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基于抽检数据的食品相关产品风险综合评价

汪雨龙 张雪娜 孙倩 谢敏 罗文华 陈志良

汪雨龙,张雪娜,孙倩,等. 基于抽检数据的食品相关产品风险综合评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(12):18−26. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010082
引用本文: 汪雨龙,张雪娜,孙倩,等. 基于抽检数据的食品相关产品风险综合评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2022,43(12):18−26. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010082
WANG Yulong, ZHANG Xuena, SUN Qian, et al. Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Food-related Products Based on Supervision and Sampling Inspection[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(12): 18−26. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010082
Citation: WANG Yulong, ZHANG Xuena, SUN Qian, et al. Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Food-related Products Based on Supervision and Sampling Inspection[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2022, 43(12): 18−26. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010082

基于抽检数据的食品相关产品风险综合评价

doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010082
基金项目: 2019年教育部人文社科青年项目(19YJC790155);2021年浙江省市场监督管理局科技计划项目(ZC2021A044);2018年浙江省食品药品监督局科技计划项目(2018024)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    汪雨龙(1987−),男,硕士,讲师,研究方向:食品质量与安全,E-mail:yulongwang1987@126.com

    通讯作者:

    陈志良(1976−),男,硕士,副教授,研究方向:食品安全监管,E-mail:9578801@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: TS206.1

Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Food-related Products Based on Supervision and Sampling Inspection

  • 摘要: 为通过大数据挖掘预测食品相关产品安全风险隐患,基于2018~2020年度食品相关产品国家监督抽查的7704批次数据,分析我国食品相关产品安全现状与风险因素,运用层次分析法构建食品相关产品综合评价体系,计算食品相关产品安全综合指数。结果表明,食品相关产品平均不合格率为4.56%,均高于同年度食品抽检不合格率。密胺塑料餐具、纸杯、餐具洗涤剂等7类产品不合格率高于平均水平,塑料杯、塑料菜板、不锈钢厨具等10类产品不合格品低于1%。跟踪抽查连续两次不合格企业比例呈现上升趋势,不合格产品和问题重复出现。层次分析法构建的综合评价体系由5个一级指标和7个二级指标构成,一级指标为影响食品相关产品安全的主要因素,权重从高至低依次为化学物质迁移0.354,微生物超标0.331,重金属超标0.171,物理性能不合格0.100,卫生性能差0.044。二级指标为食品相关产品种类,风险较高的产品有洗消剂(0.252)、纸和纸板制品(0.189)、塑料制品(0.177),其次是竹木制品(0.170)、金属制品(0.105),而玻璃制品(0.056)和陶瓷制品(0.051)风险相对较低。本文建立的综合评价指数与抽检不合格率趋势一致,可为相关产品风险研判和评价提供技术支撑。
  • 图  1  2018~2020年食品相关产品监督抽检总体情况

    Figure  1.  Situation of supervision and sampling inspection of food-related products in 2018~2020

    图  2  各类食品相关产品抽检情况

    Figure  2.  Sampling inspection status of various food-related products

    图  3  食品相关产品安全风险监测模型

    Figure  3.  Risk evaluation model of food-related products

    表  1  2018~2020年各抽检类别食品相关产品合格率情况

    Table  1.   Results of qualifiation rates of various kinds of food-related products from 2018 to 2020

    抽检类别2018年2019年2020年
    批次抽检比例(%)合格率(%)批次抽检比例(%)合格率(%)批次抽检比例(%)合格率(%)
    食品接触用塑料制品113049.0598.41171455.2598.37114950.0098.52
    食品接触用纸和纸板制品56524.5294.3345514.6791.6545019.5893.78
    食品接触用玻璃制品27411.8997.812648.5196.971606.9699.38
    食品接触用金属制品33514.5486.272899.3279.581747.5875.86
    食品接触用洗消剂///2207.0994.092038.8396.06
    食品接触用竹木制品///1605.1696.881004.35100.00
    食品接触用陶瓷制品//////622.7096.77
    合计2304100.0095.573102100.0095.132298100.0095.73
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  食品相关产品不合格产品问题一览表

    Table  2.   List of unqualified products of food-related products

    产品
    大类
    产品
    亚类
    不合格
    检出率(%)
    不合格指标
    (项次数)
    占所属产品问题的比例(%)
    食品接触用塑料制品复合膜袋1.73溶剂残留量总量(9)52.94
    热封强度(1)5.88
    阻隔性能(氧气)(4)23.53
    蒸发残渣(总迁移量)(2)11.77
    阻隔性能(水蒸气)(1)5.88
    非复合膜袋2.04脱色试验(1)3.13
    阻隔性能(氧气)(7)21.88
    阻隔性能(水蒸气)(21)65.63
    热封强度(3)9.38
    密胺塑料餐具6.97三聚氰胺迁移量(6)24.00
    耐污染性(9)36.00
    甲醛迁移量(6)24.00
    总迁移量(2)8.00
    高锰酸钾消耗量(1)4.00
    脱色试验(1)4.00
    塑料一次性餐饮具0.39总迁移量(2)100.00
    食品接触用纸和纸板制品食品包装用
    纸和纸板材料
    0.56荧光性物质(1)100.00
    纸杯12.20感官指标(16)72.73
    杯身挺度(4)18.18
    渗漏性能(2)9.09
    食品接触用纸容器5.62荧光性物质(3)8.33
    抗压强度(19)52.78
    渗油性能(2)5.56
    砷(1)2.78
    轴向压溃力(1)2.78
    渗漏性能(3)8.33
    耐温试验(3)8.33
    快速泄漏试验(2)5.56
    高锰酸钾消耗量(2)5.56
    食品接触用玻璃制品玻璃酒瓶1.42抗冲击(3)50.00
    抗冲击(2)33.33
    内表面耐水性(1)16.67
    玻璃食品瓶罐2.34内表面耐水性(3)100.00
    与食品接触的玻璃器皿4.05口缘铅(Pb)迁移量(1)14.29
    口缘镉(Cd)迁移量(1)14.29
    98℃耐水性能(5)71.43
    食品接触用金属制品不锈钢真空杯1.56保温效能(1)50.00
    耐冲击性(1)50.00
    铝及铝合金不粘锅2.9涂层感官要求(1)33.33
    总迁移量(1)33.33
    不粘涂层耐磨性(1)33.33
    压力锅9.09工作压力(2)7.69
    泄压压力(3)11.54
    破坏压力(21)80.77
    商用电蒸煮
    食品加工设备
    34.91对触及带电部件的防护(17)12.59
    输入功率和电流(5)3.70
    泄漏电流和电气强度(3)1.48
    非正常工作(8)5.93
    稳定性和机械危险(6)4.44
    机械强度(4)2.96
    结构(12)8.89
    内部布线(2)1.48
    电源连接和外部软线(42)31.11
    接地措施(25)18.52
    螺钉和连接(9)6.67
    泄漏电流和电气强度(2)1.48
    外部导线用接线端子(1)0.74
    商用电动
    食品加工设备
    50.79对触及带电部件的防护(10)5.56
    非正常工作(28)18.67
    稳定性和机械危险(41)27.33
    结构(23)15.33
    电源连接和外部软线(36)24.00
    外部导线用接线端子(5)3.33
    接地措施(33)22.00
    螺钉和连接(3)2.00
    泄漏电流和电气强度(1)0.67
    食品接触用
    洗消剂
    餐具洗涤剂4.96甲醛(甲醛含量)(2)8.00
    总活性物含量(11)44.00
    菌落总数(10)40.00
    大肠菌群(1)4.00
    砷(1)4.00
    食品接触用
    竹木制品
    一次性竹木筷1.92霉菌(4)80.00
    二氧化硫浸出量(1)20.00
    食品接触用
    陶瓷制品
    日用陶瓷餐饮具3.22抗热震性(5)100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  食品相关产品跟踪抽查情况分析

    Table  3.   Secondary supervision and inspection of food-related products

    年份抽查
    企业
    数量
    不合格企业跟踪抽查企业跟踪抽查不合格企业
    数量占抽查企业
    比例(%)
    数量占不合格企业比例(%)数量占跟踪抽查企业比例(%)
    201822181024.60//13/
    201930871514.898656.951618.60
    20202283984.2998100.002020.41
    合计75983514.62182/49/
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  判断矩阵标度及定义

    Table  4.   Scale and definition of judgment matrix

    标度aij含义
    1两个元素相比,具有同等重要性
    3两个元素相比,前者比后者稍重要
    5两个元素相比,前者比后者明显重要
    7两个元素相比,前者比后者十分重要
    9两个元素相比,前者比后者绝对重要
    2,4,6,8上述判断的中间值
    倒数若元素i与元素j的重要性之比为a,则元素j与元素i的重要性之比为1/a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  准则层对目标层判断矩阵

    Table  5.   Criterion layer judgment matrix

    风险评估B1B2B3B4B5权重Wi
    B111/31/3350.171
    B2311350.331
    B3311370.354
    B41/31/31/3130.100
    B51/51/51/71/310.044
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  平均随机一致性指标

    Table  6.   Average random consistency index

    n123456789
    RI000.580.901.121.241.321.411.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  准则层对方案层一致性检验

    Table  7.   Consistency check of the criterion layer to scheme layer

    准则层B对方案层C最大特征值λmax一致性指标CI一致性比率CR
    B1对C7.7600.1270.0932
    B2对C7.7580.1260.0929
    B3对C7.6840.1140.0838
    B4对C7.7170.1200.0879
    B5对C7.7360.1230.0902
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  方案层各项指标不合格率(%)

    Table  8.   Unqualified rate of each indicator of scheme layer (%)

    年份塑料制品纸和纸板制品玻璃制品金属制品洗消剂竹木制品陶瓷制品
    201811.741.616.1100000
    20198.040.914.810028.915.30
    20206.125.82.610016.3013.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-01-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-28
  • 刊出日期:  2022-06-08

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