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中国精品科技期刊2020
张鹏,杨旭昆,米艳华,等. 云南不同品种核桃果实品质分析与综合评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(14):1−8. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080259.
引用本文: 张鹏,杨旭昆,米艳华,等. 云南不同品种核桃果实品质分析与综合评价[J]. 食品工业科技,2024,45(14):1−8. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080259.
ZHANG Peng, YANG Xukun, MI Yanhua, et al. Fruit Quality Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Varieties Walnuts and Pecan in Yunnan[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(14): 1−8. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080259.
Citation: ZHANG Peng, YANG Xukun, MI Yanhua, et al. Fruit Quality Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Varieties Walnuts and Pecan in Yunnan[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2024, 45(14): 1−8. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2023080259.

云南不同品种核桃果实品质分析与综合评价

Fruit Quality Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Varieties Walnuts and Pecan in Yunnan

  • 摘要: 为了探究云南主栽核桃和薄壳山核桃果实的品质评价指标,选取27个核桃品种果实,对矿质元素、蛋白脂、粗脂肪等12个营养指标进行变异和相关性分析,并采用主成分和聚类分析方法,进行分类与综合评价。结果表明:12个营养指标的含量变异较为丰富,变异系数的变化范围为5%~83%,其中VC变异系数最大,粗脂肪变异系数最小;9种矿质元素平均含量从高到低依次为:K>P>Mg>Ca>Mn>Na>Fe>Zn>Cu,蛋白质含量均值为15.62%,脂肪含量均值为68.63%,VC的平均含量为4.66 mg/100 g;相关性分析表明,12个营养指标之间,P、Fe、Mg、Ca、Cu均与蛋白质呈极显著正相关;主成分分析进行综合评价筛选出品质最佳的核桃品种为‘香茶’、‘永平’、‘晚熟’和‘小圆果’,薄壳山核桃中品种‘卡多’综合表现较好;聚类分析结果显示,可将其分为两大类,即富含矿质元素类群和高脂肪含量类群;相关性分析和主成分分析结果显示,K、Fe、Mg、Ca、Cu元素、蛋白质、脂肪为评价云南不同品种核桃品质的关键性指标。薄壳山核桃适合榨油,22种主栽核桃适合直接食用或开发富矿质元素和高蛋白的功能饮料。研究明确了云南核桃品质评价的关键指标并探明品质特性,提供科学分类方法,为云南核桃品质评价体系的构建奠定理论依据。

     

    Abstract: To explore the quality evaluation indicators of walnut and pecan varieties cultured in Yunnan, the contents of 12 nutritional indicators which included in mineral elements, protein, crude fat, and vitamin C of 27 walnut varieties were determined. 12 indicators were comprehensively explored by correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis to reveal variation and comprehensive quality of walnut resources in Yunnan Province. As indicated by the research findings: The variation of the content of 12 indicators was relatively rich, the variation coefficient ranged from 5% to 83%, among which the variation coefficient of vitamin C was the largest and the variation coefficient of crude fat was the smallest. The order of the average contents of 9 mineral elements was K>P>Mg>Ca>Mn>Na>Fe>Zn>Cu. The average contents of protein, fat and vitamin C were 15.62%, 68.63% and 4.66 mg/100 g, respectively. As demonstrated by the results of correlation analysis on 12 indicators, there was a significant positive correlation between protein and P, Fe, Mg, Ca, and Cu. The principal component analysis was used to comprehensively evaluate, showed that the comprehensive quality of walnut varieties 'Xiangcha', 'Yongping', 'Wanshu', and 'Xiaoyuanguo' were the best and the pecan variety 'Kaduo' was the better. The clustering analysis results showed that it can be divided into two major categories, namely the group rich in mineral elements and the group with high fat content. Subsequently, by combining with cluster analysis, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, protein and fat were determined as the critical indicators to evaluate the quality of walnut and pecan varieties cultured in Yunnan. Pecan varieties were suitable for extracting oil, and 22 main walnut varieties were suitable for direct consumption or the development of functional beverages rich in mineral elements and protein. The study clarified the critical indicators for evaluating the quality of Yunnan walnut and explored its quality characteristics, providing a scientific classification method, and laying a theoretical basis for the construction of the Yunnan walnut quality evaluation system.

     

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