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中国精品科技期刊2020
李心智,刘希,徐新玉,等. 梯度升温发酵工艺对不同盐分稀态发酵酱油微生物变化和风味形成的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(9):1−9. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080043.
引用本文: 李心智,刘希,徐新玉,等. 梯度升温发酵工艺对不同盐分稀态发酵酱油微生物变化和风味形成的影响[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(9):1−9. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080043.
LI Xinzhi, LIU Xi, XU Xinyu, et al. Effect of Gradient Heating Method on the Microbial Changes and Flavor Formation of Liquid-State Soy Sauce Fermented with Different Salt Concentrations[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(9): 1−9. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080043.
Citation: LI Xinzhi, LIU Xi, XU Xinyu, et al. Effect of Gradient Heating Method on the Microbial Changes and Flavor Formation of Liquid-State Soy Sauce Fermented with Different Salt Concentrations[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(9): 1−9. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080043.

梯度升温发酵工艺对不同盐分稀态发酵酱油微生物变化和风味形成的影响

Effect of Gradient Heating Method on the Microbial Changes and Flavor Formation of Liquid-State Soy Sauce Fermented with Different Salt Concentrations

  • 摘要: 本文以12%和18%(w/v)两种盐分浓度的稀态发酵酱醪为研究对象,探究梯度升温(15 °C-20 °C-25 °C-30 °C)工艺对发酵酱醪微生物计数和风味形成的影响。结果显示:采用梯度升温工艺的低盐分酱醪样品(TC12)的酵母计数在发酵到期时比恒温(30 °C)对照组(C12)要高1.0 log CFU/g左右,这表明酵母在梯度升温工艺中维持生长代谢时间较长。这或与发酵前期较低的温度限制了酵母过快的繁殖有关。其中,TC12的发酵到期原油的氨基酸态氮高达1.14 g/100 g,达到我国规定的特级酿造酱油标准。同时,TC12中的鲜味(19.03 g/L)和甜味氨基酸(19.32 g/L)含量较高,共占氨基酸总量约60%,呈现较好的鲜甜滋味。挥发性物质检测数据显示,TC12中的乙醇、苯乙酸乙酯、棕榈酸乙酯、3-甲硫基丙醛和苯甲醛等含量较高,样品整体呈现“水果甜香和酯香”。另一方面,高盐组梯度升温样品(TC18)则测得更多的愈创木酚和甲基麦芽酚,呈现“烟熏香和酱香”。感官鉴评数据显示,低盐分梯度升温发酵样品TC12相比恒温发酵组C12具有更高的香气和滋味得分,综合口感更优。综上所述,梯度升温工艺有利于限制低盐分(12%)发酵酱醪中酵母在前期的过快生长,保持其在发酵后期的活性细胞计数,使其能持续发酵生成更多风味物质,提升低盐发酵原油的整体风味。

     

    Abstract: In this paper, liquid-state fermented sauce mash with salt concentrations of 12% and 18% (w/v) was used as the research object, to explore the effect of gradient heating (15 °C-20 °C-25 °C-30 °C) on the microbial counting and flavor formation of fermented sauce mash. The results showed that the yeast counts of the low-salt sauce mash sample (TC12) using the gradient heating method was about 1.0 log CFU/g higher than that of the constant temperature (30 °C) control group (C12) at the end of fermentation, which indicated that the yeasts maintained growth and metabolism for a long time in the gradient heating group. This might be related to the fact that the lower temperature in the early stage of fermentation limited the rapid propagation of yeasts. Among them, the amino nitrogen of the fermented soy sauce from TC12 was as high as 1.14 g/100 g, which met the standard of premium-grade brewed soy sauce in China. At the same time, the content of umami (19.03 g/L) and sweet amino acids (19.32 g/L) in TC12 was high, accounting for about 60% of the total amino acids, presenting a better sweet and savory taste. The volatile compound detection data showed that the content of ethanol, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl palmitate, 3-(methylthiopropionaldehyde) and benzaldehyde in TC12 was relatively high, and the sample showed an overall sweet-fruity aroma and ester-like aroma. On the other hand, the gradient heating sample of the high-salt group (TC18) contained more guaiacol and methyl maltol, showing a smoky incense and saucy aroma. The sensory evaluation results showed that the low-salt gradient heating fermentation samples TC12 had higher aroma and taste scores, as well as better comprehensive tastes than the constant temperature fermentation samples C12. In summary, the gradient heating method is beneficial to limit the excessive growth of yeast in low-salt (12%) fermented sauce mash in the early stage and maintaining a considerable cell count of yeast in the late stage of fermentation, so that the yeast can continuously ferment and generate more flavor substances and improve the overall flavor of low-salt fermented soy sauce.

     

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