干制辣椒的理化性质和抗氧化能力,表现在色泽劣变、褐变度升高、果胶降解、游离氨基酸含量和抗氧化能力降低等方面。与热风干燥和红外干燥相比,自然晾晒对干制辣椒品质的影响较小,其处理的样品色泽劣变较低;总酚含量和抗氧化能力维持在较高的水平。此外,自然晾晒的样品果胶降解程度较小,水溶性果胶、螯合性果胶和碱溶性果胶组分含量分别维持在22.39 mg D-半乳糖醛酸/g DW、1.22 mg D-半乳糖醛酸/g DW和16.17 mg D-半乳糖醛酸/g DW;游离氨基酸含量保持在11.860 mg/g DW。因此,自然晾晒能较好的保持干制辣椒的理化性质和抗氧化能力,相比于其他三种方式更适合于小米椒干燥。
In order to provide theoretical basis for improving the quality of dried pepper,four kinds of drying methods including freeze drying,sun drying,infrared radiation drying,hot air drying,and their effects on the physicochemical property and antioxidant capacity in peppers were investigated. The results showed that,sun drying,hot air drying,and infrared radiation drying could decrease the physicochemical property and antioxidant capacity to some extent compared to freeze drying,including low color deterioration,increasing of browning degree,degradation of pectin components,decreasing of free amino acid contents and antioxidant capacity. Sun drying had limit effect on the quality than hot air drying and infrared drying. For the peppers treated by sun drying,their color deterioration was lower. Total phenols contents and antioxidant activities were also maintained at high level after sun drying. Otherwise,the degradation degree of pectin was smaller,and the contents of water solute pectin,chelate-solute pectin,and sodium carbonate solute pectin were respectively 22.39 mg GalA/g DW,1.22 mg GalA/g DW,and 16.17 mg GalA/g DW.The contents of free amino acids was 11.860 mg/g DW in sun dried peppers. Hence,comparing to other three kinds of drying methods,sun drying better retained the physicochemical property and antioxidant capacity of peppers and was suitable for pepper drying.