本文总结近15年有关中国妇女母乳脂肪酸构成的现有证据,将大量分散的研究数据及课题组数据按地区和泌乳期进行整合,得到各省级行政区构成的全国汇总数据。共有17个省级行政区的4727例母乳脂肪酸数据被纳入分析,其中初乳1327例,过渡乳900例,成熟乳2500例。进一步对各脂肪酸随泌乳期的变化趋势及其原因进行了探究。结果显示,随着泌乳期的延长,我国母乳中总SFA的构成占比呈增长趋势,C6:0、C15:0和C18:0的含量较为稳定,受泌乳期影响不大,受泌乳期影响较大的SFA中,除C20:0、C22:0、C24:0外,其他SFA在初乳中的含量均显著低于过渡乳或成熟乳(P<0.05)。我国母乳中总MUFA的构成比随泌乳期的延长呈下降趋势,在过渡乳时期下降明显,随后趋于稳定,只有C17:1的含量不受泌乳期的影响,受泌乳期影响的MUFA中,除C16:1外,其他MUFA在初乳中的含量均显著高于过渡乳或成熟乳(P<0.05)。我国母乳中总PUFA的构成占比随泌乳期的延长呈先增高后降低的趋势,n-3 PUFA和n-6 PUFA的变化和此趋势一致。分析比较的结果有利于更加深入而准确地了解我国母乳脂肪酸的构成情况及随泌乳期的变化情况,为一定程度上探明我国人群母乳脂肪酸组成特点、婴幼儿生长发育相关研究及配方食品研发提供基础数据。
Nearly 15 years of available evidence on the fatty acid composition of breast milk in China were summarized and the large amount of scattered research data with the data were collected in the survey. Finally,the national aggregate data of the composition of each provincial administrative region were obtained to analyze the differences of milk fatty acids in different lactation periods. A total of 4,727 cases of milk fatty acid from 17 provincial regions were included in the analysis,including 1327 cases of colostrum,900 cases of transition milk and 2500 cases of mature milk. The variation tendency of fatty acids with lactation and their causes were investigated. The results showed that with the prolongation of lactation period,the proportion of total SFA in breast milk was rising. The contents of C6:0,C15:0 and C18:0 were relatively stable and not affected by lactation period. In the SFAs affected by lactation period,except C20:0,C22:0 and C24:0,the content of other SFAs in colostrum was significantly lower than that in transition milk or mature milk(P<0.05). The proportion of total MUFA in breast milk showed a decreasing trend with the prolongation of lactation period,which decreased significantly during the transition milk period and then became stable. Only the content of C17:1 was not affected by lactation period. In the MUFAs affected by lactation period,except C16:1,the content of other MUFAs in the colostrum was significantly higher than that in the transition milk or mature milk(P<0.05). The proportion of total PUFA in breast milk increased first and then decreased with the prolongation of lactation period,and the changes of n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were consistent with this trend. The results of analysis and comparison are beneficial for us to understand the composition of breast milk fatty acids and its changes with lactation period in China. It is hoped that this article can provide basic data for the study of the composition of breast milk fatty acids,related research on infant growth and development,and the development of infant formula.