2015 No. 10

Display Method:
Determination of content and chemical speciation of heavy metals and As in edible fungi
CHEN Chen, TANG Jing, HU Qiu-hui, ZHAO Li-yan
2015, (10): 49-53. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.001
Abstract(125) PDF(542)
The content of As、Pb、Cd、Cr、Cu in four kinds of edible fungi (Auricularia auricular, Lentinus edodes, Flammulina velutipes and Grifola frondosa) was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) . Chemical speciation of heavy metals and As in samples was carried out by Tessier sequential extraction procedure. It was shown that the metal content was within most of the national standards.As in four kinds of edible fungi was mainly in forms of exchangeable, the chemical speciaion of Pb in four kinds of edible fungi was quite different, Cd in other three kinds of edible fungi was mainly in forms of water soluble and exchangeable except Flammulina velutipes, the chemical speciaion of Cr in four kinds of edible fungi was quite different, Cu in other three kinds of edible fungi was mainly in forms of water soluble except Auricularia auricular. This article showed that the Tessier sequential extraction procedure could be used for the chemical speciation of heavy metals and As in edible fungi satisfactory, and reflected the distribution information of chemical speciation.
Quantitative determination of ACE inhibitory peptides in casein hydrolyzate by RP-HPLC
ZHAO Yong, HU Zhi-he, SUN Zhen-gang, WU Wen-qi, FENG Yong-qiang, XUE Lu
2015, (10): 54-58. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.002
Abstract(124) PDF(284)
The purpose was to establish a method for quantitative determination angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides in hydrolyzate of casein using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC) . Casein was hydrolyzed by pepsin, and then was hydrolyzed by trypsin. With flavourzyme for debittering of casein hydrolyzate. Salts of casein hydrolyzate were removed by ion exchange resin. The RP-HPLC method to detect decapeptide YQKFPQYLQY was established. Using external standard method to determine YQKFPQYLQY of casein hydrolyzate. Results showed that, the linear range of decapeptide was 2.54.5mg/m L (R2=0.95496) . The decapeptide concentration in the casein hydrolyzate was 4.96694%±0.00131%.Therefore, the RP-HPLC was simple and rapid, suitable for the quantitative detection of ACE inhibitory peptides YQKFPQYLQY.
Analysis of monosaccharide compositions of Nostoc Flagelliforme extracellular polysaccharide by pre-column derivation HPLC
WANG Gui-chun, CHEN Xue-feng, LIU Ning, WANG Ning
2015, (10): 59-61. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.003
Abstract(102) PDF(377)
The polysaccharide was precipitated by ethanol, and hydrolyzed into monosaccharides by trifluoroacetic (TFA) . The hydrolyzate was derivated with 1-phenyl-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) and then the PMP derivates of monosaccharides were determined by RP-HPLC. The results showed that Nostoc Flagelliforme extracellular polysaccharide was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, and the molar ratio of the six monosaccharides were 0.71∶0.37∶0.44∶1.53∶1.03∶0.40. The established HPLC method was simple, fast and good reproducibility, and could be used for the determination of monosaccharide compositions of Nostoc Flagelliforme extracellular polysaccharide.
Analysis of aromatic components in Jinxuan tea of different kinds and seasons
LAI Xing-fei, PAN Shun-shun, LI Yu-nan, PANG Shi, LI Zhen-sheng, SUN Shi-li
2015, (10): 62-68. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.004
Abstract(147) PDF(486)
The aroma components of Jinxuan green tea (JGT) , black tea (JBT) and Oolong tea (JOT) in different seasons were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that higher relative content of alcohols were determined in JGT in spring and summer and higher relative content of pyrrole and its derivatives were found in JGT in autumn. The dominant aroma components of JGT were similar and diverse in spring and summer. The dominant aroma components of JGT in autumn were less diversified and had the delicate, flowery and sweet fragrance. The highest relative content of alcohols was found in JBT in different seasons and the following were aldehydes or esters. The highest FI index was found in JBT in autumn, next was in summer and the last was in spring. Higher relative content of alcohols were determined in JOT in spring.However, higher relative content of pyrrole and its derivatives were found in JOT in summer and autumn. The relative content of trans-nerolidol and indole were highest in JOT in different seasons. The content of transnerolidol and indole was accounted for over 54% in dominant aroma.
Study on pretreatment methods for the simultaneous determination of three kinds of sugar alcohols in milk by gas chromatography
CAO Yu-lin, SHU Tian-feng, LIU Yan-ling, XUE Xiu-heng, MEI Lin, WANG Zhi-geng, SUN Guo-yan
2015, (10): 69-72. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.005
Abstract(132) PDF(175)
A novel method was developed for the determination of sugar alcohol contents in milk by gas chromato-graphy after freeze-drying, and the external standard method was used to determine. After removal of protein by zinc sulphate and barium hydroxide, the freeze-drying was used to dry samples. The sugar alcohols reacted with pyridine- acetic anhydride ( 1 ∶ 1, v / v) at 90 ℃ for 30 min. The sugar alcohol acetate derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography with HP- 5 ( 30 m × 320μm × 0. 25μm) and with a flame ionization detector. The results showed that the recoveries of sugar alcohols treated by freeze-drying was higher than rotary evaporation. Under the optional chromatographic conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1090μg/m L (r=0.99740.9999) . The repeatability was reproducible (RSD=1.37%2.04%) . The average recoveries were between 91.17% and 92.06%. This method was simple and fast so that it could be used to determine sugar alcohol contents in milk.
Purification of caffeoylquinic acids from sweet potato leaves and their analysis by high performance liquid chromatography
ZHU Ya-zhu
2015, (10): 73-77. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.006
Abstract(147) PDF(198)
Six caffeoylquinic acid ( CQA) derivatives were separated by semi- preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from sweet potato leaves. The structures of prepared monomers were confirmed by 1H NMR and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) , and the components and total polyphenol contents of different sweet potato leaves were analyzed. The results demonstrated that sweet potato leaf polyphenols were mainly caffeoylquinic acid and its derivatives. The composition of different varieties of sweet potato leaves were basically the same, the main component were six CQA derivatives, including 3- CQA, 4- CQA, 5- CQA, 3, 4- di CQA, 3, 5- di CQA and 4, 5- di CQA, and the contents of total polyphenol were different in various groups. Overall, this HPLC method was accurate for investigation of the polyphenol contents and components in sweet potato leaves, and lay down a base for the choice of production material.
Study on rapid detection of triazophos residues in flesh of navel orange by SERS
WANG Xiao-bin, ZENG Hai-long, WU Rui-mei, LIU Mu-hua, ZHANG Lu-ling, LI Jun-jie, CHEN Jin-yin
2015, (10): 83-85. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.008
Abstract(126) PDF(450)
The rapid detection method of triazophos residues in flesh of navel orange was reported in this paper.Flesh of navel orange was obtained using quick pre-treatment method. SERS of different concentration of triazophos solutions with flesh extract as the matrix were collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The results showed that minimum detection concentration for triazophos in navel orange was 0.5mg/L. Acetonitrile was selected as the internal standard and the relative intensity was made by characteristic peak ( 1409cm-1) of triazophos and characteristic peak (2257cm-1) of acetonitrile. A good linear relationship was found between the relative intensity and concentration of triazophos in the range of 0.520mg/L, with a good correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9919. The predict recoveries were 98.1%102.5% and the predicted deviations were below 0.12mg/L.This study demonstrates that this method was accurate and reliable.
Enzyme-linked aptamer assay for detection of kanamycin residues in animal derived food
ZHAO Qiu-ling, SHI Su-qing, ZHANG You-hua, YU Xiao-yan
2015, (10): 86-89. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.009
Abstract(139) PDF(220)
Exonuclease I-based enzyme-linked aptamer assay for the detection of kanamycin residues in animal derived food was established in this paper. Aptamer binding with kanamycin could no longer be digested by exonuclease I, but could further specifically capture the horseradish peroxidase ( HRP) that catalyzed methyenedianiline substrate to produce color change. Determination of the limit of detection was based on linear relationship between absorbance value at 450 nm and the concentration of kanamycin. The effects of coated concentration, competitive reaction time, dosage of exonuclease I and blocking solutions on the detection were investigated. The results showed that under the optimal conditions, the established exonuclease I-depended enzyme-linked aptamer analysis of kanamycin have high sensitivity, the detection limit was 3.26μg/L with linear ranging from 5 to 100μg/L. When kanamycin of 5.0, 20.0 and 50.0μg/kg were added to four animal derived foods, the recovery rates ranged from 75.8% to 90.6%, the relative standard deviation for RSD ranged from4.2% to 7.8%. The method had simple operation without need large instrument and could be used for fast detection of kanamycin residues in animal derived foods.
Study on antioxidant and antibacterial activity of apple leaf polyphenols of seven cultivars
XU Ying, FAN Ming-tao, CHENG Zheng-gen, SUN Hui-ye, ZHANG Zhe
2015, (10): 90-94. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.010
Abstract(98) PDF(396)
In order to investigate the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of apple leaf polyphenols of seven cultivars, total phenolic content was determinated by Folin-ciocalteu method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, DPPH scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay and ABTS scavenging assay. The antibacterial activity of Qinguan were evaluated by comparing their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against five bacterial strains. It was showed that Qinguan exhibited the best antioxidant properties, whereas Qinyang and Gale Gala possessed better antioxidant properties among seven apple cultivars. The strongest antibacterial activity of Qinguan leaf polyphenols was recorded against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium with MIC value of 25μg/m L, and the lower activity was observed against Shigella and Enterobacter Sakazakii with MIC value of 50μg/m L. Antibacterial activity of Qinguan polyphenols was remarkably better than any monophenol contained in apples, and 3 4 times better than tea polyphenols.
Study on processing performance evaluation of casein hydrolysate substituting for whey protein
MA Tao, LIN Feng, DONG Zhe, ZHANG Hai-xin, LU Jun, GU Rui-zeng, CAI Mu-yi
2015, (10): 96-100. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.011
Abstract(154) PDF(204)
Partically hydrolyzed casein and extensively hydrolyzed casein were prepared by compound enzymatic hydrolysis, and the processing performance of casein hydrolysates was measured. The results showed that after enzymatic hydrolysis the Solubility of partically hydrolyzed casein and extensively hydrolyzed casein reached almost to 90% and 100% respectly, significantly higher than that of casein and whey protein. In addition, the oil absorption capacity and foamability of partically hydrolyzed casein were about 3 times and 1.5times respectively compared to whey protein. The foamability and emulsibility of extensively hydrolyzed casein were also significantly above whey protein. Both casein hydrolysates were better than whey protein on the foamability and emulsibility, oil absorption, solubility, etc, to some extent and casein hydrolysates would be widely applied in the food industry substituting for whey protein.
Study on quality changes of different degrees of cooked beef
MENG Xiang-ren, WANG Heng-peng, YANG Zhang-ping
2015, (10): 101-104. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.012
Abstract(173) PDF(604)
Select the same quality beef to make the similar size beef steaks, measured the cooking water loss rate, water holding capacity, shear force, TPA properties, p H, moisture, fat content, ash and other nutrients in medium rare, medium and medium well done, at the same time, sensory evaluation team were established to reflects the quality changes in different degrees of cooked beef. The results were as follows:the degrees of beef cooked had a great impact on cooking water loss rate and water holding capacity.In beef properties, the medium rare and medium beef was no significant difference, with medium well done beef significant difference.With the rise of beef center temperature, the fat and moisture content decreased, the protein and ash content did not change significantly.From medium rare to medium well down, the p H value of beef was increasing, indicated that the heating process had a slight discharge of acid function.In sensory evaluation, medium well done got the highest score, at this time, beef's flavor was maximize reflected, the tenderness and fibers keeps good.
Antioxidant activities of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein and component proteins hydrolysates
CHEN Xing-xing, HU Xiao, LI Lai-hao, YANG Xian-qing, WU Yan-yan, LIN Wan-ling, CHEN Sheng-jun, HAO Shu-xian, WEI Ya
2015, (10): 105-109. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.013
Abstract(106) PDF(198)
Pepsin, neutral protease, Alcalase2.4L were used to hydrolyse the tilapia protein, respectively. The effect of hydrolysis and antioxidant activities including 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH·) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) of hydrolysates hydrolysed by different proteases for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8h were studied and compared, the results showed that the hydrolysates of three proteases all had antioxidant activities, the hydrolysate of neutral protease had the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the recovery rate of protein, the hydrolysate of pepsin had the minimum IC50 value of DPPH· and ·OH scavenging ability. Neutral protease was selected to hydrolyse sarcoplasmic protein, myofibrillar protein and stroma protein for 4h, the effect of hydrolysis and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates were studied and compared. The results indicated that the hydrolysate of stroma protein had the highest recovery rate of protein that was 89.8%, the hydrolysate of myofibrillar protein had the highest DH that was 10.1%, the hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic protein had the minimum IC50 value of ·OH and DPPH· scavenging ability that were 12.352mg/m L and 3.554mg/m L.
Study on content changes of the bitter and astringent in pickled process of lotus leaves by salt and sugar
LIU Ya-qi, XU Mei, LI Yang, ZHOU Ming-quan, WANG Jin-hua, HU Zhong-li, HE Jian-jun, LI Dong-sheng, WANG Chao
2015, (10): 110-113. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.014
Abstract(148) PDF(167)
In this paper, the content of the main bitter and astringent substances of lotus leaves, which was quercetin and tannin of lotus leaves, were carried out dynamic detection during salt and sugar pickled process and the bitter and astringent taste of lotus leaves were evaluated by sensory experiment. The results showed that the content of quercetin and tannin both decreased during salt and sugar pickled process. The content of tannin which was in the salt and sugar pickled lotus leaves decreased by 72.56% and 71.15%, respectively.Then the content of quercetin decreased by 29.79% and 34.08%, respectively. At same time the nuciferine increased by 47.50% and 76.14% in salt and sugar pickled process, respectively. There was no significant bitter and astringent taste, when lotus leaves salt pickled time was15 d and sugar pickled time was 9d, the lotus leaves could achieve a good edible. The optimum salt and sugar pickled time of lotus leaves was 15 d and 9d respectively.
Effect of skin concentration on properties and film-forming ability of gelatin from tilapia skin by hot-water extraction
YAO Feng, CHEN Shu-lin, TANG Lan-lan, HAO Geng-xin, SU Wen-jin, WENG Wu-yin
2015, (10): 114-118. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.015
Abstract(94) PDF(136)
The effect of skin concentration on properties and film-forming ability of gelatin from tilapia skin by hot-water extraction was investigated. As a result, both the viscosity and gel strength of gelatin were increased with increasing the skin concentration in the hot water from 7.5% to 10.0%, while decreased when the skin concentration was further increased. Similar trend was also observed in the mechanical properties of films prepared from gelatin. When skin concentration in the hot-water was 10.0%, the gel strength of extracted gelatin was 281 g and tensile strength of prepared films was 60 MPa. However, no significant differences in the amino acid composition and protein fractions were found irrespective of skin concentration in the extraction water. Based on the results of differential scanning calorimeter and circular dichroism, it was concluded that when gelatin was extracted from tilapia skin with hot-water at skin concentration of 10.0%, the degree of random coil in the gelatin was relatively low, while the thermal stability of gelatin films was the highest.
Influence of drying methods on volatile components of Flammulina velutipe
TANG Qiu-shi, CHEN Zhi-yi, LIU Xue-ming, YANG Chun-ying, WANG Si-yuan, LIN Yao-sheng
2015, (10): 119-124. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.016
Abstract(115) PDF(421)
The volatile composition of Flammulina velutipe by different drying methods (heat pump, hot air and vacuum freeze drying) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) . A total of 54 volatile compounds were detected. By using heat pump and hot air drying, aldehydes and alcohols were the major components in Flammulina velutipe, followed by esters and ketones. Higher relative content of 2/3-methylbutanal and 2, 3-butanediol were observed in the sample by using heat pump, while 3-methylbutanal and butyrolactone were in greater percentage in the one by hot air drying method. On the other hand, hydrocarbons and alcohols showed the highest contents in the sample by vacuum freeze drying method and the control. It demonstrated that 2, 2, 4, 6, 6-pentamethylheptane, 2, 3-butanediol and D-limonene were the major components in the sample by vacuum freeze drying method.Among these drying methods, more volatile compounds which had lower thresholds were generated by heat treatment methods due to the interaction of compounds in raw material. Besides, pyrazines were detected by hot air drying for local heat reactions. With regard to vacuum freeze drying method, the fresh Flammulina velutipe flavor could be better kept due to the low temperature and anaerobic condition.
Effect of freezing rate on some structural parameters of carrot cells
WANG Peng-fei, DI Qian-qian, LIU Bin, ZHOU Xiao-jing
2015, (10): 125-129. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.017
Abstract(106) PDF(196)
In order to study the effect of different freezing rates on the cell structure of fruits and vegetables, the carrot tissue samples were selected and frozen under different freezing rates respectively. For both of the blanched and fresh carrot tissue, the relationship between the freezing temperatures and the freezing rates was studied. A cylindrical model for plant cell was established. With this model, the cell volume, turgor pressure and permeability coefficients were calculated. The results showed that the freezing temperatures of the blanched carrots were lower than that of the fresh ones, and the freezing temperatures decreased with the increase of the freezing rates, the cell volume decreased as the turgor pressure rose, and the development tendency of the volume increased at first, then decreased when the temperature dropped. As for the permeability coefficient, it decreased with prolonged freezing process and its changing amplitude also decreased as the freezing rates increased.
Effect of interface composition on gel strength and water holding capacity of emulsion-filled whey protein gels
CHENG Yu, CHENG Ke, LI Huan, SHI Hai-yue, WANG Dan
2015, (10): 130-134. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.018
Abstract(163) PDF(235)
Effect of different environmental conditions including different p H ( 3, 7) , different concentration of sodium chloride (50, 200mmol/L) and heat treatment (90℃, 30min) on stability of emulsions prepared using different emulsifiers (WPI, Tween20, Tween +potato protein hydrolysate) by gravitational separation methods were investigated. Emulsions prepared using different emulsifier including WPI, Tween20 and Tween +potato protein hydrolysate by high speed homogenization method were used as solvent to prepare protein gels. Heat set emulsion-filled whey protein gels were prepared at the protein concentration of 12% (w/v) at different p H (3, 7) and concentration of Na Cl (50 and 200mmol/L) by heating at 90℃ for 30 min. Results showed that gel strength and water holding capacity of gel prepared using emulsion as solvent were higher than the gel prepared with water. Adding sodium chloride could effectively improve the strength and water holding capacity of the gel. It was shown that environmental conditions including p H and salt had effect on gel strength of emulsion-filled whey protein gels. Moreover, emulsion properties had effect on water holding capacity and gel strength of emulsion-filled whey protein gels.
Study on structural identification and antioxidant activity of flavonoids from jujube leaves
LI Xi-yue, GAO Zhe, CUI Can, AN Xiao-nan, WANG Rong-fang, CUI Tong
2015, (10): 135-138. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.019
Abstract(75) PDF(320)
Five kind of flavonoids in the jujube leaves were obtained by the isolation with ethanol as the extraction reagent and subsequently purification of ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanol extract by a preparative HPLC, whose structures were verified by1 H NMR and13 C NMR. The five compounds were identified as quercetin-3-O-robinobioside (1) , quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2) , quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (3) , kaempferol-3-Orutinoside (4) and quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl- (1→2) -α-L-rhamnoside (5) , respectively. All compounds were evaluated for antioxidant capacity against ABTS+and DPPH radicals. Results revealed similar trends for the capability of the five flavonoids to scavenge the ABTS+and DPPH radicals. Among them, compound 3exhibited the highest activity and compound 1, 2, and 5 showed moderate activity, while compound 4 revealed lower antioxidant capacity.
Study on the temperature-raising characteristics of oil during microwave heating
QI Li-na, LU Qing-qing, CHENG Yu-dong, JIN Yin-zhe
2015, (10): 139-142. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.020
Abstract(102) PDF(193)
The change of temperature in oil and frozen oil during microwave reheating was determined by microwave workstation. The effects of different freezing conditions on temperature changing of oil and frozen oil during microwave reheating were investigated. Results showed that there were differences between heating characteristics of 6 kinds of oil, heating rate of the sunflower oil was higher since it contained more unsaturated fatty acid, but the peanut oil was on the contrary. Frozen for 1 day under-20℃, reheating curves of the 6 kinds of oil were all presented the “S ” pattern, but the heating rate of peanut oil was lowest, because its freezing point was the highest, which means it need more time to reach 0℃. The soybean oil was stored at-20℃ and-30℃ respectively for a month, and reheated regularly, finally found the lower frozen temperature the smaller impact on the temperature change of oil after microwave heating, when under the same freezing temperature, impact decreased with freezing time increased.
Antioxidant activity of polyphenolics and flavonoid extracted from wild apple (Malus sieversii)
CHEN Zhi-na, SHI Jun-ling, WANG Ji-xun
2015, (10): 143-147. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.021
Abstract(144) PDF(311)
Twenty different lines of wild apple (Malus sieversii) collected from different places in Xinjiang, China were used as research objects. Total total polyphenol content was measured using the Folin- Ciocalteau method. Total flavonoid content was measured by spectrophotometer. Total antioxidant capacities were analyzed by ABTS assay, DPPH assay, and iron ( Ⅲ) to iron ( Ⅱ) reducing power assay, and the correlation between the various indicators was measured with Pearson correlation coefficient. It was found that HDM-23 had the highest total polyphenol content (4714.33μmol gallic acid/100 g fresh matter) , and XY-31 contained the highest amount of total flavonoid content (2452.84 mg rutin/100 g fresh matter) . The present study implied that total polyphenols contribute to the antioxidant properties of the wild apple (p<0.01) and total flavonoid was an important phenolic compound in the wild apple varieties investigated.
Effect of tomato paste on sensory properties and antioxidant capacity of western brined ham
MA Cheng-yuan, HAN Yan-qing, XU Bao-cai, LI Xing-min, DAI Rui-tong
2015, (10): 148-152. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.022
Abstract(125) PDF(161)
The aim of this study was to take advantage of tomato paste (TP) which was full of lycopene, and then evaluate a new processing way of western brined ham. One control group (without TP) and three experimental groups were set up with 0% (control group) , 5% (low level group) , 10% (medium level group) and 15% (high level group) TP added in the process of tumbling and analyzed the p H value, expressible moisture, textural characteristics, color, MDA contents and sensory evaluation. The results showed that as the concentration of TP increased, the p H values decreased and the color characters transformed to orange-red gradually and the antioxidant capacity got stronger. However, the high level group which owed the highest (p<0.05) expressible moisture and the lowest (p<0.05) hardness tasted sour compared to others. The presence of TP (5% and 10%) had no significant influence ( p > 0. 05) on sensory properties of western brined ham. According to the comprehensive evaluation of indicators, in conclusion, the medium level group could better improve the color characters and reduce the lipid oxidation on the basis of not influencing the sensory properties significantly.
2015, (10): 153-157. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.023
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2015, (10): 225-228. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.038
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Silver nitrate-silica gel column chromatography purification linolenic acid in the walnut oil
ZHANG Wei-min, ZHAI Yuan-chun, YANG Hong-jun, ZHANG Run-guang, HAO Jian, HAN Jun-qi, ZHANG You-lin
2015, (10): 229-232. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.039
Abstract(164) PDF(306)
The fatty acids of walnut oil were separated primarily by urea adduction method, then the linolenic acid of walnut oil was further purified by silver nitrate-silica gel column chromatography. In the silver silica gel column formed by 20 g silica gel and 2g Ag NO3, join in the ratio was 1∶15 with adsorbent after urea inclusion enrichment of fatty acids, 100 m L 8% acetone-petroleum, underd the elution flow rate of 0.6m L/min, the content of linoleic acid in walnut oil increased from the original 8.7% to 95.9%. This suggests that the silver nitrate-silica gel column chromatography is a kind of high efficient separation method of linolenic acid.
Optimization of microwave-assisted hydro distillation extraction process of essential oil from Chestnut flower by response surface methodology
SHAO Ming-hui, WANG Xue-qing, SONG Wen-jun, WANG Su-ying, ZHAO Guo-qiang, FU Qing-wei
2015, (10): 233-236. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.040
Abstract(123) PDF(276)
Effects of the solid-solvent ratio, microwave power and extraction time and their interaction on extraction rate of the essential oil from the Chestnut flower, extracted by the microwave-assisted hydro distillation, were researched and preparing technology was optimized using response surface design and data analyzed by SAS software. According to quadratic regression model and the feasibility of actual operation, the optimum extraction parameters were as follows:the solid-solvent ratio 1∶24 (g/m L) , microwave power 300 W and extraction time 17 min. Under the optimized conditions, the actual oil yield was 0.647%±0.030%.
Effect of different extraction conditions on pectin from mangosteen rind and its rheological properties
HUANG Wen-ye, GUO Xiu-jun, HUANG Xue-song
2015, (10): 237-240. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.041
Abstract(135) PDF(378)
Hot-acid method was used to extract pectin from mangosteen rind in different p H, temperature and time conditions. Basic chemical and rheological properties of mangosteen rind pectin ( MRP) were also determined and compared with apple pectin (AP) . The yield of MRP increased significantly with decreasing p H and rising temperature, and the recommended extraction time was about 1.5 2h. The extraction yield ranged from 4.48% to 8.49%, degree of methylation (DM) and uronic acid content of MRP were 75.97%±3.49% and (626.52±24.15) mg/g, respectively. MPR solution was a kind of typical pseudo plastic fluid, while the gel strength of MPR was lower than that of AP.
Optimization of ultrasonic assisted semi-bionic extraction technology for Camellia chrysantha
NIU Guang-jun, ZHU Si, WANG Wei-hua, CHEN Qing-ying, WEI Yi-cong, LIANG Yi-chi
2015, (10): 241-243. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.042
Abstract(119) PDF(519)
Camellia chrysantha as the research object, with the Hop extract (HE) , total flavonoids (TFA) , total HPLC integrate area of common peaks in fingerprints (S) , the content of rutin (VP) , antioxidant activity as a measure indicator. The uniform design, fingerprint, the antioxidant activity of experimental was used to optimize of semi bionic extraction conditions of Camellia chrysantha. Prediction model analysis software with two polynomial stepwise regression equation by DPS. According to industry production condition, the best technical condition:p H values of 70% ethanol for the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd decoctions were in order of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.0, and the extraction time were 10, 5 and 5min, respectively. Under these conditions, the hop extract, total flavonoids, total HPLC integrate area of common peaks in fingerprints, the content of rutin, the elimination rate of ABTS+free radical and the elimination rate of DPPH free radical was 38.50%, 135.05mg/g, 3.46mg/g, 33082.15, 60.50%and 78.05%. Compared to the theoretical value, the relative error of 0.88%. Optimized by DPS regression equation derived some practical significance.
Extraction and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green kumquat peel
DUAN Zhou-wei, DOU Zhi-hao, HE Ai, XIE Hui, YUE Wei-yuan
2015, (10): 244-248. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.043
Abstract(161) PDF(649)
Taking green kumquat peel as raw material, used ethanol as extraction solvent extracting polyphenols, determined the content of polyphenols by Folin-Ciocalteu method, identified the effect of ethanol concentration, temperature, solid-liquid ratio and time on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols. Based on single factor test, an orthogonal design was applied to optimize extraction process. Antioxidant activities of extract were evaluated by three different methods, such as DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay, potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The results showed that the optimum polyphenols extraction conditions as follows:extraction solvent60% ethanol (v/v) , extraction temperature 55℃, solid-liquid ratio (g/m L) 1∶30, extraction time 3h and one time.Under these conditions, the extraction rate of polyphenols was 3.68% (calculated on dry basis, w/w) . And the experiments of antioxidant activity showed that the extracted polyphenols presented the strong antioxidant activity to the DPPH and ABTS radical, and the IC50 was 1.38mg/m L and 0.49mg/m L, respectively. Potassium ferricyanide reduction test also showed similar results.
Study on optimum extraction and properties of watery insoluble dietary fiber from tea sullage by response surface methodology
CHEN Shi-xue, WANG Yi-fan, YAO Yuan-yong, LU Dao-wang
2015, (10): 249-253. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.044
Abstract(115) PDF(388)
Much watery insoluble dietary fiber in the sullage of Shiqian moss tea was extracted by the approach of alkali solution. Simultaneously, by applying theoretical approach of Design-Expert V8.0 software to extraction test, all of factors affecting extraction efficiency of watery insoluble dietary fiber, such as extraction temperature, ratio of stuff with solvent, base concentration and extraction time, were optimized completely with Box-Behnken (BBD) basis set. The results demonstrated that 32.6℃ as extraction time, 0.2mol/L as alkali concentration, 50 min as extraction time and 1∶13.5 (g/m L) in ratio of stuff with solvent, were best optimum extraction conditions.The extraction efficiency could arrive to 78.66%. In addition, in testing property of watery insoluble dietary fiber, water holding capacity was 183.92% and the swelling degree was 2.83 m L/g. Therefore, the response surface method in optimizing extraction of watery insoluble dietary fiber performed short time, low energy exhausted and high extraction efficiency in feature.
Preparation of food grade calcium acetate using wasted oysters shells
FAN Zheng, YANG Xu, GUAN Jia-qing, ZHANG Jia, QIAO Lu, CHANG Xiao-ya
2015, (10): 254-258. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.045
Abstract(112) PDF(365)
It's a very efficient approach to produce food grade calcium acetate using wasted oysters shells by direct method. Single factor experiments and variance analysis of main factors were adopted to explore the action law and influence level for the content and yield of products between particle size of shell powder, shellacid ratio, water-shell ratio, reaction time and p H value. The process conditions was systemically optimized in virtue of multi-target orthogonal design. The experimental results were demonstrated that the main reaction was affected prominently by such three key factors including shell-acid ratio, water-shell ratio and reaction time. The optimum production conditions were determined as follows:shell-acid ratio was 0.75 ∶1, water-shell ratio was 21∶1 and reaction time was 140 min. Under the condition of above optimal parameters, the content and yield average of calcium acetate products achieved 99.63%, 93.72%, respectively. The research provided certain practical significance owing to outstanding quality and stable reliability of calcium acetate products after optimization.
Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of bovine hemoglobin by response surface methodology
HE Yu-lan, LU Shi-ling, WU Ya-nan, WANG Qi-xiang, TIAN Pan
2015, (10): 259-263. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.046
Abstract(127) PDF(212)
The bovine blood was used as raw material to extract hemoglobin by means of ultrasonic. Effect of ratio (V/V) of water to red blood cell, operation time, ratio of ultrasonic time to quiescent interval and ultrasonic power on the extraction ration of hemoglobin were investigated. Through single factor test, their scopes were initially determined, and then the extraction technology parameters were optimized through response surface methodology. The results showed that :when the ratio (V/V) of water to red blood cell was 4∶1, the operation time was 17 min, the ratio of ultrasonic time to quiescent interval was 1 ∶1, and the ultrasonic power was 250 W, the extraction rate of hemoglobin was 92.33%.
Optimized ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of flavonoids from Pleurotus eryngii by response surface methodology
SUN Qiong, ZHANG Zhi-feng, LI Yue-mei
2015, (10): 264-268. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.047
Abstract(99) PDF(536)
In this study, Pleurotus eryngii being used as the material, flavonoids was extracted through ultrasonicassisted method. Response surface method was applied to obtain the optimum extracting conditions for flavonoids from Pleurotus eryngii. The effect of ethanol concentration, liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic time and temperature on the yield of flavonoids were investigated by single factor experiments. Subsequently, the BoxBehnken center combination experimental design was used to investigate the effect of four factors on the yield of flavonoids extraction. The optimum combination was obtained by design expert 8.06 and response surface analysis. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:ethanol concentration80%, liquid-solid ration 1 ∶40 (g/m L) , ultrasonic temperature 80℃, ultrasonic time 100 min. Under the above optimized conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 2.92%.
Response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total monoterpene glycosides from seed cake of Paeonias ostii
DENG Rui-xue, LI Xiao-fang, LIU Yi-qiong, ZENG Meng, DONG Jun-qing, LIU Pu
2015, (10): 269-272. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.048
Abstract(113) PDF(130)
To investigate the optimal extraction conditions of monoterpene glycosides from seed cake of Paeonia ostii under ultrasonic assistance, three extraction parameters including ultrasonic time, ethanol concentration and liquid/material ratio on the extraction rate of monoterpene glycosides were optimized. On the basis of single factor tests, the extraction technology of monoterpene glycosides from the seed cake of Paeonia ostii was optimized by response surface methodology. The optimum conditions obtained were as follows:extraction time was 35 min, ethanol concentration was 41%, liquid/material ratio was 35∶1 (m L/g) . Under this conditions, the extraction rate values of monoterpene glycosides was 7.089%.
Extraction technology and antioxidant activity analysis of polyphenols from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica) seed coat
CUI Jie, PAN Qian, ZHANG Qiao-hui, DONG Shi-bin, WANG Jian-zhong
2015, (10): 273-277. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.049
Abstract(136) PDF(233)
The optimum extraction condition of polyphenols from apricot seed coat with the herbal blitzkrieg extractor and the antioxidant activity were investigated in this paper. The four antioxidant assays were contained total reductive ability, scavenging ability for DPPH·, ·OH, and O2-·. The optimum extraction condition was listed:solid-liquid ratio 1∶20 (g/m L) , ethanol concentration 30% and time 120 s. Under this situation, the extraction rate of polyphenols was 9.650mg/g. When the polyphenols concentration was 0.4mg/m L, the rate of scavenging DPPH· was 92.9%. When it was 3.0mg/m L, the rate of scavenging O2-· was 93.1%. When it was 2.0mg/m L, the rate of scavenging OH· was 98.1%. When it was 1.0mg/m L, reducing force was 1.411.
Optimizing the extraction and the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato by using response surface methodology
YANG Yang, ZHANG Xin, WU Zu-fang, WENG Pei-fang
2015, (10): 278-283. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.050
Abstract(126) PDF(339)
The response surface methodology was used to optimize the hot water extraction of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato. Three parameters including citric acid mass fraction, extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized based on anthocyanins content and the antioxidant activity of the extract. The optimum extraction conditions were citric acid mass fraction 3%, extraction temperature 63℃ and extraction time 2h for anthocyanins. Under this extraction condition, the extraction rate of purple sweet potato anthocyanins was 7.21mg/g, and the IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging activity was 123.93μg/m L. The results suggested that the regression models were accurate and adequate for anthocyanins extraction from purple sweet potato, while the extraction showed the highest antioxidant activity.
Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of colchicine from lily flower by response surface methodology
LIU Qian-fen, LI Chang-gao, DENG Dan-wen, MA Bing-feng, HUANG Gan-hui
2015, (10): 284-287. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.051
Abstract(134) PDF(387)
Lily flower as the research object, using the response surface analysis methodology the ultrasonic extraction technology of colchicine was optimazed. On the basis of single-factor tests, the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction duration, extraction temperature, and liquid-material ratio on colchicine content were explored. A regression model describing extraction of colchicine as a function of three variables was established with the Design-Expert software according to the Box-Behnken design principle and experimental data. The results showed that the optimal technologies were 60% ethanol as extraction solvent, extraction temperature50℃, material liquid ratio 1∶21 and extraction time 33 min. Under the optimum condition lily alkaloid extracting yield was 16.25μg/g.
Extraction and functional properties of protein from Jerusalem artichoke
HU Ya-nan, FAN San-hong, ZHANG Xiao-li
2015, (10): 288-292. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.052
Abstract(187) PDF(158)
Protein from Jerusalem artichoke was extracted by ultrasonic auxiliary alkaline and some functional properties of the protein were analysed. The extraction process was optimized by orthogonal array design method. The results showed that the highest extraction vield of 71.2%±0.3% was achieved at p H of 13.5, solidto-liquid ratio 1∶40 (mg/m L) , ultrasonic duration 50 min and ultrasonic temperature of 60℃. The isoelectric point of the protein was around 4.0 and the emulsifying capacity could reach 80% at p H9.0. Meanwhile, the foaming ability was highest with the protein concentration of 4% and the solubility was highest at 70℃.
Study on preparation process and properties of high purity indigestible dextrin
ZHANG Ying, ZHU Xiao-wen, QIAN He, YAO Wei-rong
2015, (10): 293-296. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.053
Abstract(216) PDF(226)
It was described the preparation and properties of high purity indigestible dextrin. The corn starch was acidhydrolyzed under 180℃ for 0.5h by adding 12% (V/W) HCl solution (1% W/W) firstly, and then mixed with 10 folds water (V/W) and enzymolyzed by amylase and glucoamylase. The hydrolysis was concentrated under vacuum and then precipitated with ethanol to be purified, the precipitation for 6 times was the production of indigestible dextrin and the yield was 40.32% and the purity was 95.30%. Analysis of molecular weight distribution and DSC-thermogram of high purity indigestible dextrin were studied, the results showed the high thermal stability and the heavy molecular weight was 8607 u, which provided some information for its application in all kinds of food.
Optimization of anthocyanin content in purple potato wine by response surface analysis
SONG Xue-fan, LI Nan, XIONG Wei, ZENG Li-ping, WU Ying-long
2015, (10): 297-300. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.054
Abstract(101) PDF(128)
With purple potato wine as the research object, the methods of single factor and response surface was used to maximize the anthocyanin content in the wine. A regression equation was established to obtain the optimal fermentation parameters. The optimal fermentation conditions were as follows:proportion of water and material 1. 4 ∶ 1, p H4. 15, and fermentation temperature 24 ℃. Under this optimal fermentation conditions, the purple potato wine of 12.3° with a anthocyanin content of 123.34mg/L was obtained and the anthocyanin content was close to the predicted value 124.54mg/L with a relative error less than 0.96%. Accordingly, response surface could be a reasonable and feasible approach to maximize the anthocyanin content in purple potato wine, providing the basis for further researche.
Processing the technique for microwave cake premixed flour of highland barley
DING Jie, HE Jiang-hong, HUANG Yi-qian, XIAO Meng, YANG Kai-jun, An Pan-yu, HE Lian
2015, (10): 301-306. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.055
Abstract(92) PDF(563)
Highland barley as material, orthogonal experimental method was used to optimize the best formula of microwave cake premixed flour. In 1000 grams AP-flour, the optimal formula was highland barley powder (20%) , powdered sugar (35%) , hens egg white power (10%) , cream milk powder (6%) , monoglycerides (0.4%) , xanthan gum (0.1%) , baking powder (0.3%) , powder oil (1%) . Under above conditions, the highland barley microwave cake was bright in color. This cake had the right highland barley flavor and good mouth feel. Its appearance was specification and normally uplift and even microstructure.
Study on the extraction of soluble dietary fiber from sunflower seed shells and its antioxidant activity
ZANG Yan-qing, GE De-peng
2015, (10): 307-310. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.056
Abstract(183) PDF(253)
The optimization of extraction technology of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) in sunflower seed shells and its anti-oxidative activities were studied. Results showed that the optimized extraction conditions were as follows:solid-liquid ratio 1∶30, extraction solvent 9.5% Na OH, extraction temperature 40℃, extraction time 30 min. Under these conditions, the extraction rate of SDF was 21.32%. The SDF showed strong scavenging activities on1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) , superoxide radical (O2-·) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) methods, the scavenging rates for the radicals were 86.67%, 70.32% and76.33%, respectively, when the concentration was 1.0mg/m L.
Optimization of purifying linoleic acid from walnut oil with urea adduction fractionation
ZHAI Yuan-chun, ZHANG Run-guang, FENG Bin-kui, DU Xi-min, HU Han, ZHANG You-lin
2015, (10): 311-316. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.057
Abstract(131) PDF(271)
The technology of separating linoleic acid from walnut oil by urea adduction was optimized in the paper. On the basis of single factor experiments, the effects of adduction temperature (℃) , adduction time (h) , m1 (mixed fatty acid) ∶m2 (urea) , V (95% ethanol) ∶m2 (urea) on the purity and yield of linoleic acid were analyzed by response surface method. The results showed that the optimal parameters of the urea adduction technology were adduction temperature-10 ℃, adduction time 24 h, m1 ( mixed fatty acid) ∶ m2 ( urea) =0. 3 and V ( 95%ethanol) ∶m2 ( urea) =4. On this condition, the purity of linoleic acid could rise from original 52.1 % to above80.20% by initial urea adduction.
Effect of drying temperature on properties of soybean protein-isolate/carboxymethylcellulose composite films
ZHANG Chao, GUO Xiao-fei, LI Wu, MA Yue, ZHAO Xiao-yan
2015, (10): 317-319. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.058
Abstract(98) PDF(157)
The effect of drying temperature on properties of soybean protein isolate/carboxymethyl cellulose composite films was evaluated. The drying temperature of 90℃ lowered the thickness of the composite films and enhanced their density significantly (p <0.05) . The tensile strength and water vapor permeability of the composite films dried at 90℃ was 2.64 time and 78% of those of the composite films dried at 30℃, respectively.The drying temperature of 90℃ improved the performance of the composite films effectively.
Study on thermal degradation stability of purple sweet potato anthocyanins in different organic acid systems
LIU Hai-ying, XING Zi-yi, WANG Jia-hua, MA Ya-ru, LIANG Shan
2015, (10): 320-324. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.059
Abstract(120) PDF(286)
In order to obtain experimental reference and theoretical basis to improve the stability of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPA) , thermal degradation stability of PSPA was studied in different organic acid systems like lactic, tartaric, malic, acetic, and citric acid system. PSPA degradation kinetic model was established to analysis the degradation rate constant (k) , the half-life (t1/2) and the thermal degradation activation energy (Ea) of PSPA in different organic acid systems. The results showed that the degradation of PSPA conformed to the first-order reaction kinetic model and the degradation rate of PSPA accelerated obviously with the increase of temperature. Compared with the blank group, the t1/2and Ea of PSPA in organic acid systems were all improved, which indicated that the stability of PSPA had been enhanced. The Ea of PSPA in organic acid systems was increased 35.71% by tartaric acid%, 32.06% by lactic acid, 20.61% by malic acid, 12.60% by acetic acid and45.31% by citric acid. The copigmentation effect of citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid was better, thus they could be considered as auxiliary color agents.
Comparison of four different freezing techniques about the preservation effects on yellowfin tuna
YU Gang, YANG Shao-ling, ZHANG Hui, ZHANG Hong-jie, YANG Xian-qing, ZHANG Peng
2015, (10): 325-329. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.060
Abstract(118) PDF(408)
In this paper, it was studied about the preservation effect of four freezing technique, liquid nitrogen freezing, refrigerant freezing, -80℃ freezing and-18℃ freezing, on the dorsal muscle of yellowfin tuna by determining the K value, TBA value, TVB-N value, met-myoglobin content, chromatic aberration and by sensory evaluation. The results showed that:the K value, TBA value, TVB-N value and met-myoglobin content of tuna meat frozen by liquid nitrogen were all lower than the other three freezing techniques, and liquid nitrogen freezing method could keep tuna meat fresh for a longer time. So from this perspective, liquid nitrogen freezing technique was the best among these four freezing methods. But unfortunately, there were some slight cracks on the surface of samples frozen by liquid nitrogen because of the fast freezing speed, so its chromatic aberration and score of sensory evaluation were poor than that of samples frozen by refrigerant.
Effect of ethylene receptor Le ETR-3-deficient on storage quality of fresh-cut tomato
WANG Qian, GAO Li-pu, ZHENG Shu-fang, SHI Jun-yan, WANG Qing
2015, (10): 330-334. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.061
Abstract(113) PDF(150)
The wound ethylene was produced by fresh-cut, which accelerates the ripening and senescence of fruits and vegetables. The quality change of green-ripe tomato from two different cultivars, wild-type and ethylene receptor Le ETR-3-deficient (Never-ripe, Nr) mutant was investigated during storage at 4 ℃ after fresh-cut processing. Results showed that Nr mutant fruit skin changing to red was retarded, weight loss and the respiration intensity was inhibited, fruit firmness was well maintained, also the decrease of soluble solids, soluble sugar, titratable acid, vitamin C and the chlorophyll 's-degrading of fresh-cut tomato was mitigated compared with the Wt-type, revealing an excellent fresh-keeping effect of Nr mutant tomato during storage.
18 kinds of salt on apple of core rot control and part of the mechanism
BAI Xiao-dong, NIU Li-li, BI Yang, ZHAO Guan-hua, ZHANG Sheng-gui, LI Yong-cai
2015, (10): 335-338. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.062
Abstract(107) PDF(153)
To control postharvest apple of core rot, it was explored inhibitory effect and mechanism of the 18 kinds of salt on core rot mainly caused by Trichothecium roseum and Alternaria alternata. The results showed that sodium metabisulfite, potassium metabisulfite, sulfate, ammonium carbonate, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, disodium EDTA and aluminum chloride had better inhibitory effect, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was less than 100mmol/L. Inhibitory effect of disodium EDTA and aluminum chloride on T. roseum and A. alternata were most obvious, and inhibition rate respectively reached 91%, 83% and 84%, 84%, but p H treated lesion diameter with no significant difference between the control group, inhibitory effect of salts on core rot was evidently main role rather than the p H of solution.
2015, (10): 339-343. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.063
Abstract(78) PDF(299)
Effect of cell wall enzyme activity on the degredation of pectin during postharvest softening of plum fruit
LIANG Jie-yu, ZHU Dan-shi, LV Jia-yu, GE Yong-hong, CAO Xue-hui, FENG Xu-qiao
2015, (10): 344-348. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.064
Abstract(136) PDF(339)
To explore the postharvest softening and effect of cell wall enzyme activity (PE, exo-PG, endo-PG and EG) on the degradation of protopectin to souble pectin (WSP、ASP、HSP、SSP) , the experiment was carried out by Banbianhong plum using texture analyzer during storage at ordinary temperature. The results showed that, the changing of PE activity was little, exo-PG activity kept reducing, meanwhile endo-PG activity kept rising during the storage of pulm fruit and EG activity after storing 8d kept rising at ordinary temperature. The changing of pulp hardness and adhesiveness had a close relationship with the content of protopectin and SSP.The content of ASP affected the decrease of adhesiveness significantly (p <0.01) , while HSP affected pulp hardness significantly (p <0.05) . The changing of pulp hardness (p <0.01) and adhesiveness (p <0.05) had significant correlation with exo- PG activity. The changing of endo- PG activity presented a significantly correlation with the decline of pulp hardness (p<0.05) . The activity of PE presented a significantly correlation with the content of protopectin, ASP, HSP and WSP (p<0.05) , exo-PG presented a significantly correlation with the content of protopectin and HSP (p <0.01) , SSP and WSP (p <0.05) . Endo-PG had a great influence on protopectin and HSP (p<0.05) . EG had little effect on the degradation of pectin.
Anti-aging effect of total polysaccharide from Dendranthema morifolium on aging mouse induced by D-galactose
JIN Sheng-lang, QUE Fei, WANG Ying, WEI Xiao-xiao
2015, (10): 349-351. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.065
Abstract(106) PDF(285)
Objective:To study the anti-ageing effects of polysaccharide from Dendranthema morifolium on aging mice induced by D-galactose and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods:Healthy female mice were randomly divided into 5 groups:control group, aging model group (80mg/kg·d bw) , and low-, medium- and high-dose polysaccharide groups (50, 100, 150mg/kg·d bw) . The mice were then sacrificed, and the serum, liver and brain tissue were collected. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the blood, liver and brain tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) , Catalase (CAT) , total antioxidant activity (T-AOC) in the serum and liver were then measured. The polysaccharide from Dendranthema morifolium had antagonism effects on the mice aging induced by D-galactose, had evident rebound of activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC at all three doses in the blood and liver, and had a decrease of MDA in the serum, liver and brain tissue. Conclusion:The polysaccharide from Dendranthema morifolium had anti-aging effects on aging model mice.
Effect of Oviductus Ranae fermented milk on the relief of physical fatigue effectiveness in mice
HAO Jie, QIU Zhi-dong, ZHU Kai, WENG Li-li
2015, (10): 352-355. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.066
Abstract(110) PDF(88)
Objective:To study the relief of physical fatigue effectiveness of Oviductus Ranae fermented milk.Methods:Mice were divided into high, medium and low does groups and one control group. Loading swimming test, levels of blood urea nitrogen, liver glycogen and blood lactate were detected to test the pharmacological activity of Oviductus Ranae fermented milk. Results:The swimming test showed positive result, blood lactate, blood urea nitrogen two biochemical indicators were positive, negative test results on glycogen. Conclusion:Oviductus Ranae fermented milk had effect on physical fatigue relief, it was a good health care product for the modern family.
Effect of Trichosanthes kirilowii lectin on blood glucose and oxidative stress in diabetic rats
LI Qiong, ZHANG Peng, GUO Chen, ZHANG Bao-shun, LI Xue-gang
2015, (10): 356-359. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.067
Abstract(118) PDF(288)
Objective:To expore the hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Trichosanthes Kirilowii lectin (TKL) .Methods:Diabetic rats were orally administrated metformin, saline and TKL low-dose (0.3g/kg) group、middledose (0.6g/kg) group and high-dose (0.9g/kg) for 3 weeks. The body weight, food and water intake, the fasting blood glucose were measured. Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to test the severity of diabetic. At the end of the experiment, GSP, MDA, SOD, GSH levels in rats plasma were evaluated. Results : Diabetic symptoms were ameliorated after rats were fed with TKL for 3 weeks compared with diabetic group. High-dose of TKL significantly decreased FBG, GSP, MDA and increased SOD, GSH in diabetic rats (p<0.01) ;FBG, GSP, MDA and SOD (p<0.05) were also improved in the groups of TKL low-dose and middle-dose. Besides, TKL could improve the impaired glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Conclusion:TKL could effectively decrease blood glucose and improve antioxidant defense of diabetic rats.
Research progress in comprehensive processing and utilization of microalgae
YANG Xian-qing, WU Qiong, HU Xiao, LI Lai-hao, WU Yan-yan, LIN Wan-ling, HUANG Hui
2015, (10): 360-364. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.068
Abstract(115) PDF(661)
Microalgae had lots of species, and they were widely distributed. The comprehensive processing and related products development of microalgae had caught great attention. Nowadays, microalgae were mainly used for the preparation of renewable energy sources, biological active substances and functional feed. It was widely used in many fields such as chemical, farming, health care, food and cosmetics, helps solving series problems of energy, environment and health issues for mankind, which has an important economic value and development potential. This paper reviewd the recent progress of comprehensive processing and utilization of microalgae, and aimed to provide a reference for deep processing and product development of microalgae.
Research progress in quality of the white tea
LIU Fei, SUN Wei-jiang
2015, (10): 365-368. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.069
Abstract(123) PDF(1038)
The reason of white tea sensory formed from tasty compounds and volatility compounds two parts were sumed up. As well as some new idea of fresh leaves and process technology was pointed out. Why the white tea had great amine acid, caffeine contents were connect with different tea cultivar. However flavonoids were connect with process technology. The volatility compounds of the white tea was effected by tea cultivar and process technology. The innovation of the white tea would resolve the problem of low aroma and tasty.
Advance of research on ochratoxin contamination in grapes and screening methods of toxin producing strains
WANG Hai-ying, ZHANG Hong-yin, YANG Qi-ya, LI Chao-lan, WANG Jun-qing, LIU Zheng-wei
2015, (10): 369-372. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.070
Abstract(100) PDF(365)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) was a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi.OTA had a huge impact on human and animal health due to its strong toxicity and wide distribution. Grape and its products were one of the main sources of food for OTA. Isolation and screening of strains producing ochratoxin from the surface of diseased grapes was the most commonly used method to research toxigenic strains. Because the toxigenic strains were mainly distributed in the the surface of grapes, theochratoxin contamination levels would be greatly increased when the grape tissue was damaged. Study the distribution of toxigenic strains and its ability of producing toxins provides reference for controlling ochratoxin pollution and finding an effective biological control method. This paper reviewed the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grape and the screening methods of mycotoxin producing strains, which provided the basis for the control of OTA pollution in the grape and its products.
Application of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction technology in meat security detection
LU Chun-mei, CUI Xiu-ming, WANG Cheng-xiao
2015, (10): 374-378. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.071
Abstract(137) PDF(512)
Molecular imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) shows great advantage in meat safety detection technology for its good selectivity, recognition, and the accuracy of analysis etc. In this article, the application of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction technology in pesticide residue, veterinary drug residue, heavy metal residue in meat security detection had been systematically reviewed by comparing with commonly used methods. Furthermore, the problem that had brought from the technology were analyzed and prospected to provide a reference for the development of meat food safety testing technology.
Research progress in developing situation and prospects of fermented drinks
WANG Lei, CHEN Yu-fei, LIU Chang-jiao
2015, (10): 379-382. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.072
Abstract(173) PDF(2898)
Fermented drinks refers to the raw beverage materials through the fermentation of lactic acid bacteria, yeast or others that were allowed to use of post deployment, the alcohol content of 1% (volume fraction) . Fermented drinks contain abundant probiotics with nutrition and health function. The paper summarized the lactic acid bacteria and yeast in the fermented drinks, the classification of fermented drinks, the developing situation and research prospects of fermented drinks at home and abroad. Then the existing problems and prospects at the present stage were put forward. All of those provided the basis for comprehensive development of fermented drinks with different probiotic characteristics.
Advance in L-malate production based on metabolic engineering strategies
ZHOU Li, CUI Wen-jing, LIU Zhong-mei, ZHOU Zhe-min
2015, (10): 383-388. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.073
Abstract(86) PDF(575)
L-Malate was widely used in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. It was industrially produced using chemical or enzymatic method with petroleum derived resource as substrate. With reduction in oil resources, interest in the production of L-malate by microbial fermentation had been renewed. In recent years, metabolic engineering strategies have been applied to achieve L-malate production in Escherichia coli and yeasts etc., which showed certain application prospect. Meanwhile, L-malate synthesis by constructing metabolic pathways in vitro with synthetic metabolic engineering had high theoretical value. This paper summarized metabolic routes for L-malate synthesis in microorganisms. Thereafter, metabolic engineering strategies for L-malate production including enhancement of L-malate synthesis pathway, deletion of byproduct accumulation routes and improvement of redox-power regeneration were reviewed to systemically explain the progress in metabolic mechanism of L- malate. Finally, further research areas in metabolically engineered L- malate production were proposed.
Research progress on allergenic plant chitinases
XIANG Qi-sen, SHI Guo-qing, MA Yun-fang, DONG Ji-lin, SHEN Rui-ling
2015, (10): 389-394. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.074
Abstract(79) PDF(216)
Chitinases (EC are hydrolytic enzymes that catalyse the random cleavage of internal β-1, 4glycosidic linkages in the chitin polymer, and they occur in a wide range of organisms including plants, animals, and microorganisms. High-level expression of chitinases could enhance the resistance of plants to pest infestation, pathogens, and other environmental challenges. Recent studies have revealed that chitinases isolated from many common plant foods were allergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome. The potential adverse health effects of allergenic plant chitinases have attracted much attention. Advances in researches on the distributions, structures, classifications of allergenic plant chitinases and their influence on food safety were summarized in this paper to provide guidelines for the isolation, structural identification, allergenicity assessment, and control of allergenic plant chitinases in foods.
Extraction and activity remained of shrimp tropomyosin
LI Yang, XUE Lu, HU Zhi-he, WU Zhi-jian, WANG Li-juan
2015, (10): 395-399. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2015.10.075
Abstract(125) PDF(434)
The main purpose of the separation and purification of proteins was to study its structure and physicochemical properties, so the original structure and properties should be kept during the separation and purification. The paper reviewed the structure of major allergen of crustaceans-tropomyosin (Tropomyosin, TM) , and the factors of effecting its structural stability. And the effect of separation methods and conditions on TM's structure and allergen activity was also discussed, which provided a reference for the extraction of tropomyosin with high purity and original structure and activity.