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核桃油与常用植物油中37种脂肪酸和角鲨烯含量比较

金春爱 王荣灿 王馨翊 金美伶 王玉方 李亚丽

金春爱,王荣灿,王馨翊,等. 核桃油与常用植物油中37种脂肪酸和角鲨烯含量比较[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(12):261−267. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090043
引用本文: 金春爱,王荣灿,王馨翊,等. 核桃油与常用植物油中37种脂肪酸和角鲨烯含量比较[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(12):261−267. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090043
JIN Chun’ai, WANG Rongcan, WANG Xinyi, et al. Comparison of 37 Fatty Acids and Squalene in Walnut Oil and Common Vegetable Oils[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(12): 261−267. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090043
Citation: JIN Chun’ai, WANG Rongcan, WANG Xinyi, et al. Comparison of 37 Fatty Acids and Squalene in Walnut Oil and Common Vegetable Oils[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(12): 261−267. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090043

核桃油与常用植物油中37种脂肪酸和角鲨烯含量比较

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090043
基金项目: 吉林省科技攻关重点专项(20190301083NY);中国农业科学院所级基本科研业务费(125161034-2021-005,125161034-2021-038);吉林省自然科学基金(20190201160JC);吉林省发改委产业技术研究与开发专项(2021C040-2,2019C052-10);中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(CAAS-ASTIP-2014-ISAPS)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    金春爱(1970−),女,本科,副研究员,研究方向:特种动植物加工及营养成分分析,E-mail:kimchunai@163.com

    王荣灿(1997−),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:食药分析及质量评价,E-mail:can1939958416@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李亚丽(1981−),女,博士,研究员,研究方向:食药分析及质量评价,E-mail:Yalilee@126.com

  • 中图分类号: TS225.1

Comparison of 37 Fatty Acids and Squalene in Walnut Oil and Common Vegetable Oils

  • 摘要: 为探明核桃油与大豆油、芝麻油和玉米胚芽油等常用植物油的营养价值差异,本研究采用气-质联用法和气相色谱法对4种植物油中37种脂肪酸和角鲨烯的含量进行了测定,并开展了对比分析。结果表明,核桃油与常用植物油营养价值存在显著差异(P<0.05),核桃油富含α-亚麻酸、二十碳二烯酸和亚油酸3种多不饱和脂肪酸以及油酸等单不饱和脂肪酸,还含有少量的棕榈酸及硬脂酸等饱和脂肪酸,核桃油中多不饱和脂肪酸组成与比例显著高于其他植物油(P<0.05),而饱和脂肪酸则显著低于其他植物油(P<0.05);核桃油中角鲨烯含量略低于芝麻油,属于优质植物油。4种植物油中总脂肪酸含量从高到低顺序依次为大豆油、芝麻油、核桃油和玉米胚芽油,含量分别为78.11、73.96、69.20和48.83 g/100 g;4种植物油均含α-亚麻酸、亚油酸和二十碳二烯酸等人体必需脂肪酸(Essential fatty acids,EFA),EFA含量从高到低依次为核桃油、大豆油、玉米胚芽油和芝麻油,分别占总脂肪酸的90.0%、70.7%、64.9%和54.1%;4种植物油的油酸含量与亚油酸含量的比值(油亚比R)由高到低依次为芝麻油、玉米胚芽油、大豆油和核桃油,分别为0.62、0.35、0.27和0.10,表明4种植物油中,芝麻油的抗氧化能力最大,可保存时间最长。大豆油、核桃油和芝麻油中均检出角鲨烯,其含量从高到低依次为大豆油、芝麻油和核桃油,含量分别为173.3、72.9和31.4 mg/kg,玉米胚芽油中仅含有微量的角鲨烯,未检出。本研究表明不同植物油中脂肪酸及角鲨烯等营养物质含量存在差异,可为食用植物油的营养价值分析、相关的食品和保健品等产品研发提供科学依据。
  • 图  1  37种脂肪酸气-质联用总离子流图

    Figure  1.  Total ion chromatograms of GC-MS for 37 fatty acids

    注:A.37种脂肪酸标准品;B. 大豆油;C. 核桃油;D. 芝麻油;E.玉米胚芽油。1.丁酸甲酯;2.己酸甲酯;3.辛酸甲酯;4.癸酸甲酯;5.十一酸甲酯;6.月桂酸甲酯;7.十三烷酸甲酯;8.肉豆蔻酸甲酯;9.肉豆蔻脑酸甲酯;10.十五烷酸甲酯;11.顺-10-十五碳烯酸甲酯;12.棕榈酸甲酯;13.棕榈烯酸甲酯;14.十七烷酸甲酯;15.顺-10-十七碳烯酸甲酯;16.硬脂酸甲酯;17.反油酸甲酯;18.油酸甲酯;19.反亚油酸甲酯;20.亚油酸甲酯;21.γ-亚麻酸甲酯;22.α-亚麻酸甲酯;23.花生酸甲酯;24.顺-11二十碳烯酸甲酯;25.顺-11,14-二十碳二烯酸甲酯;26.二十一烷酸甲酯;27.顺8,11,14-二十碳三烯酸甲酯;28.花生四烯酸甲酯;29.顺-11,14,17二十碳三烯酸甲酯;30.榆树酸甲酯;31.EPA甲酯;32.顺芥子酸甲酯;33.顺-13,16-二十二碳二烯酸甲酯;34.二十三烷酸甲酯;35.木蜡酸甲酯;36.神经酸甲酯;37. DHA甲酯。

    图  2  角鲨烯气相色谱图

    Figure  2.  Gas chromatographic diagram of squalene

    注:A. 角鲨烯标准品; B. 大豆油;C. 核桃油;D. 芝麻油;E.玉米胚芽油。

    表  1  核桃油和常用植物油中脂肪酸含量(g/100 g)

    Table  1.   Fatty acid content in walnut oil and common vegetable oils (g/100 g)

    类别脂肪酸种类核桃油大豆油玉米胚芽油芝麻油
    饱和脂肪酸SFA辛酸 C8:00.00232±0.00b00.00325±0.00a0
    肉豆蔻酸 C14:00.00503±0.00c0.0306±0.00a0.0106±0.00b0.00631±0.00c
    十五酸 C15:00.00542±0.00a0.00502±0.00a0.00230±0.00b0.000773±0.00c
    棕榈酸 C16:01.25±0.01d7.10±0.00a5.15±0.01c5.51±0.01b
    十七酸 C17:00.00864±0.00c0.0370±0.00a0.0176±0.00b0.0153±0.00b
    硬脂酸 C18:00.257±0.00d2.34±0.00b0.526±0.00c3.37±0.00a
    花生酸 C20:00.00774±0.01d0.117±0.09b0.0927±0.02c0.268±0.11a
    二十一酸 C21:00.00129±0.37c0.00670±0.30a0.00135±0.01c0.00245±0.01b
    山嵛酸 C22:00.00245±0.00d0.139±0.01a0.0426±0.00c0.0585±0.01b
    二十三酸 C23:000.0113±0.00a0.00325±0.00c0.00696±0.00b
    二十四酸 C24:000.0366±0.00b0.0395±0.00a0.0302±0.00c
    合计1.54±0.01d9.82±0.01a5.89±0.03c9.27±0.03b
    单不饱和脂肪酸MUFA棕榈油酸 C16:1, cis-90.0173±0.00d0.0380±0.00b0.0250±0.00c0.0488±0.00a
    二十碳烯酸 C20:1, cis-110.0842±0.00a0.0599±0.00b0.0543±0.00c0.0608±0.00b
    油酸 C18:1, cis-95.32±0.00d13.0±0.00b11.1±0.00c24.6±0.00a
    合计5.42±0.02d13.1±0.11b11.2±0.03c24.7±0.04a
    多不饱和脂肪酸PUMAα–亚麻酸 C18:3, cis-9, 12, 1510.9±0.02a7.93±0.01b0.238±0.01c0.185±0.00d
    二十碳二烯酸 C20: 2, cis-11, 140.0146±0.00a0.00935±0.00b0.00284±0.00d0.00580±0.00c
    亚油酸 C18: 2, cis-9, 1251.4±0.15a47.3±0.08b31.5±0.07d39.9±0.11c
    合计62.3±0.17a55.2±0.10b31.7±0.08d40.1±0.11c
    总脂肪酸TFA合计69.2±0.21c78.2±0.22a48.8±0.14d74.1±0.18b
    注:同行不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05);表3同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同植物油中必需脂肪酸占比

    Table  2.   Proportion of essential fatty acids in different vegetable oils

    类别核桃油大豆油玉米胚芽油芝麻油
    ω-3(%)10.927.940.240.18
    ω-6(%)51.3447.2831.4739.82
    EFA(%)62.2655.2231.7140.00
    TFA(%)69.2078.1148.8373.96
    E/T(%)90.0070.7064.9054.10
    ω-6/ω-34.706.00132.20215.90
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同植物油中角鲨烯含量(mg/kg)

    Table  3.   Squalene content in different vegetable oils (mg/kg)

    样品名称核桃油芝麻油大豆油玉米胚芽油
    角鲨烯含量31.4±1.85c72.9±0.50b173.3±11.89aND
    注:ND表示未检出。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-14
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-08

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