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不同品种糯米的粉质特性分析及对其冰点温度的影响

李真 梁静静 安阳 黄忠民 艾志录

李真,梁静静,安阳,等. 不同品种糯米的粉质特性分析及对其冰点温度的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):34−41. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090247
引用本文: 李真,梁静静,安阳,等. 不同品种糯米的粉质特性分析及对其冰点温度的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(15):34−41. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090247
LI Zhen, LIANG Jingjing, AN Yang, et al. Characteristics Analysis of Different Glutinous Rice Flour and Its Influence on Freezing Point Temperature[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 34−41. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090247
Citation: LI Zhen, LIANG Jingjing, AN Yang, et al. Characteristics Analysis of Different Glutinous Rice Flour and Its Influence on Freezing Point Temperature[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(15): 34−41. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090247

不同品种糯米的粉质特性分析及对其冰点温度的影响

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090247
基金项目: 河南省科技攻关项目(192102110100);十四五国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD2100204);郑州市重大科技专项(2020CXZX0084)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李真(1983−),女,博士,副教授,研究方向:谷物加工及面米制品品质控制研究,E-mail:zhuhelizhen@163.com

    通讯作者:

    艾志录(1965−),男,博士,教授,研究方向:农产品加工与贮藏工程、速冻食品、主食工业化等,E-mail:zhilafood@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: TS211.2

Characteristics Analysis of Different Glutinous Rice Flour and Its Influence on Freezing Point Temperature

  • 摘要: 为明确不同糯米的粉质特性对冰点温度的影响,以实际应用中具有代表性的25种糯米粉为试验材料,测定其理化特性,通过相关性分析和主成分分析,探讨糯米粉原料特性对冰点温度的影响。结果表明,25种糯米粉粉团的冰点温度分布在−1.35~−2.65 ℃之间;脂肪含量与冰点温度成显著负相关(P<0.05),而蛋白质、淀粉、灰分与冰点温度之间不存在明显的依存关系;糯米粉热特性、吸水率、溶解度、胶稠度和平均粒径与冰点温度均呈极显著负相关(P<0.01)。主成分分析结果显示,影响糯米粉冰点温度的关键特性为糯米粉的平均粒径、热特性(峰值温度、起始温度、终止温度)、最终粘度、粗脂肪含量和溶解度。研究结果可为冰点冷冻汤圆工业化生产时合理选择糯米粉提供理论依据,实验范围内,优糯6211、黑糯米纯粉、预糊化糯米粉较为适合制作冰点冷冻汤圆。
  • 图  1  部分糯米粉冰点测定DSC曲线

    Figure  1.  Freezing point of part of glutinous rice flour DSC curve

    表  1  不同糯米粉基本成分分析

    Table  1.   Analysis of the basic components of different glutinous rice flour

    样品水分(%)灰分(%)淀粉(%)破损淀粉(%)蛋白质(%)脂肪(%)
    糯优2号11.2±0.11h0.23±0.01m86.49±0.37i3.52±0.01u5.89±0.08o0.71±0.01lm
    优糯62119.70±0.15l0.16±0.00o90.40±0.11cd4.24±0.03p5.62±0.06p0.61±0.03n
    绍糯971410.50±0.14j0.21±0.01n86.30±0.45i3.82±0.05t8.44±0.04c1.22±0.01g
    血糯10.10±0.13k0.23±0.01m90.85±0.11bc5.22±0.01m6.54±0.06lm2.65±0.05b
    嘉糯1优6号10.30±0.15jk0.33±0.01i91.13±0.13ab5.62±0.01j8.23±0.05d1.05±0.04h
    皖垦糯8.60±0.20n0.23±0.00m88.29±0.11g5.76±0.04g9.15±0.06a0.84±0.01k
    武育糯16号11.50±0.42efg0.17±0.01o85.15±0.17jk6.20±0.01c8.73±0.06b0.76±0.02l
    苏御糯11.30±0.10gh0.53±0.01e83.46±0.41m6.06±0.03e7.48±0.04g0.68±0.01m
    丹旱稻5310.30±0.21jk0.17±0.01o91.49±0.31a4.91±0.04n9.15±0.08a0.73±0.06lm
    连糯1号9.50±0.09l0.26±0.01l86.59±0.21i3.84±0.08t7.24±0.06hi0.60±0.01n
    南粳469.20±0.08m0.38±0.01g90.12±0.37de5.36±0.04l5.38±0.06q0.82±0.05k
    东北粳糯11.60±0.01ef0.43±0.01f91.65±0.20a4.94±0.01n6.20±0.03n0.84±0.01k
    江西籼糯11.20±0.02h0.23±0.01m88.88±0.19f5.74±0.02gh6.44±0.03m0.98±0.02i
    安徽粳糯10.50±0.01j0.31±0.01j86.62±0.66i5.65±0.03ij6.57±0.08l1.76±0.03d
    信阳籼糯10.90±0.01i0.56±0.01d87.40±0.17h6.10±0.03de6.74±0.11k0.84±0.02k
    浙江籼糯11.40±0.01fgh0.36±0.00h83.31±0.31n5.85±0.05f7.74±0.02e0.59±0.04n
    2014越南籼糯12.40±0.02b0.26±0.01l84.77±0.31kl4.53±0.02o7.61±0.04f0.76±0.01l
    吉林粳糯12.10±0.03c0.28±0.01k91.49±0.13a5.46±0.01k7.01±0.10j1.27±0.08g
    湖南水磨籼糯米粉11.90±0.01cd0.29±0.01k88.40±0.07fg6.34±0.01b7.17±0.06i0.74±0.03lm
    泰国水磨糯米粉12.60±0.01b0.28±0.01k85.47±0.10j6.51±0.02a7.32±0.09h1.54±0.06e
    河北粳糯水磨粉12.90±0.02a0.58±0.01c91.24±0.60ab6.13±0.03d5.99±0.13o1.33±0.01f
    半干法黑糯米纯粉11.70±0.03de1.14±0.01b89.54±0.54e4.04±0.01r8.67±0.06b2.07±0.03c
    黑糯米纯粉10.30±0.05jk1.22±0.02a89.76±0.11e4.10±0.01q8.22±0.04d3.18±0.05a
    半干法辊磨粳糯米11.60±0.08ef0.34±0.01i89.94±0.38de5.69±0.04hi8.27±0.05d0.92±0.01j
    预糊化糯米粉7.80±0.08o0.22±0.01mn84.56±0.28lm3.92±0.01s5.65±0.10p1.72±0.02d
    注:表中基本成分(除水分)的数据均为干基;同列不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05),表2~表4同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  糯米粉的理化性质

    Table  2.   The physicochemical properties of glutinous rice flour

    样品(D90-D10)/D50Dav(μm)吸水率(%)溶解度(%)胶稠度(mm)膨胀能力(mL·g−1
    糯优2号1.58±0.01c6.87±0.57q2.24±0.01efghij0.77±0.03i142.20±0.48i4.30±0.21t
    优糯62111.46±0.01f7.47±0.04p2.15±0.03ghijk1.25±0.02e162.20±0.27c3.90±0.19t
    绍糯97141.57±0.02c8.56±0.02mn2.15±0.01ghijk1.15±0.01f109.00±0.11p7.70±0.17r
    血糯1.69±0.03b6.59±0.06q2.26±0.02efghi0.51±0.04m129.40±0.61l35.70±0.21a
    嘉糯1优6号1.43±0.01f8.26±0.03n2.21±0.02fghij0.68±0.01j155.50±0.33e17.30±0.46m
    皖垦糯1.43±0.01f7.77±0.01op2.08±0.01jkl0.55±0.00kl116.40±0.20n32.70±0.29d
    武育糯16号1.57±0.05c7.92±0.11o2.14±0.02hijk0.27±0.02p155.40±0.52e34.00±0.18c
    苏御糯1.66±0.11b9.60±0.12l1.95±0.01l0.38±0.01no85.00±0.49r12.30±0.50o
    丹旱稻531.45±0.02f8.86±0.03m2.09±0.01ijkl0.41±0.00n115.10±0.60o4.90±0.050s
    连糯1号1.52±0.03de7.79±0.07op2.22±0.02efghij0.25±0.02p146.00±0.45g35.20±0.30b
    南粳461.50±0.00e8.26±0.03n2.00±0.01kl0.41±0.01n72.90±0.50s11.70±0.20p
    东北粳糯1.70±0.01b6.62±0.02q2.34±0.01def0.87±0.02h108.60±0.38p9.90±0.18q
    江西籼糯1.28±0.01g7.54±0.01p2.07±0.01jkl0.52±0.04lm119.30±0.11m19.90±0.06j
    安徽粳糯1.82±0.02a10.53±0.19k2.15±0.02ghijk0.56±0.01k132.70±0.16k35.50±0.04ab
    信阳籼糯1.55±0.05cd8.44±0.27n2.27±0.00efgh0.85±0.02h143.80±0.06h20.40±0.22i
    浙江籼糯1.29±0.06g60.47±0.14c2.44±0.01d1.07±0.01g155.60±0.29e25.10±0.47g
    2014越南籼糯0.80±0.01k45.79±0.06f2.35±0.00def1.65±0.00c154.90±0.24e27.70±0.04f
    吉林粳糯1.12±0.02h55.46±0.42e2.16±0.01ghijk0.37±0.02o142.80±0.26i13.90±0.02n
    湖南水磨籼糯米粉0.86±0.00j39.13±0.02g2.22±0.04efghij0.40±0.01no162.10±0.30c19.10±0.17k
    泰国水磨糯米粉0.92±0.02i38.61±0.04h2.38±0.01de0.67±0.01j151.40±0.45f28.40±0.31e
    河北粳糯水磨粉1.15±0.01h57.67±0.22d2.32±0.01defg0.53±0.04klm170.00±0.78a25.50±0.21g
    半干法黑糯米纯粉1.12±0.00h21.61±0.03j3.01±0.04b1.67±0.03c134.30±0.16j7.80±0.11r
    黑糯米纯粉1.42±0.02f23.53±0.20i2.43±0.03d2.17±0.01b160.00±0.62d9.70±0.15q
    半干法辊磨粳糯米0.89±0.01ij78.11±0.28b2.60±0.01c1.53±0.01d89.40±0.45q18.30±0.45l
    预糊化糯米粉1.30±0.01g88.05±0.22a6.86±0.43a2.26±0.02a165.20±0.45b21.50±0.11h
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  糯米粉糊化特性分析

    Table  3.   The pasting characteristics of the glutinous rice flour

    样品峰值粘度(mP·s)谷值粘度(mP·s)衰减值(mP·s)最终粘度(mP·s)回生值(mP·s)糊化温度(℃)
    糯优2号1242.00±2.80h572.00±1.40p670.00±1.40hijk741.00±5.70o169.00±4.20k80.40±0.60b
    优糯62111449.00±9.90gh768.00±0.00m681.00±9.90hijk952.00±4.20l184.00±4.20j83.23±0.10b
    绍糯9714616.00±7.10i205.50±3.50r410.50±3.50jk297.00±4.20q91.50±0.70m71.88±0.00cde
    血糯1657.50±6.40efg666.00±0.00o991.50±6.40efghi836.00±2.80n170.00±2.80k69.83±0.60def
    嘉糯1优6号1255.00±18.40h570.50±14.80p684.50±3.50hijk756.50±19.10o186.00±4.20j80.40±0.60b
    皖垦糯1887.00±1.40def965.00±7.10ij922.00±5.70fghi1270.50±4.90h305.50±2.10d72.68±0.00cde
    武育糯16号2198.50±6.40d1016.50±0.70gh1182.00±7.10defg1250.50±3.50h234.00±4.20gh69.85±0.60def
    苏御糯2143.00±25.50d1335.00±1.40e808.00±240ghij1798.50±3.50e463.50±2.10b72.60±0.00cde
    丹旱稻53576.50±4.90i263.50±0.70q313.00±5.70k366.50±2.10p103.00±1.40l73.10±0.60cd
    连糯1号1844.00±19.80defg856.00±4.20l988.00±24.00efghi1092.00±4.20k236.00±0.00gh70.25±0.00def
    南粳461573.50±0.70fgh855.00±33.90l718.50±33.20hijk1243.00±32.50h388.00±1.40c73.50±1.30cd
    东北粳糯2238.00±1.40d948.50±0.70jk1289.50±2.10def1133.50±7.80j185.00±7.10j68.25±0.50ef
    江西籼糯1719.00±9.90efg1000.00±0.00h719.00±9.90hijk1256.00±9.90h256.00±9.90f73.55±0.00cd
    安徽粳糯1713.00±5.70efg715.00±7.10n998.00±12.70efghi912.50±2.10m197.50±4.90i69.90±0.70def
    信阳籼糯1693.50±26.20efg1108.00±15.60f585.50±10.60ijk1346.50±7.80g238.50±7.80gh81.18±0.50b
    浙江籼糯3458.00±8.50b1651.00±4.20c1807.00±4.20b1880.50±3.50d229.50±0.70h69.45±0.10def
    2014越南籼糯3233.00±0.00b1811.00±5.70b1422.00±5.70cd2083.50±7.80c272.50±2.10e70.63±0.50def
    吉林粳糯1649.50±4.90efg922.00±7.10k727.50±12.00hijk1127.00±12.70j205.00±5.70i72.28±0.70cde
    湖南水磨籼糯米粉2215.50±19.10d986.00±2.80hi1229.50±16.30def1242.50±4.90h256.50±7.80f71.85±1.10cde
    泰国水磨糯米粉4019.00±28.30a2302.50±2.10a1716.50±26.20bc2606.50±9.20a304.00±7.10d70.18±0.00def
    河北粳糯水磨粉2723.50±6.40c1369.00±0.00d1354.50±6.40cde1612.50±3.50f243.50±3.50g66.075±0.00f
    半干法黑糯米纯粉1624.00±15.60efgh1037.00±56.60g587.00±41.00ijk2213.00±55.20b1176.00±1.40a91.70±0.60a
    黑糯米纯粉573.00±7.10i175.00±2.80s398.00±4.20jk251.50±3.50r76.50±0.70n71.025±0.00de
    半干法辊磨粳糯米2001.50±9.20de933.50±6.40k1068.00±2.80defgh1208.50±3.50i275.00±9.90e68.10±0.60ef
    预糊化糯米粉3096.50±862.00b565.00±5.70p2531.50±867.60a848.00±7.10n283.00±1.40e75.75±9.20c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  糯米粉的冰点与热特性测定

    Table  4.   The freezing point and thermal properties of glutinous rice flour

    样品冰点温度(℃)起始温度(℃)峰值温度(℃)终止温度(℃)糊化焓ΔH(J·g−1
    糯优2号−2.10±0.00hij74.40±0.28a78.15±0.07c83.75±0.21c3.35±0.00a
    优糯6211−2.55±0.07l74.60±0.14a78.55±0.35c82.65±0.64d3.12±0.07b
    绍糯9714−1.75±0.07ef60.25±0.07fg68.45±0.07fg73.65±0.21kl1.94±0.07j
    血糯−1.85±0.07fg65.00±0.28cd66.75±0.35hi72.80±0.28lmn1.69±0.00l
    嘉糯1优6号−2.05±0.07hij74.05±0.49a78.35±0.64c81.45±0.64e1.52±0.02m
    皖垦糯−2.30±0.00k64.90±0.42d70.56±0.08de75.90±0.85fgh2.07±0.08i
    武育糯16号−2.20±0.14jk63.30±0.57e68.35±0.64fg72.75±0.49lmn1.81±0.02k
    苏御糯−1.50±0.14bc59.90±0.14fg65.95±0.64i72.65±0.35mn1.72±0.00l
    丹旱稻53−1.35±0.07a64.60±0.85d70.35±0.64de75.25±0.35hi2.63±0.01c
    连糯1号−1.97±0.06gh62.80±0.42e68.20±0.99fg73.30±0.57klm2.41±0.02e
    南粳46−1.68±0.05de60.75±0.35f67.35±0.21gh72.55±0.64mn2.21±0.10gh
    东北粳糯−1.40±0.14ab59.60±0.57g66.90±0.42hi72.45±0.49mn2.14±0.02hi
    江西籼糯−2.05±0.07hij65.70±0.42c71.30±0.28d76.25±0.07fg1.53±0.07m
    安徽粳糯−1.55±0.07cd59.45±0.78g65.75±0.78ij72.80±0.28lmn2.32±0.08f
    信阳籼糯−2.10±0.14hij74.55±0.64a80.00±0.99b84.95±0.49b2.37±0.05ef
    浙江籼糯−1.60±0.14cde59.80±0.85fg66.90±0.28hi72.00±0.85n2.50±0.09d
    2014越南籼糯−2.00±0.00ghi62.40±0.28e68.70±0.28f74.60±0.28ij2.24±0.03g
    吉林粳糯−2.05±0.07hij62.65±0.21e70.40±0.28de76.45±0.35f2.18±0.03gh
    湖南水磨籼糯米粉−2.05±0.07hij64.50±0.85d70.15±0.64de75.35±0.78ghi2.50±0.01d
    泰国水磨糯米粉−1.65±0.07cde62.90±1.27e69.90±0.99e73.90±0.42jk0.78±0.00p
    河北粳糯水磨粉−2.15±0.07ijk54.35±0.78h64.10±0.85k69.30±0.57o1.93±0.06j
    半干法黑糯米纯粉−1.85±0.07fg60.50±0.42fg64.70±1.70jk68.95±0.21o0.98±0.01o
    黑糯米纯粉−2.55±0.07l62.40±0.42e68.65±0.64f75.55±0.49fgh1.41±0.02n
    半干法辊磨粳糯米−2.15±0.07ijk72.35±0.64b81.25±0.21a86.10±0.85a1.35±0.02n
    预糊化糯米粉−2.65±0.07l72.65±0.78b77.80±0.85c84.30±0.57bc1.96±0.02j
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  糯米粉冰点温度与理化性质的相关性分析

    Table  5.   Correlation analysis between the freezing point and physicochemical properties of glutinous rice flour

    指标冰点温度指标冰点温度
    蛋白质0.12膨胀能力0.01
    灰分−0.11胶稠度−0.44**
    脂肪−0.30*峰值粘度0.05
    淀粉0.09谷值粘度0.22
    峰值温度−0.50**衰减值−0.12
    起始温度−0.52**最终粘度0.21
    终止温度−0.51**回生值0.08
    糊化焓−0.01糊化温度−0.25
    吸水率−0.41**Dav−0.31**
    溶解度−0.50**
    注:**表示在0.01水平上极显著相关;*表示在0.05水平上显著相关。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  影响糯米粉冰点温度的指标主成分分析

    Table  6.   Principal component analysis of indicators that affect the freezing point of glutinous rice flour

    项目123456
    特征根6.545.043.282.071.521.23
    贡献率(%)27.2321.0113.668.636.345.12
    累计贡献率(%)27.2348.2461.9070.5376.8781.99
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  影响冰点温度的指标正交旋转因子载荷

    Table  7.   The orthogonal rotation factor load of the index that affects the freezing temperature

    123456共同度
    Dav(μm)0.980.050.090.060.080.010.98
    粗蛋白(%)−0.060.00−0.02−0.020.030.840.72
    粗灰分(%)−0.00−0.280.20−0.430.660.210.79
    粗脂肪(%)0.06−0.23−0.240.010.840.200.86
    粗淀粉(%)−0.220.000.00−0.090.00−0.060.81
    吸水率(%)0.540.31−0.040.170.50−0.310.84
    溶解度(%)0.480.25−0.02−0.230.63−0.010.73
    膨胀能力(mL·g−10.04−0.150.080.89−0.020.210.87
    胶稠度(mm)0.210.220.050.380.41−0.140.59
    峰值粘度(mP·s)0.53−0.090.590.54−0.09−0.140.96
    谷值粘度(mP·s)0.28−0.180.800.33−0.240.060.95
    衰减值(mP·s)0.630.010.250.600.09−0.290.90
    最终粘度(mP·s)0.21−0.200.930.18−0.080.080.99
    回生值(mP·s)−0.07−0.120.72−0.270.350.080.91
    糊化温度(℃)−0.350.510.39−0.410.39−0.160.91
    峰值温度(℃)0.150.95−0.12−0.12−0.11−0.010.96
    起始温度(℃)−0.030.97−0.10−0.070.00−0.060.97
    终止温度(℃)0.200.92−0.20−0.12−0.08−0.060.94
    糊化焓ΔH(J·g−1−0.150.21−0.28−0.07−0.42−0.630.73
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-17
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-03

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