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空气炸鱼皮工艺优化及其风味分析

孙慧娟 李璐 马凯华 马俪珍 任小青

孙慧娟,李璐,马凯华,等. 空气炸鱼皮工艺优化及其风味分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(17):213−223. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110225
引用本文: 孙慧娟,李璐,马凯华,等. 空气炸鱼皮工艺优化及其风味分析[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(17):213−223. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110225
SUN Huijuan, LI Lu, MA Kaihua, et al. Technology Optimization and Flavor Analysis of Air Fried Fish Skin[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(17): 213−223. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110225
Citation: SUN Huijuan, LI Lu, MA Kaihua, et al. Technology Optimization and Flavor Analysis of Air Fried Fish Skin[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(17): 213−223. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110225

空气炸鱼皮工艺优化及其风味分析

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110225
基金项目: 天津市淡水养殖产业技术体系创新团队-水产品加工岗位(ITTFRS2021000-012)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    孙慧娟(1996−)(ORCID:0000-0001-6571-1565),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:水产品加工品质与安全,E-mail:754089064@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    任小青(1976−)(ORCID:0000-0002-0091-449X),女,博士,副教授,研究方向:面制品及水产品加工,E-mail:57750008@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: TS254.9

Technology Optimization and Flavor Analysis of Air Fried Fish Skin

  • 摘要: 为开发空气炸鱼皮产品,对鱼皮进行空气炸制工艺优化并对其风味进行分析。在单因素的基础上结合混水平均匀设计研究烫漂时间、盐水质量分数、盐水浸泡时间、腌制时间、预干燥温度及时间、空气炸温度及时间对空气炸鱼皮的影响。结果表明:空气炸鱼皮的最佳配方为烫漂时间8 s、盐水质量分数为1%、盐水浸泡时间为20 min、腌制时间36 min、预干燥温度为55 ℃、预干燥时间25 min、空气炸温度为190 ℃、空气炸时间为16 min。利用气相色谱-离子迁移谱(GC-IMS)技术,对最佳工艺条件下的空气炸鱼皮风味物质进行了分析,已定性的挥发性物质有40种,其中,己酸乙酯、己酸、反-2-辛烯醛、(E,E)-2,4-己二烯醛、2-庚酮、2,5-二甲基吡嗪、(E)-2-己烯醛、2-甲基吡嗪、异戊酸、2-甲基丁醛、1-辛醇、异戊醇、2-丙基-1-戊醇、2-乙基呋喃等含量较高,整体呈愉悦气味。本研究结果对空气炸系列产品的工艺和风味提供了一定的理论参考。
  • 图  1  烫漂时间对空气炸鱼皮L*b*值、脆度的影响

    Figure  1.  Influence of blanching time on L*, b* values and brittleness of air fried fish skin

    图  2  盐水质量分数对空气炸鱼皮L*b*、脆度的影响

    Figure  2.  Influence of mass fraction of brine on L*, b* and brittleness of air fried fish skin

    图  3  盐水浸泡时间对空气炸鱼皮L*b*、脆度的影响

    Figure  3.  Influence of brine immersion time on L*, b* and brittleness of air fried fish skin

    图  4  腌制时间对空气炸鱼皮L*b*值、脆度的影响

    Figure  4.  Effect of curing time on L*, b* and crispness of air fried fish skin

    图  5  预干燥温度对空气炸鱼皮L*b*值、脆度的影响

    Figure  5.  Influence of pre-drying temperature on L*, b* values and brittleness of air fried fish skin crispiness

    图  6  预干燥时间对空气炸鱼皮L*b*、脆度的影响

    Figure  6.  Influence of pre-drying time on L*, b* and brittleness of air fried fish skin

    图  7  空气炸温度对空气炸鱼皮L*b*、脆度的影响

    Figure  7.  Influence of air frying temperature on L*, b* and brittleness of air fried fish skin

    图  8  空气炸时间对空气炸鱼皮L*b*、脆度的影响

    Figure  8.  Influence of air frying time on L*, b* and brittleness of air fried fish skin

    图  9  10个试验因素6项指标聚类热图

    Figure  9.  Clustering heat map of 6 indicators of 10experimental factors

    图  10  鱼皮特征风味二维GC-IMS谱图

    Figure  10.  Two-dimensional GC-IMS spectra of fish skin characteristic flavors

    注:以油炸鱼皮为空白对照,从左到右分别是油炸鱼皮、空气炸鱼皮;A:原始谱图;B:差异对比谱图。

    图  11  空气炸鱼皮挥发性气味成分指纹图谱

    Figure  11.  Fingerprint of volatile odor components of air fried fish skin

    表  1  均匀设计试验因素水平U10(57×21

    Table  1.   Factors and levels of uniform design U10 (57×21)

    实验号X1 烫漂时间
    (s)
    X2 盐水浸泡时间(min)X3 腌制时间(min)X4 盐水质量分数(%)X5 预干燥时间(min)X6 空气炸温度(℃)X7 空气炸时间(min)X8 预干燥温度(℃)
    11(6)1(12)2(24)2(2)3(30)3(185)4(15)2(55)
    212(16)3(28)4(4)5(40)1(175)2(13)2
    32(8)3(20)5(36)1(1)2(25)4(190)5(16)2
    424(24)1(20)3(3)513(14)2
    53(10)5(28)25(5)241(12)2
    6314(32)14(35)2(180)51(45)
    74(12)2531(20)5(195)31
    843154211
    95(14)4321541
    1055443321
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  空气炸鱼皮感官评价标准

    Table  2.   Sensory evaluation criteria of air fried fish skin

    感官指标总分评价(分)
    色泽一致,明亮度高呈亮黄色(16~20)
    外观20色泽偏暗呈淡黄色(10~15)
    色泽暗淡呈白色(<10)
    硬度适中,口感酥脆度较好(23~30)
    质地30较硬,酥脆度一般(15~22)
    入口硬,口感粗糙,咀嚼困难(<15)
    具有浓郁的脂肪香味,无油腻感(18~25)
    风味25有脂肪香味但不浓郁,无油腻感(10~17)
    有腥味,油腻感重(<10)
    口感很好,可接受度高(18~25)
    可接受度25口感较好,可接受(10~17)
    口感不好,可接受度低(<10)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  均匀设计试验结果

    Table  3.   Experimental results of uniform design

    实验号Y1含水量(%)Y2含油量(%)Y3脆度(mm)Y4感官评价(分)Y5 L*Y6 b*
    11.60±0.0018.01±2.410.17±0.1378.40±1.3627.57±1.275.67±0.62
    22.03±0.0019.26±1.420.20±0.3567.90±7.0826.97±3.641.38±1.52
    31.36±0.0018.74±0.310.22±0.2281.50±2.6230.63±1.197.93±1.37
    42.02±0.0112.83±0.150.13±0.1175.80±2.8921.03±0.823.33±1.11
    51.60±0.0012.47±0.820.13±0.0784.50±3.0433.10±1.108.47±3.79
    61.83±0.0213.76±0.260.13±0.1077.50±1.6323.30±3.324.07±1.60
    71.61±0.0113.10±1.970.14±0.1080.80±2.2329.63±2.137.23±5.42
    81.90±0.0220.04±2.280.14±0.0970.40±7.0323.80±2.915.00±1.19
    91.40±0.0114.17±1.010.22±0.1980.20±2.8228.93±1.957.50±0.93
    101.94±0.0110.62±0.880.29±0.2171.30±2.0024.40±0.937.50±1.35
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  指标模型概况

    Table  4.   Summary of the model parameters

    指标模型相关系数rP显著性
    Y11.728+0.098X1+0.262X50.9240.001**
    Y215.997−1.743X1+2.736X3X80.9040.003**
    Y30.177−0.043X2X80.7570.011*
    Y480.657−4.526X5+2.113X8+5.011X1X80.9400.017*
    Y526.936−3.358X5+1.924X80.8930.013*
    Y66.438+0.715X2+1.897X6−1.143X1X6+0.257X3X40.9980.000**
    注:0.01<P<0.05即达到显著水平,用*表示;P<0.01即达到极显著水平,用**表示。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  6 个主成分的特征值、贡献率及累计贡献率

    Table  5.   Eigenvalues contribution rates and cumulative contribution rates of six principal components

    成份初始特征值
    特征值方差贡献率(%)累积贡献率(%)
    13.18553.08553.085
    21.20920.15773.241
    31.13218.87092.112
    40.2814.68096.792
    50.1692.82199.613
    60.0230.387100.000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  特征值对应的成分矩阵

    Table  6.   Coefficient matrix corresponding to eigenvalues

    项目成分
    123
    1−0.9140.146−0.246
    20.892−0.227−0.334
    30.8860.314−0.019
    40.841−0.1700.266
    50.0750.8040.574
    6−0.235−0.6020.748
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  主成分得分和综合得分

    Table  7.   Principal component score and comprehensive score

    实验号主成分1主成分2主成分3综合得分排名
    10.36−0.710.570.156
    2−2.52−0.381.33−1.169
    32.01−0.251.451.291
    4−1.9−0.1−1.57−1.3310
    52.38−0.46−10.983
    6−0.95−0.42−1.15−0.817
    71.32−0.29−0.780.494
    8−1.74−0.90.63−0.988
    91.680.580.421.092
    10−0.632.920.090.275
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  空气炸鱼皮挥发性成分定性分析

    Table  8.   Qualitative analysis of volatile components of air fried fish skin

    类别化合物名称分子式保留指数保留时间(s)迁移时间(ms)风味描述
    醛类(E)2-辛烯醛二聚体2-octenal (E)MC8H14O1066689.3081.33583脂肪、黄瓜,香蕉
    (E)2-辛烯醛单体
    2-octenal (E)D
    C8H14O1066689.7471.81388
    (E,E)-2,4-己二烯醛HexadienalC6H8O926.5427.2731.4522清新的甜瓜香气
    2-甲基丁醛二聚体
    2-Methyl-butanal M
    C5H10O584.8130.5611.15583巧克力香气
    2-甲基丁醛单体
    2-Methyl-butanal D
    C5H10O583.9130.1961.39121
    壬醛二聚体
    n-Nonanal M
    C9H18O1105766.9411.4705柑橘、黄瓜,生土豆,坚果,椰子
    壬醛单体n-Nonanal DC9H18O1104766.2991.51186
    (E)-2-庚烯醛二聚体
    2-heptenal (E)M
    C7H12O957481.381.25509辛辣,绿色蔬菜,脂肪
    (E)-2-庚烯醛单体
    2-heptenal (E)D
    C7H12O955.6478.761.66775
    3-甲硫基丙醛MethionalC4H8OS898.4377.6151.39469奶油,面包,洋葱,牛肉
    (E)-2-己烯醛二聚体(E)-2-hexenal MC6H10O856.8327.7671.18548带有草药和香料的果香
    (E)-2-己烯醛单体(E)-2-hexenal DC6H10O846.6316.4851.52259
    糠醛furfuralC5H4O2791.7256.1161.33725甜味,面包,坚果味,焦糖味的,涩味
    十一醛undecanalC11H22O12921142.1711.61288脂肪,柑橘,肥皂
    戊醛pentanalC5H10O670.5164.7941.18049发酵,果浆,面包
    醇类1-辛醇1-OctanolC8H18O1066689.9431.45797柑橘类,花香,脂肪,椰子
    2-丙醇2-propanolC3H8O516.3103.1861.09214霉味
    异戊醇二聚体
    Isopentyl alcohol M
    C5H12O738211.1531.24123发酵,青草味,面包,酒味,甜味
    2-辛醇2-OctanolC8H18O956.8480.9171.85059辛辣,泥土味,香蕉,蘑菇
    2-丙基-1-戊醇
    Octan-3-ol
    C8H18O989.2538.1931.39872泥土味,蘑菇味,乳制品味,霉味,奶油味
    酸类丙酸Propanoic acidC3H6O2651.4157.1281.26577刺鼻,酸味,乳制品
    癸酸decanoic acidC10H20O213971351.9051.56322令人不愉快的酸味,水果
    己酸Hexanoic acidC6H12O2948.2465.6991.29892酸味,脂肪味,水果香
    异戊酸isopentanoic acidC5H10O2810.1276.3671.22076酸味,刺激,奶酪
    庚酸Heptanoic acidC3H6O526.3638.5111.36913腐败的脂肪气味
    酮类2,3-戊二酮
    2,3-pentanedione
    C7H14O890.6173.3231.2222黄油,坚果,烤制,焦糖
    2-庚酮二聚体
    2-Heptanone M
    C7H14O888.7364.9541.2617果味,辛辣,奶油味
    2-庚酮单体
    2-heptanone D
    C6H8N2916.3362.8441.63059
    吡嗪类2,5-二甲基吡嗪二聚体2,5-dimethylpyrazine MC6H8N2916.5409.2451.1138坚果,花生,霉味,烘烤,泥土
    2,5-二甲基吡嗪单体2,5-Dimethylpyrazine DC5H6N2828.6409.6681.49641
    2-甲基吡嗪二聚体Methylpyrazine MC5H6N2826.2296.6881.08201坚果,霉味,烘烤,泥土,涩味
    2-甲基吡嗪单体methylpyrazine DC7H10N21017294.0771.39412
    2,3,5-三甲基吡嗪TrimethylpyrazineC5H10O2727.1591.1171.16785坚果,霉味,土豆,可可粉
    酯类乙酸丙酯
    n-Propyl acetate
    C8H16O21004202.5081.15975香蕉,蜂蜜
    己酸乙酯二聚体
    Ethyl hexanoate M
    C8H16O21004567.0291.33926菠萝,脂肪,香料
    己酸乙酯单体
    Ethyl hexanoate D
    C6H8O745.8565.8991.79853
    呋喃类2-乙基呋喃
    2-Ethylfuran
    C9H14O992.6217.3391.05042面包,泥土味
    2-正戊基呋喃
    2-Pentylfuran
    C6H14S911.9544.3481.25362果香,泥土味,霉味,焦糖味
    其他类二丙基硫醚PropylsulfideC3H9N510.3401.6061.16688有特殊气味
    三甲胺TrimethylamineC3H9N510.3100.8041.14764鱼腥味
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-08-06

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