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中国精品科技期刊2020 食品青年科学家峰会

基于SPME-GC-O-MS及质构分析对烤牛肉和植物蛋白肉的感官品质探究

李学杰 宋焕禄 王中江 李健

李学杰,宋焕禄,王中江,等. 基于SPME-GC-O-MS及质构分析对烤牛肉和植物蛋白肉的感官品质探究[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(12):8−18. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030081
引用本文: 李学杰,宋焕禄,王中江,等. 基于SPME-GC-O-MS及质构分析对烤牛肉和植物蛋白肉的感官品质探究[J]. 食品工业科技,2021,42(12):8−18. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030081
LI Xuejie, SONG Huanlu, WANG Zhongjiang, et al. Research on Sensory Quality of Roasted Beef and Plant-based Meat Analogues Based on SPME-GC-O-MS and Texture Analysis[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(12): 8−18. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030081
Citation: LI Xuejie, SONG Huanlu, WANG Zhongjiang, et al. Research on Sensory Quality of Roasted Beef and Plant-based Meat Analogues Based on SPME-GC-O-MS and Texture Analysis[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2021, 42(12): 8−18. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030081

基于SPME-GC-O-MS及质构分析对烤牛肉和植物蛋白肉的感官品质探究

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030081
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李学杰(1996−),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:食品风味化学,E-mail:lxj13105161752@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李健(1985−),男,博士,教授,研究方向:食品风味化学,E-mail:lijian@btbu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TS251.6

Research on Sensory Quality of Roasted Beef and Plant-based Meat Analogues Based on SPME-GC-O-MS and Texture Analysis

  • 摘要: 采用固相微萃取(solid-phase microextraction,SPME)结合气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱联用技术(gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry,GC-O-MS)对3种市售植物蛋白肉(样品I、样品B、样品O)、1种自制植物蛋白肉(样品C)和1种市售牛肉中的挥发性组分进行分析,同时结合质构分析和感官评价评估其感官属性。结果表明:自制植物肉(样品C)中肉味相关化合物含量高,肉香气、肉滋味与牛肉接近,整体质量高于3种市售植物肉,但植物肉的外观、质构等感官属性与牛肉相比差距较大。5种肉样中共鉴定出154种挥发性组分,其中通过GC-O鉴定出40种气味活性化合物,牛肉中鉴定出69种化合物,其中46种在植物肉中也被鉴定出;牛肉中与脂肪氧化相关的醛类、醇类等化合物的含量明显高于植物肉,植物肉中与美拉德反应相关的吡嗪、呋喃等杂环化合物的含量显著高于牛肉,且自制植物肉(样品C)中杂环化合物含量要高于3种市售植物肉。牛肉的硬度、弹性、胶粘性、咀嚼性等质构特性能要优于植物肉,并且植物肉样品I、样品O、样品C的质构特性要优于样品B。
  • 图  1  5种样品经过GC-MS分析的总离子流图

    Figure  1.  Total ion chromatogram of 5 samples analyzed by GC-MS

    图  2  5种样品经过PCA分析的得分图(a)和载荷图(b)

    Figure  2.  Score scatter plot (a) and loading scatter plot (b) of 5 samples after PCA analysis

    图  3  5种肉样烤制之前(a)和烤制之后(b)的外观变化

    Figure  3.  The appearance changes of 5 kinds of meat samples before cooking (a) and after cooking (b)

    注:1:样品I;2:样品B;3:样品O;4:样品C;5:牛肉。

    表  1  通过SPME-GC-O-MS对植物蛋白肉和牛肉中的挥发性组分鉴定结果

    Table  1.   Volatile components identified by SPME-GC-O-MS from the plant-based meat analogues and roasted beef

    CAS号气味特征理论RI实际RI定性方式风味化合物浓度(ng/g)
    样品I样品B样品O样品C牛肉
    醛类
    196-17-32-甲基丁醛907913MS,RI5.2±1.17a7±1.56a2.06±0.1b6.95±0.1a1.99±0.23b
    2590-86-33-甲基丁醛912917MS,RI11.38±2.55b8.44±0.75c4.06±0.2d16.3±1.39a4±0.18d
    3142-83-6(E,E)-2, 4-己二烯醛1398951MS1.21±0.19
    4110-62-3戊醛麦芽、杏仁味979978MS,RI,O37.97±5.18b71.71±8.75a18.49±2.68c39.44±1.74b76.63±10.33a
    5123-73-9(E)-2-丁烯醛10371039MS,RI51.94±7.11
    666-25-1己醛青草味10801081MS,RI,O205.12±18.25c295.03±27.92b77.51±3.63d364.05±4.69b532.53±81.77a
    71576-87-0(E)-2-戊烯醛11251131MS,RI7.22±0.86
    8111-71-7庚醛脂肪、酸败味11861182MS,RI,O36.55±6.25c230.46±50.14b33.13±2.23c458.6±66.48a
    96728-26-3(E)-2-已烯醛12191219MS,RI36.41±1.57a49.45±11.73a17.53±4.28b
    10124-13-0辛醛清香、脂肪味12911288MS,RI,O65.1±8.85c191.46±9.91b63.23±8.51c45.5±5.52c548.22±32.61a
    1118829-55-5(E)-2-庚烯醛肥皂、苦杏仁味13201326MS,RI,O89.12±14.58b136.3±34.05a33.75±1.61c12.46±0.37c
    12124-19-6壬醛13901394MS,RI232.16±27.09c356.31±56.77b123.48±24.3d68.44±12.27d751.37±78.6a
    132548-87-0(E)-2-辛烯醛清香、脂肪味14341433MS,RI,O53.75±5.39b91.22±15.69a26.53±1.19c18.9±0.98c29.29±4.18c
    14112-31-2癸醛肥皂、牛油味15001501MS,RI,O20.57±2.22c66.44±0.53b12.63±2.88c81.66±9.59a
    15100-52-7苯甲醛苦杏仁味15291534MS,RI,O409.42±31.56a376.59±37.98a258.95±20.16b362.24±17.57a160.76±26.12c
    1618829-56-6(E)-2-壬烯醛清香、黄瓜味15421546MS,RI,O16.91±3.08b32.06±7.07b9.64±0.61b11.76±1.18b129.74±25.35a
    17112-44-7十一醛16091609MS,RI4.5±0.48b3.45±0.79b36.25±13.8a
    183913-81-3(E)-2-癸烯醛牛油味16481654MS,RI,O132.79±16.06a76.45±10.68b73.75±22.04b
    195910-87-2(E,E)-2,4-壬二烯醛17061713MS,RI9.97±1.68a4.15±0.24b
    2053448-07-0(E)-2-十一醛17611765MS,RI88.43±12.47a39.15±0.46b
    212363-88-42,4-癸二烯醛17951827MS,RI41.83±6.96a22.93±4.9b13.44±0.67b
    2225152-84-5(E,E)-2,4-癸二烯醛煎炸、脂肪味17951827MS,RI,O155.18±26.75a58.88±9.96b99.42±37.74ab
    醛类总含量1711.54±104.35c2070.74±72.31b915.57±71.81d946.01±12.37d2811.03±383.41a
    醇类
    115250-22-32,7-二甲基-1-辛醇829MS3.16±0.19
    219550-05-13,4-二甲基-2-己醇960MS9.11±0.76
    341453-56-9(Z)-2-壬烯-1-醇甜瓜、柠檬味1053MS,O2.62±0.03
    438285-42-6(E)-2-壬烯-2-醇1053MS3.78±0.29
    52088-07-52-甲基-1-戊烯-3-醇1058MS23.18±1.26
    669668-90-2(Z)-3-壬烯-2-醇黄瓜味1060MS,O11.34±2.49
    778-83-12-甲基-1-丙醇10941102MS,RI82.17±23.18
    8112-42-51-十一醇柑橘味1127MS,O42.19±2.08b56.8±2.77a
    9137-32-62-甲基-1-丁醇12081209MS,RI82.36±15.84
    10123-51-33-甲基-1-丁醇12111211MS,RI360.26±44.47
    113913-02-82-丁基-1-辛醇1234MS59.27±8.31
    12112-53-81-十二醇19811234MS42.86±7.04
    1371-41-01-戊醇12551261MS,RI32.04±1.93b39.93±1.05a12.17±1.65c25.78±5.07b45.23±5.03a
    14111-27-3己醇青草、树脂味13601361MS,RI,O106.06±15.55a23.23±4.43cd6.73±1.07d39.29±1.12c61.73±10.95b
    15111-35-33-乙氧基-1-丙醇13591379MS,RI6.14±0.15
    1621570-35-42-甲基-4-庚醇1382MS6.08±0.91
    1769668-82-23, 5-辛二烯-2-醇1412MS9.74±0.04
    183391-86-41-辛烯-3-醇蘑菇味14561456MS,RI,O42.89±3.95d94.65±14.09b56.3±3.2cd71.04±3.32c124.38±16.06a
    19111-70-6庚醇青草味14621463MS,RI,O37.23±1.04c60.78±11.17b23.43±7.24c102.19±12.92a
    20104-76-72-乙基己醇14841496MS,RI78.15±15.92a11.87±3.4b118.28±3.62b
    2178-70-6芳樟醇15521558MS,RI5.48±0.8
    22111-87-5辛醇15641570MS,RI50.02±5.48b31.99±0.91bc32.58±10.02bc15.86±0.77c106.13±14.33a
    2318409-17-1(E)-2-辛烯-1-醇16221622MS,RI7.31±0.01a3.31±1.02b
    2498-55-5α-松油醇16981710MS,RI2.8±0.24
    25100-51-6苯甲醇甜味、花香味18861894MS,RI,O10.6±1.31a3.09±0.4b13.84±2.55a
    2660-12-8苯乙醇19231934MS,RI11.91±1.11b195.86±47a
    27770-35-41-苯氧基-2-丙醇2064MS69.69±14.97
    284169-04-42-苯氧基-1-丙醇2109MS13.26±4.76
    醇类总含量376.20±27.97b486.20±35.96b152.28±12.70c192.18±4.94c1281.31±195.62a
    酮类
    12550-21-23-甲基-2-己酮1095812MS3.46±0.53
    2105-42-04-甲基-2-己酮811MS10.82±3.75
    367-64-1丙酮814815MS,RI91.63±11.41a47.99±6.53b15.75±1.6c22.1±0.31c
    42371-19-93-甲基-2-庚酮899MS15.51±2.84
    5110-12-35-甲基-2-己酮1155826MS3.64±0.45
    678-93-32-丁酮900903MS,RI33.49±3.6a29.15±5.87a4.84±0.26b6.87±0.35b
    7123-54-6乙酰丙酮1052MS25.2±1.83
    8106-35-43-庚酮1149MS4.3±1.23
    9110-43-02-庚酮肥皂味11831184MS,RI,O278.97±0.03
    102550-21-23-甲基-2-己酮1217MS18.3±4.29
    11589-63-94-辛酮12241222MS,RI8.38±1.27
    12541-85-55-甲基-3-庚酮1255MS38.54±3.91
    13111-13-72-辛酮12781286MS,RI3.48±0.17c55.79±4.23a3.76±0.57c50.77±8.8a18.52±1.54b
    14513-86-03-羟基-2-丁酮黄油味12871293MS,RI,O61.31±11.82
    153214-41-32, 5-辛二烯酮1320MS140.11±29.67
    16110-93-06-甲基-5-庚烯-2-酮蘑菇、橡胶味13411340MS,RI,O49.43±6.39bc109.19±14.41a73.13±18.99b36.31±9.41c
    17821-55-62-壬酮13981391MS,RI11.72±0.26b85.24±11.92a13.39±1.21b19.65±2.02b
    181669-44-93-辛烯-2-酮1411MS37.27±3.61
    1914309-57-03-壬烯-2-酮1521MS5.49±1.14ab7.51±1.83a4.19±0.41b
    2030086-02-3(E, E)-3, 5-辛二烯-2-酮15691581MS,RI47.77±4.36a12.22±2.61b10.79±1.36b
    21112-12-92-十一烷酮15981604MS,RI10.06±2.28a1.83±0.37b16.58±4.10a
    2298-86-2苯乙酮16521665MS,RI7.75±2.31
    23585-25-12, 3-辛二酮1674MS11.85±2.42a5.03±0.2b
    24593-08-82-十三酮18161820MS,RI42.66±8.79a3.1±0.78b6.95±1.89b
    酮类总含量207.08±16.31d560.62±18.12a140.78±22.01e447.26±21.20b266.03±32.73c
    164-19-7乙酸14521457MS,RI88.79±7.53a9.38±2.56b
    21979-9-4丙酸15351548MS,RI375.91±45.23
    3142-62-1己酸18611857MS,RI39.77±2.64bc53.85±5.59b15.48±5.45d21.43±0.39cd98.4±19.30a
    4124-07-2辛酸20722072MS,RI21.05±0.45a13.00±2.87b
    5112-05-0壬酸21692164MS,RI73.8±23.46
    6143-07-7月桂酸24792487MS,RI18.91±1.57
    酸类总含量525.52±51.76a53.85±5.59c37.86±6.53c21.43±0.39c191.12±42.23b
    酯类
    179-20-9乙酸甲酯825826MS,RI1.8±0.34
    2141-78-6乙酸乙酯898888MS,RI4.81±0.39
    3108-05-4乙酸乙烯酯976MS6.62±0.06
    4556-24-1异戊酸甲酯10181019MS,RI14.96±5.2b22.98±7.65a
    5124-25-4肉豆蔻醛19241249MS18.9±1.73
    6106-32-1辛酸乙酯脂肪味14401437MS,RI,O16.84±4.02
    7512-56-1磷酸三甲酯1482MS19.55±4.11
    8111-55-71, 2-乙二醇二乙酸酯1558MS414.29±58.07
    993-89-0苯甲醛乙酯16531680MS,RI5.83±0.97
    10140-11-4乙酸苄酯17421743MS,RI53.48±1.25
    11109-21-7丁酸丁酯12161873MS95.27±4.66
    12104-67-6桃醛苦杏仁味1948MS,O4.78±0.71b9.51±2.83a3.37±0.73b
    13616-38-6碳酸二甲酯2125MS50.8±13.28
    14112-39-0棕榈酸甲酯22332222MS, RI45.78±3.63
    155129-61-3异硬脂酸甲酯2427MS17.89±11.51
    酯类总含量19.74±6.91c459.55±74.03a69.28±3.03c29.60 ±7.59c229.29±20.61b
    含硫类
    1624-92-0二甲基二硫醚洋葱味10661071MS,RI,O4.08±0.29b6.3±0.93a1.41±0.27c
    2592-88-1二烯丙基硫醚11431141MS,RI20.83±3.47
    32179-58-0烯丙基甲基二硫醚12811277MS,RI4.69±0.47
    43268-49-33-甲硫基丙醛肉味14561459MS,RI,O55.83±5.32
    52179-57-9二烯丙基二硫醚洋葱、肉味14751484MS,RI,O62.72±12.77
    62179-57-9己二烯二硫醚14751485MS,RI3.18±0.74
    含硫类总含量92.32±20.27a6.30±1.14c4.59±0.74c55.83±5.32 b
    杂环类
    1290-37-9吡嗪烤榛子味12571217MS,RI,O56.01±0.29
    2109-08-0甲基吡嗪12611272MS,RI19.93±2.56b16.82±1.34b106.28±5.62a
    3123-32-02,5-二甲基吡嗪13291331MS,RI30.93±1.74c43.96±3.47b170.79±8.35a
    4108-50-92, 6-二甲基吡嗪烤牛肉味13341337MS,RI,O6.52±0.64b35.02±9.79a6.92±1.56b
    513925-00-3乙基吡嗪烤花生味13381342MS,RI,O32.72±7.74
    65910-89-42,3-二甲基吡嗪13421355MS,RI1.74±0.31b14.95±0.73a
    713360-64-05-甲基-2-乙基-吡嗪咖啡、烤坚果味13931399MS,RI,O35.68±3.78b63.65±3.18a
    840790-29-22, 5-二甲基-3-丁基-吡嗪1407MS38.72±14.83
    913925-03-66-甲基-2-乙基吡嗪13901400MS,RI23.14±2.67b97.74±6.15a
    1014667-55-1三甲基吡嗪烤土豆味14101414MS,RI,O11.42±0.1281.04±14.02a44.27±3.0772.26±0.17a
    1113360-65-12, 5-二甲基-3-乙基吡嗪烤杏仁、烤土豆味14491455MS,RI,O7.31±0.61c30.18±2.23b115.86±8.2a
    1213925-07-03, 5-二甲基2-乙基吡嗪土豆味14621472MS,RI,O7.72±0.18b23.14±5.71a
    1318138-05-12-甲基3, 5-二乙基吡嗪14921504MS,RI12.49±1.64
    14620-02-05-甲基糠醛焦糖味15741583MS,RI,O72.26±4.33a18.77±0.52b19.19±3.07b
    1522047-25-2乙酰基吡嗪16291641MS,RI10.06±1.32
    1698-00-0糠醇焦香味16651670MS,RI,O32.6±2.29b13.52±0.98c63.74±4.99a
    173208-16-02-乙基呋喃945951MS,RI11.39±0.19
    181004-29-12-丁基四氢呋喃1158MS16.84±3.04
    193777-69-32-戊基呋喃豆腥味12281226MS,RI,O77.26±4.89c214.75±2.61b85.38±11.62c777.51±49.89a51.07±10.37c
    2098-01-1糠醛杏仁味14671468MS,RI,O44.12±7.14c934.37±64.75a29.23±6.52c82.18±5.68bc131.81±19.49b
    211192-62-72-乙酰基呋喃15011513MS,RI56.1±6.23a11.36±2.13b10.7±0.63b
    224179-38-82-辛基呋喃1542MS0.77±0.19
    2398-00-02-呋喃甲醇焦香味16651670MS,RI,O61.88±9.87a44.78±14.99a
    243658-77-3呋喃酮20332056MS,RI24.55±5.84
    25616-44-43-甲基噻吩脂肪味11141089MS,RI,O31.96±4.32
    杂环类总含量285.96±12.35b1577.71±130.29a349.33±9.58b1619.96±72.07a302.41±33.88b
    含苯环类
    1108-88-3甲苯10371038MS,RI19.92±1.82b13.25±1.6b98.56±33.86a
    2108-38-31,3-二甲基苯11411119MS,RI9.29±1.5
    3106-42-3对二甲苯11301133MS,RI5.96±0.44b6.68±1.18b5.68±0.89b25.16±4.18a
    495-47-6邻二甲苯11301133MS,RI5±0.85b13.01±1.36a
    5103-65-1丙苯12071203MS,RI35.18±4.18
    6527-84-4邻-异丙基苯12981266MS,RI42.17±1.11a52.81±18.3a
    795-63-61, 2, 4-三甲基苯12781275MS,RI6.79±0.6
    8104-51-8丁苯13121311MS,RI31.54±5.63
    9135-77-31, 2, 4-三甲氧基苯1979MS3.9±0.51
    含苯环类总含量53.13±1.60bc95.93±5.06b23.84±2.74c58.49±17.62bc143.52±48.18a
    烯烃类
    1111-67-12-辛烯836MS28.41±2.42
    2124-11-81-壬烯931938MS,RI61.04±2.64
    320063-77-83-壬烯953MS9.01±0.58b15.34±3.62a
    4872-05-91-癸烯10471039MS,RI92.9±4.81
    519689-18-04-癸烯1055MS20.37±0.84
    64941-53-15-十一烯1142MS77.76±19.15
    75989-27-5柠檬烯1187MS73.9±2.35b74.91±42.64b140.56±23.06a13.65±1.76c
    899-85-4γ-松油烯12351239MS,RI11.27±1.83b20.98±1.54a
    9100-42-5苯乙烯12551255MS,RI14.25±0.99b8.06±1.32b110.28±29.14a15.51±4.55b
    10527-84-4伞花烃12981268MS,RI84.69±13.85
    烯烃类总含量99.42±0.87c385.39±53.26a233.30±38.52b123.94±27.38c30.86±3.44d
    其它类
    1501-92-84-烯丙基苯酚1740MS3.61±0.21
    290-05-12-甲氧基苯酚18891879MS,RI59.98±6.08
    390-05-1愈创木酚18891879MS,RI24.72±0.19a15.65±2.46b
    41072-83-92-乙酰基吡咯19801997MS,RI6.64±0.7
    5118-71-8麦芽酚19811999MS,RI210.55±25.83
    6118-71-8甲基麦芽酚焦糖味19811999MS,RI,O188.35±8.03
    7118-71-8麦芽酚19812001MS,RI10.1±2.29
    8108-95-2苯酚20062007MS,RI48.82±10.78
    9120-72-9吲哚24412473MS,RI35.58±1.53
    其它类总含量24.72±0.19d270.53±37.36a32.38±1.36d191.96±8.23b84.40±11.84c
    所有化合物总含量3395.63±76.50b5966.81±305.69a1959.23±136.14c3686.67±34.65b5339.98±740.99a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  5种肉样中的化合物含量和数量汇总

    Table  2.   Summary of compounds content and variety 5 meat samples

    化合物含量(ng/g) 化合物数量(种)
    样品I样品B样品O样品C牛肉 样品I样品B样品O样品C牛肉
    醛类1711.54±104.35c2070.74±72.31b915.57±71.81d946.01±12.37d 2811.03±383.41a2116201012
    醇类376.20±27.97b486.20±35.96b152.28±12.70c192.18±4.94c1281.31±195.62a9149814
    酮类207.08±16.31d560.62±18.12a140.78±22.01e447.26±21.20b266.03±32.73c71410810
    酸类525.52±51.76a53.85±5.59c37.86±6.53c21.43±0.39c191.12±42.23b41313
    酯类19.74±6.91c459.55±74.03a69.28±3.03c29.60 ±7.59c229.29±20.61b24525
    含硫类92.32±20.27a6.30±1.14c4.59±0.74c55.83±5.32b041210
    杂环类285.96±12.35b1577.71±130.29a349.33±9.58b1619.96±72.07a302.41±33.88b11914156
    含苯环类53.13±1.60bc95.93±5.06b23.84±2.74c58.49±17.62bc143.52±48.18a34324
    烯烃类99.42±0.87c385.39±53.26a233.30±38.52b123.94±27.38c30.86±3.44d38322
    其它类24.72±0.19d270.53±37.36a32.38±1.36d191.96±8.23b84.40±11.84c12322
    汇总3395.63±76.50b5966.81±305.69a1959.23±136.14c3686.67±34.65b5339.98±740.99a6573725158
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  植物蛋白肉和牛肉之间的质构分析

    Table  3.   Texture analysis between plant-based meat analogues and beef

    样品I样品B样品O样品C牛肉
    硬度(N)4.36±0.57b1.76±0.23d3.43±0.2bc2.91±0.25c9.31±1.02a
    粘附性(N×mm)0.03±0.01c0.06±0a0.04±0b0.03±0c0.02±0d
    弹性(mm)2.20±0.25b1.07±0.29c2.40±0.17b2.31±0.12b3.58±0.15a
    回复性(%)0.18±0.02d0.15±0.01e0.27±0c0.37±0.01a0.32±0.01b
    胶粘性(N)1.89±0.33b0.64±0.03c1.94±0.19b1.93±0.16b6.19±0.28a
    咀嚼性(mJ)4.21±1.23b0.8±0.09c4.67±0.58b4.47±0.44b22.17±1.86a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同植物肉和牛肉之间的感官评价得分对比

    Table  4.   Comparison of sensory evaluation scores between different plant-based meat analogues and beef

    样品I样品B样品O样品C牛肉
    肉香气2.7±0.95a3.0±1.05a2.0±0.67b3.2±0.79a3.3±1.49a
    肉滋味2.6±1.17bc2.6±0.84bc1.9±0.57c3.4±0.84ab4.0±1.05a
    嫩度2.4±1.07a2.7±0.95a2.9±0.99a2.8±0.79a2.3±0.95a
    多汁性2.5±0.71a2.6±0.84a2.4±0.84a2.4±1.17a2.3±0.95a
    其它香气3.1±0.99a3.0±1.41a2.6±1.17ab3.1±0.88a1.9±1.2b
    异味(如豆腥味、肉膻味等)2.2±1.4a1.9±1.29a2.3±1.06a1.8±0.92a2.0±0.94a
    总体可接受度3.1±0.88ab2.9±0.99ab2.4±1.17b3.7±0.82a3.0±1.15ab
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-21
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-03

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