Current Articles

2022, Volume 43,  Issue 19

2022, 43(19)
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Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee
Research on the Construction of Quality and Safety Intelligent Supervision System of Food Contact Materials and Products
LI Qiang, DUAN Min, LIU Puzhen, HUANG Rong, ZANG Nannan
2022, 43(19): 1-6. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020013
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Building an intelligent supervision system through information technology for quality and safety of food contact materials and products is one important measure to promote the precision supervision and improve supervision efficiency. In this paper, the development of intelligent supervision in the current smart society is studied, and the current supervision modes and situation of food contact materials and products in China are analyzed. Based on this, this paper gives out the smart regulatory system framework construction suggestion for quality and safety of food contact materials and products, and provides the reference for government departments to supervise the quality and safety of food contact materials and products under new situations.
Review on Quality Safety Standards and Critical Control Points of Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium
ZHAO Lin, JIANG Yu, LAN Tao, WU Qi, ZHANG Mengyan, YIN Xiuwen, LIU Hongyu, YUN Zhenyu
2022, 43(19): 7-13. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030218
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Chondroitin sulfate sodium is an acidic mucopolysaccharide extracted from animal cartilage, and has been widely used in the world as anti-osteoarthritis and health food. It is difficult to control the quality and safety of chondroitin sulfate sodium, due to the structure, physical and chemical characteristics, physiological activities of chondroitin sulfate sodium vary with the different animal species, tissues and extraction processes. There are corresponding standards for chondroitin sulfate sodium at home and abroad. Based on the raw material standards of chondroitin sulfate sodium collected in the pharmacopoeia of China, the United States, Japan and Europe, this paper analyzes and summarizes the development status and trend of quality and safety standardization of chondroitin sulfate sodium. Combined with the latest research results, the critical control points affecting the quality and safety of chondroitin sulfate sodium are further extracted, and the sources, potential exogenous pollutants and adulteration are deeply analyzed and discussed, which is conducive to accurately grasp the risk sources affecting the quality and safety of chondroitin sulfate sodium for the supervision department and production enterprises. This paper clarifies the future requirements of quality and safety standardization of chondroitin sulfate sodium, providing reference for the continuous improvement of quality and safety standard system of chondroitin sulfate sodium.
Future Food
Application and Research Progress of Intelligent Bionics in Food Fermentation
DAI Liangchao, WU Rina, TAO Dongbing, ZHANG Liang, ZANG Jian, WU Junrui
2022, 43(19): 14-21. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120273
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With the development of science and technology, food processing and manufacturing have become more intelligent. Under the premise of food nutrition and safety, it is necessary to improve food manufacturing efficiency and sensory quality. Modern intelligent bionics integrates the advantages of bionic sensing and machine learning. At the same time, there are methods such as single analysis and joint analysis to perform sensory qualitative and quantitative analysis of the target. Its application range and detection threshold greatly exceed the level that can be achieved by traditional methods. In addition, the use of intelligent bionics can quickly locate and quantitatively analyze fermented foods, including color, aroma, taste, shape, fermentation process, classification and screening, etc. And it can significantly improve the accuracy of fermented food’s quality classification and comprehensive evaluation. This paper takes fermented food as an example. The mechanism and research status of intelligent bionic sensing technologies such as visual bionic, olfactory bionic, tactile bionic and gustatory bionic are systematically expounded. At the same time, the future research direction was summarized, in order to provide a clear theoretical reference and research ideas for the control, detection and development of fermented food.
Study on the Mechanism of Mulberry Twig Improving Hyperuricemia Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
RUAN Shiyang, CHEN Hui, ZENG Fanli, LIAO Shanggao, LUO Xirong
2022, 43(19): 22-30. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120340
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Objective: To explore the possible target and mechanism of mulberry twig in the treatment of hyperuricemia (HUA). Methods: Batman-TCM, TCMSP, PubMed, CNKI databases were used to obtain components of mulberry twig, component-related targets were collected through SwissTargetPrediction and PharmMapper online analysis platform. HUA targets were collected through GeneCards and OMIM databases. The intersection of disease targets and component targets was taken to obtain shared targets, protein interaction networks were constructed using the STRING database and the Cytoscape software, the compound-target-pathway network was constructed by Cytoscape software. The GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed using the DAVID database. Molecular docking was used to verify the results. Results: A total of 45 active components of mulberry twig, which corresponding to 620 targets, 1277 related disease targets of HUA, 128 intersecting targets for active components and HUA were screened out. After topological analysis, there were 13 core targets including VEGFA, SRC, PIK3CA, MAPK1, IL6, TNF, etc. And 10 active components including Luteolin, Quercetin, Cyclomulberrochromene, Moracin M, Morin, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin, etc. 295 GO entries (P<0.01) and 78 KEGG (P<0.01) signal pathways were obtained by enrichment analyses. Among them, there are 212 biological processes (BP), which mainly included positive regulation of cell proliferation and negative regulation of apoptosis processes, 31 cell composition (CC), with targets mainly located in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm, molecular functions (MF) 52 in total, mainly related to protein binding, ATP binding, etc. KEGG enrichment analysis mainly involved such signaling pathways as Cancer, TNF, TRP and Toll-like receptor. Molecular docking revealed a good binding activity of the main active components to the core targets. Conclusions: This study preliminarily showed that the treatment of HUA with mulberry twig had the characteristics of multi-component, multi-target and multi-signal pathway, which provided a scientific basis for further study on the molecular mechanism of the treatment of HUA with the potential active components of mulberry twig.
Research and Investigation
Effect of Cooling Rate on Freeze-drying Characteristics of Pear Melon Cells
ZHANG Zhe, LANG Yuanlu, WU Qiaoyan, ZHANG Zhiqiang, CHEN Jianan, JI Hongwei, TIAN Jinjin
2022, 43(19): 31-42. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120035
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In order to explore the effect of cooling rate on the freeze-drying process of pear melon cells, the pear melon cells were subjected to different cooling rates (5, 15, 25, 35, 50 °C/min) based on cryomicroscopy imaging technology and vacuum freeze-drying technology. The freeze-drying visualization experiment was carried out, and the changes of cell morphological parameters (equivalent diameter, area, circumference, volume) and internal pressure during the freeze-drying process were analyzed. The characteristic parameters of porous materials (porosity) of dry tissue were studied. The results showed that: The freezing temperature generally decreased with the increase of the cooling rate. During the freeze-drying process, when the cooling rate was 25 °C/min, the changes of cell morphological parameters and internal pressure were the smallest. With the increase of cooling rate, the change rate of cell morphological parameters and internal pressure first decreased and then slowly increased. The cell morphology and internal pressure of pear melons changed greatly under too high and too low cooling rates, which was not conducive to the freeze-drying of pear melons. When the cooling rate was greater than 5 ℃/min, the porosity was larger and less affected by the cooling rate, and only small fluctuations occured within a certain range. The optimal cooling rate of pear melon was 25 ℃/min, and the cell morphology and solute damage were the least at this cooling rate.
Effects of Drying Methods on Microstructure of Juicy Peach
YUAN Yuejin, HAN Siming, XU Yingying, YANG Jiaqi, ZHANG Guoan, SHI Junwen
2022, 43(19): 43-52. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120157
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To describe the changes of juicy peach microstructure under different drying methods, microstructure images and cell parameter distribution curves of juicy peach under different moisture ratios were obtained by using paraffin section, micro-imaging and image processing technologies, after treated by five drying methods (i.e. hot-air drying (HAD), vacuum drying (VD), freeze drying (FD), hot-air and vacuum combined drying (HA-VD), freeze and hot-air combined drying (F-HAD)). The effect of drying methods on microstructure parameters (i.e., cell area, cell perimeter, cell roundness, cell wall surface roughness and porosity) were analyzed via cell parameters distribution curves. Fitting equations were built by polynomial fitting to describe the correlation between cell parameters and moisture ratios. The results showed that microstructural parameters of juicy peach primarily changed in the first half process (moisture ratio>0.5) of hot air drying and second half process (moisture ratio<0.5) of vacuum and freeze drying. The changing trend of cell area was FD<HAD<VD<HA-VD<F-HAD. Cell perimeters increasing was HAD<HA-VD<VD<F-HAD<FD. Cell roundness decreasing was HAD<FD<F-HAD<HA-VD<VD. Cell wall surface roughness increasing was F-HAD<VD<FD<HA-VD<HAD. Degree of porosity increase was FD<F-HAD<HAD<HA-VD<VD. Compared with single drying methods, the change of microstructure parameters was significantly inhibited by using corresponding combination drying methods. The results provided an important reference for exploring variation of microstructure parameters and establishing mathematical model of juicy peach with moisture ratios under different drying methods.
Comparison of the Quality of Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in Different Sampling Months and Sizes
SHI Gangpeng, GAO Tianqi, QUE Feng, WANG Chao, QIAO Yu, SHI Liu, WU Wenjin, YU wei, DING Anzi, LI Xin, LIAO Li, XIONG Guangquan, WANG Lan
2022, 43(19): 53-60. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120165
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The nutrient composition, yield, water-holding capacity, texture and microstructure of Procambraus clarkii meat from April to June 2020 and three sizes (S: 10~20 g, M: 20~30 g, L: 30~40 g) of crayfish were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the moisture content of crayfish meat tended to decrease with the month of harvesting from April to June, the ash content of crayfish meat was highest in the three sizes of crayfish in May, the 6-S protein content was highest in the S group in June, and the 4-L crude fat content was lowest in the L group in April. The crayfish meat yield decreased with size and month. The pH of crayfish meat was mainly neutral (7.09~7.22). The water-holding capacity of L decreased with increasing sampling month, and the crayfish of S and M showed a trend of decreasing and then increasing. The surface hardness of crayfish flesh gradually decreased and internal hardness increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing sample size, and the elasticity of crayfish flesh first increased significantly (P<0.05) and then did not change significantly in the S group, while the elasticity of M and L group did not change much. The muscle fiber gap size corresponded to the water-holding capacity, and the gap between liver vesicles was the smallest in the L group in June. The correlation analysis showed that the lower the flesh yield of crayfish, the smaller the gap between muscle fibers, and the more Q-textured and nutritious the crayfish meat. This study provides data to support the commercialization of crayfish in different sampling months and sizes.
Effects of Chemical Modification on Physicochemical Properties, Structure and Emulsifying Stability of Forsythia suspensa Insoluble Dietary Fiber
YAN Wensheng, ZHANG Liangliang, LI Huanyang, LÜ Hailong, XU Jianguo
2022, 43(19): 61-68. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120175
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In this experiment, Forsythia suspensa was used as raw material to extract insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) by double enzyme method, and then the extracted IDF was chemically modified by carboxymethylation (CM), hydroxypropylation (HP) and cross-linking (CL), and their physicochemical properties, structure and emulsifying properties were analyzed. The results showed that the modified treatment reduced the water holding capacity of Forsythia suspensa IDF and significantly increased the oil holding capacity by 21%~53.0% (P<0.05). The CM and HP modification increased the expansion capacity of Forsythia suspensa IDF by about 73%. The structural characterization showed that the three modification treatments significantly reduced the particle volume, looser structure, improved the thermal stability and reduced the crystallinity of Forsythia suspensa IDF. The modification of Forsythia suspense IDF emulsion had different degrees of improvement in temperature, pH and ionic strength stability, and had good storage stability. The Forsythia suspensa IDF emulsion stability was the best after adding CL modified Forsythia suspensa IDF.
Effects of Millet Flour on Rheological Characteristics of Wheat Dought and Noodle Quality
XIN Jing, HUANG Yicheng, JI Xiangqing, YANG Dingkuan, WANG Yuchao, ZHANG Jian, LI Xiaolei, LI Dan
2022, 43(19): 69-75. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120207
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To investigate the effects of millet flour on the farinaceous properties, viscoelastic properties and noodle quality of wheat dough, and the correlation analysis between dough rheological properties and noodle quality. Millet flour was added in the proportion of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% to wheat flour, and the rheological properties of dough, cooking properties and texture properties of noodles with different amounts of millet flour were determined. The results showed that the weakening degree, elastic modulus and viscosity modulus of the dough, the breaking rate and the cooking loss rate of the noodles increased with the increase of the amount of millet flour; while the water absorption rate, stabilization time and forming time of the dough, the cohesion, recovery, stretching force and stretching distance of noodles showed a downward trend. When the addition amount of millet flour was 20%, the hardness, stickiness and chewiness of noodles were 777.8 g, 637.7, and 588.06, respectively, which were optimal compared with other additions of millet flour. The elastic modulus, viscous modulus and weakening degree of millet-wheat mixed flour dough were negatively correlated with the stretching force and stretching distance of the noodles, which proved the application potential of millet flour in the directional change of noodle quality.
Effect of Haematococcus pluvialis on Chiffon Cake Quality and Stability of Astaxanthin
LIU Lulu, CHEN Wenxuan, LIU Xiaohui, LI Shile, XU Zhihao, CHEN Hongbin, ZHENG Zongping, WANG Baobei
2022, 43(19): 76-83. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120269
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To improve nutritive value and quality of chiffon cake, Haematococcus pluvialis powder was added to chiffon cake in this study. Nutrients of H. pluvialis was determined by HPLC and GC-MS. Using automatic color difference meter and texture analyser to explore the color and texture of chiffon cake with different levels of H. pluvialis. Antioxidant activity of chiffon cake and the effect of baking on astaxanthin were also investigated. The results showed that the content of astaxanthin, carbohydrate, protein and fatty acid was 20.93±0.41 mg/g DCW, 25.56%±0.94%, 19.97%±0.13% and 27.11%±0.25%. The color of chiffon cake turned orange red gradually, the hardness, elasticity and chewiness of chiffon cake were gradually increased, and antioxidant activity was improved with the increase of H. pluvialis addition. Specific volume was highest with the addition of 2.0% H. pluvialis. Scavengingrate of DPPH and hydroxyl radical increased by 119.92% and 9.17% with the addition of 4.0% H. pluvialis compared with the control group. The content of astaxanthin decreased sharply with the loss rate of 49.37%~62.17% after baking. Besides, algal fishy smell emitted with the addition of H. pluvialis increased, which affected the flavor of chiffon cake. Therefore, 1.0%~2.0% of H. pluvialis was appropriate for chiffon cake to improve its quality and nutritive value.
Analysis of Volatile Substances in Sun-dried Green Tea in Menghai County Based on Electronic Nose and SPME/GC-MS Technology
LIU Xueyan, HUANG Feiyan, ZHOU Qiwu
2022, 43(19): 84-91. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120286
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In order to understand the volatile matter information of sun-dried green tea in Menghai County, eight samples of sun-dried green tea in Menghai County were detected by electronic nose and headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of electronic nose detection showed that the 8 tea samples could be divided into 4 groups, among which 5 tea samples from Nannuoshan (NN), Xiding (XD), Bulangshan (BL), Gelanghe (GL) and Zhangjiasandui (ZJ) belonged to one group, while Bada (BD), Bulangshan Border (BJ) and Bada Zhanglang (ZL) belonged to one group respectively. Sulfides and hydrocarbons were the main volatile compounds in the sun-dried green tea samples enriched by electronic nose. GC-MS results showed that 55 volatile compounds were detected in 8 sun-dried green tea samples, mainly alcohols (9 kinds), esters (7 kinds), aldehydes (9 kinds), ketones (6 kinds), alkenes (13 kinds), alkanes (5 kinds), heterocyclic (4 kinds). Alcohols had the greatest influence on the relative content of volatile substances in sun-dried green tea, the highest was ZL tea sample (64.02%), and the lowest was BJ tea sample (37.14%), which was mainly manifested in linalool and phytol. There were 19 kinds of volatile substances in 8 sun-dried green tea samples, and 10 kinds of higher content were 3 alcohols (linalool, α-terpineol, geraniol), 2 aldehydes (phenylacetaldehyde, crocinaldehyde), 2 ketones (β-ionone, phytoketone), 2 heterocyclic compounds (cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide), 1 esters (dihydroactinidiolide). The total relative content of volatile substances in sun-dried green tea in Gelanghe township was higher than that in Nannuoshan township and Xiding township, mainly in aldehydes. The dominant aroma components of sun-dried green tea in Bulangshan township were ketones and alkanes; The dominant aroma components in Xiding township were olefins, that was, sun-dried green tea from different producing areas had different dominant volatile substances.
Effect of Passion Fruit Peel Powder on the Gelation Characteristics of Non-rinsed Tilapia Surimi
HANG Yuyu, YU Shuchi, SHANG Wenhui, QI Dan
2022, 43(19): 92-97. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120308
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The effect of passion fruit peel powder (1%、2%、3%、4%、5%) on gel properties of non-rinsed tilapia surimi was investigated. The whiteness, TPA, gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss rate, and water migration were analyzed. The results showed that the hardness, gel strength and WHC of surimi gel significantly increased with increasing addition of passion fruit peel powder up to 4%, and then the hardness, gel strength and WHC declined, while the cooking loss rate decreased first and then increased, the whiteness gradually decreased. Further analyses in low-field NMR revealed that passion fruit peel powder could change the transverse relaxation time, enhanced the combination with water and altered the distribution of different water categories. The addition of passion fruit peel powder changed the water state in surimi gel. The proportion of bound water and non-easy flowing water increased, and the proportion of free water decreased. The change was most obvious when the addition amount was 4%. Based on the above results, addition of 4% passion fruit peel powder was most beneficial to improve the gel characteristics of non-rinsed tilapia surimi.
Effect of Chicken Fat and Maillard Reaction on Flavor of Tricholoma matsutake Soup
SUN Yifei, CUI Wenjia, WANG Wenliang, SONG Shasha, TANG Xiaozhen
2022, 43(19): 98-107. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120322
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Tricholoma matsutake soup was prepared with Tricholoma matsutake as raw material under thermal reaction conditions. The effects of chicken fat and Maillard reaction on the flavor of Tricholoma matsutake soup were analyzed and compared by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), taste analysis system (electric tongue), gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) and electric nose. The results showed that 16 free amino acids were detected by HPLC. After the addition of chicken fat, the content of bitter amino acids such as methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, lysine, and tyrosine was reduced; After the Maillard reaction, the content of sweet and umami amino acids such as glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, glycine and serine increased significantly. A total of 46 flavor compounds were identified by GC-IMS, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octene, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal and other fatty aldehydes were increased after Maillard reaction. It provided the soup with meaty and fatty aroma. The detection of the electronic nose was basically similar to that of GC-IMS. In conclusion, Maillard reaction has a beneficial effect on the flavor of Tricholoma matsutake and chicken fat soup.
Effect of Growth Promoting Agents on Flavor of Netted Melon
LI Lifeng, SHI Yue, LI Ting, WEN Xueshan, ZHAO Liqun, WANG Ruiqi, QIAN Jing, ZHAO Xiaoyan, ZHANG Chao
2022, 43(19): 108-116. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010027
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The effect of growth promoting agents on the flavor of netted melon was evaluated. During the planting, Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma harzianum and Streptomyces were applied to the roots for 4 times at a dosage of 0.1 g/m2 respectively. After harvest, volatile components of fruits were evaluated and compared with the untreated ones as the control based on the SPME-GC-MS and electric nose analysis. The results showed that the growth promoting agents affected the composition and concentration of volatile components in netted melon. A total of 54 volatile components were detected in Trichoderma harzianum group, whose content was 294.46 μg/kg being 22.66% higher than that of the control. A total of 13 aroma components was determined in Trichoderma harzianum group including trans-6-nonenal, cis-6-nonenol, octanal, trans-2-nonenal, trans,cis-2,6-nonenal, β-Violone, 3,6-nonyl-1-alcohol, nonanal, 1-octene-3-alcohol, heptanaldehyde, 2-methylbutyraldehyde, cis-3-hexenal and ethyl butyrate. The number and aroma activity value of the aroma components in the Trichoderma harzianum group was 33.33% and 82.53% higher than those of the control, respectively. Therefore, Trichoderma harzianum could improve the flavor richness and intensity of netted melon.
Effect of the Mixture of Cationic Starch and Selenized Starch on the Catalytic Activity of Starch-based Biomimetic Glutathione Peroxidase
ZHANG Ruirui, SHI Cheng, HU Hanjiao, ZHONG Shuming, ZHENG Yunying, LIANG Xingtang, YIN Yanzhen
2022, 43(19): 117-128. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010077
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In order to promote the catalytic activity of starch-based biomimetic glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the selenized starch (SCS) and cationic starch (CCS) prepared from cassava starch (CS) were mixed, resulting in the targeted starch (SCS/CCS) with both the catalytic center and the recognition site of substrate. First, CS was modified with octenyl succinic anhydride and sodium selenide hydride, respectively, to prepare SCS. The CCS was synthesized by modifying CS with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. Some technologies including nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. Finally, the effect of the mixture of SCS and CCS on the catalytic activity of GPx was investigated by changing the molar ration of nitrogen and selenium. Results showed that the 1H NMR spectrum of SCS with selenium content of 11.35 μg/g revealed some new peaks (0.6~2.5 ppm) attributed to protons of the octenyl succinate compared with CS. In comparison to the FT-IR spectrum of CS, SCS showed lower intensities in the characteristic peaks of hydroxyl (3300 cm−1) and bound water (1639 cm−1), indicating the consumption of hydroxyl groups of CS in the synthesis of SCS. This would increase the hydrophobicity of the resultant starch. The appearances of the proton signal quaternary ammonium group (3.22 ppm) in the 1H NMR spectrum of CCS and the C−N stretching (1483 cm−1) in the FT-IR spectrum indicated the introduction of the positively charged quaternary ammonium group on the CCS backbone. With a similar particle size to the CS, SCS and CCS revealed a rough surface, indicating that the modification reaction mainly occurred on the surface of starch granules. No significant change was observed in the XRD patterns and TG curves of CS, SCS and CCS, indicating that the modified reaction did not dramatically affect the crystalline structure and thermal stability of starch. When the molar ratio of nitrogen and selenium in SCS/CCS was 1200, the catalytic activities of the biomimetic GPx in the reaction systems of 4-nitrothiophenol+cumene hydroperoxide (NBT+CUOOH), 3-carboxy-4-nitrothiophenol+hydrogen oxide (TNB+H2O2), NBT+CUOOH and NBT+H2O2 were 13.94, 11.25, 12.91 and 10.87 µmol/min, respectively, which were 22.1%, 25.8%, 17.5%, 19.6% higher than that of SCS, respectively. This study provided a simple method for constructing starch-based biomimetic GPx with high catalytic activity.
Study on Structure and Properties of Hydrolyzed Rice Protein with High Emulsification Properties
YANG Zhenyu, YAN Jiakai, DUAN Yanhua, QIAO Xin, KONG Zhihao, XU Xingfeng
2022, 43(19): 129-136. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020046
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In order to explore the key components affecting the emulsification characteristics in hydrolyzed rice protein. rice protein was hydrolyzed by acidprotease, papain and trypsin, respectively. The relationships between the structural and functional properties of different hydrolyzed rice proteins were studied by surface hydrophobicity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), emulsifying activity index and emulsifying stability index. <5 kDa, 5~10 kDa, and >10 kDa were separated from the rice protein with degree of 2% treated with trypsin (trypsin 2%) by ultrafiltration. The interfacial tension, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), mean diameter particle, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and storage stability were measured to explore the influence of molecular weight on the interfacial characterization and emulsion stability. The results demonstrated that hydrolysates treated with trypsin exhibited the highest yield. Compared with the rice protein, the surface hydrophobicity of the enzymatic hydrolysis products declined significantly except for the rice protein with degree of 6% treated with trypsin (trypsin 6%). The secondary structure content revealed that the β-sheet contents of hydrolyzed rice protein significantly decreased, showing that the structure of hydrolyzed rice protein was more unfolded. The trypsin 2% exhibited the better emulsifying capacity. The mean diameter particle of <5 kDa-stabilized emulsions increased from 2.59 μm to 7.82 μm after 7 days storage. The result suggested that emulsion stabilized with <5 kDa had poor storage stability. >10 kDa had lower interfacial tension and thicker interfacial film than the others. The emulsion prepared by >10 kDa exhibited better emulsion stability. The results indicated that the emulsion stabilized by high molecular peptides was more stable than the smaller ones.
Study on the Preparation of W/O/W Emulsion Based on Three Polysaccharides Mixed with Casein and Its Encapsulation Effect of Salidroside
CHEN Song, ZHANG Guofang, ZHANG Tong, LIU Libo, DU Peng, LI Aili, LI Chun
2022, 43(19): 137-145. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020247
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To improve the stability and oral absorption effect of salidroside, W/O/W multiple emulsion was prepared with salidroside as the internal aqueous phase and rapeseed oil containing polyglycerol polyricinoleate as the oil phase, and dextran, chitosan and soybean polysaccharide mixed casein as the external aqueous phase. The effects of three polysaccharides with different concentrations on the microstructure, particle size, potential, storage stability, surface hydrophobicity, emulsifying property, embedding rate, drug loading, and in vitro digestion of multiple emulsions were studied. The results showed that compared with the casein control group, chitosan-casein group, and soybean polysaccharide-casein group, dextran-casein W/O/W multiple emulsion had the best stability. A high concentration of dextran could significantly improve the storage stability of dextran-casein multiple emulsions. When the addition of dextran was 1.2%, the average particle size of the multiple emulsions was the smallest, up to 623.03±5.21 nm (P<0.05). The absolute value of potential was the highest (P<0.05), and the average potential was −37.3±0.46 mV. The emulsifying property of casein was improved the most (P<0.05). The embedding rate of salidroside was the highest (P<0.05), up to 92.8%, and the drug loading was 162.89±4.21 μg/g. The study of simulated digestion showed that the dextran-casein multiple emulsion could not only effectively protect the salidroside, but also target the delivery and release in the simulated intestine. The dextran-casein loading system with the addition of 1.2% dextran had the best stability and controlled release effect. The research results can provide theoretical support for the application of salidroside in both food and medicine.
Isolation, Identification and Biological Characteristics of Pathogenic Fungi from Kiwifruit and Pakchoi
LI Peiqi, JIANG Shan, DAI Qun, WEI Wei, LIN Jie
2022, 43(19): 146-153. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120003
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Objective: Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and pakchoi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) are easy to rot due to pathogens during storage and transportation, resulting in economic losses. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the species and characteristics of pathogenic bacteria for prevention and control of pathogenic bacteria. Methods: In this study, pathogenic fungus were isolated from infected kiwifruit and pakchoi, and identified by pathogenicity identification, morphology identification, and Internal Transcribed Spacer identification. The biological characterization of these pathogenic fungus were also investigated. Results: Four pathogenic fungi were isolated and purified from infected kiwifruit, and identified as Cytospora sp., Penicillium polonicum, Botrytis californica, Trichoderma gamsii, respectively. Three pathogenic fungi were isolated and purified from infected pakchoi, and identified as Fusarium circinatum, Cladosporium angustiterminale, Botrytis californica, respectively. Cytospora sp. could grow in the range of 10~28 ℃. The other 6 pathogenic fungi could grow in the range of 4~30 ℃, and the optimum growth temperature of these pathogenic fungi was 20~28 ℃. Except for Cladosporium angustiterminale, the optimum pH value of the other six pathogenic fungi was between 6 and 8. Cladosporium angustiterminale was more resistant to acid, and its optimum pH value might be below 4. Cytospora sp. could grow in the pH range of 4~9, and the other 6 strains could grow in the pH range of 4~10. Conclusion: After pathogenicity identification, it was found that these seven strains could cause the decay of kiwifruit and pakchoi, and Botrytis californica could cause the decay of kiwifruit and pakchoi at the same time. Penicillium polonicum, Botrytis californica, Trichoderma gamsii and Cladosporium angustiterminale could all grow at 4 ℃, indicating that the temperature of refrigeration could not prevent these pathogens from infusing fruits and vegetables. This study provided a reference basis for the control of pathogenic fungi in kiwifruit and green vegetables.
Effects of Three Peppers Varieties on Bacterial Taxa and Quality of Zhaguangjiao
XI La, XIONG Yingmei, WANG Yurong, HOU Qiangchuan, WANG Ting, YANG Ying, GUO Zhuang
2022, 43(19): 154-159. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120203
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To explore the effects of three pepper varieties on bacterial taxa and quality of Zhaguangjiao, Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum frutescens Linn., Capsicum annuum L., and Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt. for the test group, while two control groups without the addition of any vegetables and with the addition of only Apium graveolens var. rapaceum were set up, and based on that, the quality of Zhaguangjiao was digitally evaluated and its bacterial taxa were resolved by high-throughput sequencing. Finally, the correlations between Zhaguangjiao quality and dominant bacterial genera were revealed. It was found that, compared with Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum frutescens Linn., both the bacterial diversity and abundance of Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt. were higher. Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt. were dominated by Lactobacillus with average relative abundances of 77.53% and 94.41%, respectively, while Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum frutescens Linn. was dominated by Pseudomonas with an average relative abundance of 67.35%. Compared with Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum frutescens Linn., the sourness and content of aromatic compounds of Zhaguangjiao prepared using Capsicum frutescens Linn. was dominated by Pseudomonas were significantly higher, while the contents of organic sulfides, terpenes and nitrogen oxides among volatile substances were significantly lower. After Pearson correlation analysis, it was found that elevating the abundance of Lactobacillus in the fermentation system of Zhaguangjiao could obviously suppress the undesirable flavor and improve the content of aroma substances in Zhaguangjiao. Zhaguangjiao is popular for its sour and spicy taste, due to Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt. is less spicy, choosing Capsicum annuum L. as the main raw material to produce Zhaguangjiao has a positive effect enhancing the overall quality of the product.
Comparison of Metabolite Characteristics of Blueberry Jiaosu and Sea-buckthorn Jiaosu Based on Non-targeted Metabolomics Approach
YAO Peilin, LIU Mengru, YANG Ao, JIANG Jiaxuan, YAO Kun
2022, 43(19): 160-166. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120282
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In order to explore the differences of metabolites between different Jiaosu samples, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was used to identify and analyze the differential metabolites of blueberry jiaosu and sea-buckthorn jiaosu with metabolomics method. The results showed that 9 key metabolic differences in the two jiaosu samples. The comparative analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database indicated that the high metabolites enrichment and high significance involved six metabolic pathways, which were flavonoid and flavonol biosynthesis, pantothenic acid and coenzyme A biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate metabolism, proline and arginine metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. According to the non-targeted metabolome analysis, this research initially revealed the differences in the metabolites of blueberry jiaosu and sea-buckthorn jiaosu. Accordingly, a theoretical reference has been presented for the study of function of fruit jiaosu.
Inhibitory Effects of Enterococcus faecalis Z096 on Biofilm and Quorum Sensing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
HAN Xiangpeng, CHEN Qingying, ZHANG Xingguo, HE Shuang, ZHONG Qingping
2022, 43(19): 167-176. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120291
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To study the inhibitory effects of Enterococcus faecalis Z096 on the biofilm and quorum sensing (QS) system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, the competition, elimination and exclusion were performed to simulate the interaction between Z096 and V. parahaemolyticus in microbial communities. In addition, the effects of Z096 extract (Z096-E) on V. parahaemolyticus biofilm formation, mature biofilm elimination, cell surface hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, QS signal molecule AI-2 activity, motility ability (swarming and swimming), extracellular polysaccharide and protein synthesis were further explored. The results showed that Z096 could significantly reduce the number of V. parahaemolyticus cells in plankton and biofilm by competition, elimination and exclusion, and interfere with the adhesion of V. parahaemolyticus on the carrier surface. Moreover, Z096-E could significantly inhibit biofilm formation and effectively eliminate the mature biofilm of V. parahaemolyticus. When treated with 1.6 mg/mL of Z096-E for 12 h, the biofilm inhibition rate was 70.43%, and the metabolic activity decreased by 84.15%; When the mature biofilm of V. parahaemolyticus was treated with 12.8 mg/mL of Z096-E for 4 h, the biofilm removing rate was 58.21%, and the metabolic activity decreased by 69.84%. The swarming and swimming ability, cell surface hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation, extracellular polysaccharide and protein synthesis of V. parahaemolyticus were inhibited by 1.6 mg/mL of Z096-E by 47.26%, 53.56%, 63.37%, 89.38%, 77.65% and 51.91%, respectively, and the inhibitory effect was dose-dependent. In addition, Z096-E weakened the activity of QS signal molecule AI-2 of V. parahaemolyticus, indicating that Z096-E was an AI-2 quorum sensing inhibitor, which could affect the physiological characteristics of V. parahaemolyticus by interfering with the QS system. Therefore, we found one strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that could inhibit V. parahaemolyticus biofilm, and the Z096-E could be used as a novel LAB-based biological agent to prevent and control V. parahaemolyticus biofilm. This study would be of positive significance to eliminate V. parahaemolyticus biofilm pollution and develop novel antibacterial agents.
Analysis of Microflora and Volatile Substances Change in Red Sour Soup during Fermentation
HE Yangbo, LI Guolin, LI Yongfu, LUO Xingbang, LUO Qiqi, SHI Bin, DUAN Zhaoyan, LIU Ning
2022, 43(19): 177-190. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120301
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In this study, pepper and tomato sour soup, the raw materials of red sour soup were taken as the research objects. Illumina MiSeq, total acid titration, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other equipment or methods are used to analyze the dynamic trend of microflora, total acid, pH value and volatile substances in the fermentation process of two kinds of sour soup. The results showed that Lactobacillus namurensis (27.67%) and Lactobacillus pentosus (41.75%) were the dominant lactic acid bacteria in pepper and tomato sour soup, respectively; Debaryomyces hansenii (76.05%, pepper sour soup) and Pichia membranifaciens (80.88%, tomato sour soup) were the dominant fungi in the later stage of fermentation. In terms of volatile substances, 156 and 92 compounds such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and esters were detected in pepper and tomato sour soup respectively. Among them, esters (24.99%), terpenes (20.21%) and ketones (17.60%) were several compounds with high content in chili acid soup in the early stage of fermentation; In tomato sour soup, aldehydes (41.30%) and ketones (20.28%) were the main compounds. With the change of fermentation, the main flavor compounds of chili acid soup were alcohols and esters, represented by linalool (10.43%) and ethyl hexadecanoate (12.12%); In tomato sour soup, alcohols, esters and phenols were the advantages. Among them, phenylethanol (31.93%) and 4-ethylphenol (8.71%) played an important role in the flavor of tomato sour soup. In general, the dominant functional microorganisms in the naturally fermented sour soup are Lactobacillus and yeast, and the total acid content higher than 25 g/kg can be obtained within 21~28 days after fermentation. The volatile substances vary greatly with the fermentation period. The relevant data can provide a reference for the development of directed vat set for sour soup and the optimization of processing technology.
Screening and Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inhibiting α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Activities in Camel Dairy Products
CAO Ying, HOU Min, YI Guangping, MAIERHABA·Aihemaiti, XUE Shan, CHEN Gangliang, CUI Weidong
2022, 43(19): 191-201. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020053
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Objective: In this study, camel dairy products from the Altay region of Xinjiang were used to screen for excellent lactic acid bacteria with inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Methods: The strains were isolated and purified by dilution coating method, screened by DNS and pNPG methods for their inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and evaluated for their probiotic properties by acid tolerance, bile salt tolerance, tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal environment and bacterial inhibition assays. Results: A total of 34 strains were obtained from camel dairy products, six of which showed inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. After morphological analysis and 16S rRNA molecular identification, four strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and two as Lactobacillus paracasei. The inhibitory activity of six strains of Lactobacillus plantarum reached more than 50% against α-amylase, with one strain of Lactobacillus paracasei X34 showing the highest inhibition rate of 88.59% against α-amylase; the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase ranged from 11% to 16%, with one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum X31 showing the highest inhibition rate of 15.43%. Six strains of Lactobacillus survived at different pH (1.0, 2.0, 3.0) and in different concentrations of bile salts (1, 2 and 3 g/L) in the medium. The survival rate of 6 strains of lactic acid bacteria in simulated gastric juice and intestinal juice was 83% and 90%, respectively. The scavenging rate of hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals exceeded 90%, among which X29 had the highest scavenging rate of 92.43% for hydroxyl radicals and the strongest scavenging rate of 94.04%. Six strains of lactic acid bacteria inhibited Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus, with X31 having a maximum inhibition circle diameter of 19.63 mm against Escherichia coli, X23 having a maximum inhibition circle of 19.85 mm against Salmonella and X33 having a maximum inhibition circle diameter of 19.17 mm against Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Six strains of lactic acid bacteria with potential hypoglycaemic activity, tolerance to strong acids, bile salts and gastrointestinal fluids, high antioxidant effect and inhibition of pathogenic bacteria were screened from camel dairy products to provide probiotic strains for later development of functional hypoglycaemic drinks.
Processing Technology
Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Process of Fermentation Powder of Cyclocarya paliurus with High Antioxidant Activity by Using Enzyme-Microorganisms Synergy Method
ZHANG Liang, LIU Yuanjie, YAN Meiting, ZHANG Chaofeng
2022, 43(19): 202-210. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110246
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The dried leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus were enzymatically hydrolyzed with complex enzymes (cellulase and hemicellulase). The fermentation solution was fermented by mixed bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and then freeze-dried to prepare Cyclocarya paliurus fermentation powder with high antioxidant activity. Single factor experiment was conducted to study the effects of material-liquid ratio, compound enzyme content, compound enzyme mass ratio, enzymolysis time, sucrose addition, mixed bacteria content, mixed bacteria mass ratio and fermentation time on DPPH free radical scavenging effect of Cyclocarya paliurus fermentation powder. On this basis, Plackett-Burnman (PB) experimental design and response surface methodology were used to optimize the co-fermentation process of cyclocarinase. The results showed that the optimal technological parameters were as follows: Material-liquid ratio 1:12 g/mL, compound enzyme content 0.80%, compound enzyme mass ratio 2.20:1 g/g, enzymolysis time 2.5 h, sucrose addition 8.0%, mixed bacteria content 5.80%, mixed bacteria mass ratio 2:1 g/g, fermentation time 42 h. Under these conditions, the DPPH free radical scavenging rate of Cyclocarya paliurus fermentative powder was 82.17%. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of Cyclocarya paliurus was increased by 159.9%, the polysaccharide content was increased by 194.0%, and the flavonoids content was increased by 72.0%, the content of triterpene in Cyclocarya paliurus increased by 52.6% .This paper has laid a foundation for Intensive processing of Cyclocarya paliurus leaves and industrialization of instant tea powder.
Extraction Optimization, Composition Analysis of Volatile Oil from Litsea lancilimba Merr. and Its Antioxidant Activity
LIU Jie, GUO Jiangtao, LIU Yao, CHENG Chun, HUANG Kai, JIAN Lina, XU Jian, ZHANG Yongping
2022, 43(19): 211-219. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120007
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In order to study the optimal extraction process, composition and antioxidant activity of the Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil, using the extraction rate of the Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil as index, based on the single factor test, the response surface method was used to investigate the extraction process; GC-MS was used to analysis the composition of volatile oil; DPPH· scavenging test was used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil. The results showed that the best extraction process was soak time 5 h, 5 times the material-liquid ratio, and extraction time 8 h. Under the above conditions, the extraction rate was 10.67%. 74 components were identified from the Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil by GC-MS, accounting for 93.175% of the total volatile oil. Among them, the relative contents higher than 3% were 1, 8-cineole (21.854%), n-decanoic acid (12.893%), β-pinene (4.873%), p-cymene (4.579%), α-pinene (4.452%), lauric acid (3.734%), α-terpinenol (3.188%). The total antioxidant activity of Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil gradually increased with the increase of the concentration. When the concentration was in the range of 1.0~6.0 mg/mL, the highest clearance rate was 92.94%. The optimized process was suitable for the extraction of Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil. There were many components in the Litsea lancilimba Merr. volatile oil, among which terpenoids, hydrocarbons and acids were the main components. The antioxidant results indicate that it has a certain in vitro antioxidant capacity.
Optimization of Process of Hydrolysis of Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide and Determination of Contents of Its Mannose
TAN Shancai, TAN Changjin, WU Xiaolan, YANG Yang, LIU Hongyan
2022, 43(19): 220-227. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120032
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Process of hydrolysis of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide by high temperature and pressure-sulfuric acid assisted was optimized by response surface method (RSM) according to Central Composite Design (CCD), and polysaccharides of Dendrobium officinale under the conditions of different cultivation were determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method, and the contents of mannose from different parts (stems, leaves and flowers) of Dendrobium officinale were analyzed by pre-column derivation HPLC method. The research showed that the optimum parameters was as follow: Material-liquid ratio was 1:1.5 (mg/mL), concentrations of sulfuric acid was 1 mol/L, hydrolysis temperature was 112 ℃ (0.15 MPa) and hydrolysis time was 44 min. Under optimal conditions, the content of the mannose was 64.35%±0.76% with stem as the test material. The contents of polysaccharide in stems, leaves and flowers of Dendrobium officinale under the conditions of same cultivation were significantly differences (P<0.01, stems>leaves>flowers). And the contents of mannose in the samples was the same as that of polysaccharide. The content of polysaccharide and mannose in the stems were 29.32%~33.78% or 18.17%~21.05%, respectively. And the contents of polysaccharide and mannose in the leaves were 15.91%~17.31% or 10.28%~11.11%, respectively. And the contents of polysaccharide and mannose in the flowers were 8.37%~8.68% or 5.30%~5.75%, respectively. The results indicated that the method was effective and efficient, which could be used for the hydrolysis of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide by high temperature and pressure-sulfuric acid assisted. And the stems, leaves and flowers of Dendrobium officinale were high-quality natural resources for the preparation of mannose.
Extraction Process Optimization, Active Ingredient Screening and Structure Study of Dendrobium officinale Protein
ZENG Jing, BAI Xueyuan, WANG Yue, ZHAO Daqing, WANG Siming
2022, 43(19): 228-237. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120118
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To explore the repairing effect of Dendrobium officinale protein on the injured rat gastric mucosa epithelial cells after the extraction process was optimized. The effects of extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and ammonium sulfate saturation during extraction on the yield of water-soluble total protein of Dendrobium officinale were investigated by single factor, and the optimal extraction process was investigated with the yield of water-soluble total protein of Dendrobium officinale as the response value. Using protein purification technology, DEAE weak anion exchange column chromatography was used to separate the water-soluble total protein of Dendrobium officinale, and rat gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GECs-1) were used to establish an injury model and screen its activity. The structures were characterized by UV scanning, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The results showed that the optimal extraction process for the water-soluble total protein of Dendrobium officinale was as follows: Extraction time 6 h, solid-liquid ratio 1:27 g/mL, ammonium sulfate saturation 80%, the extraction rate of Dendrobium officinale protein could reach 8.65%±0.13% under these conditions. It was close to the predicted value. Three kinds of proteins were purified from the water-soluble total protein of Dendrobium officinale on the basis of the optimized extraction process. Among them, TPSHP-2 (Dendrobium officinale protein-2) had the maximum absorption peak at 280 nm, which was mainly β-sheet structure, and had the best repair effect on ethanol-injured rat gastric mucosa epithelial cells. The purified TPSHP-2 after the optimized extraction process has a repairing effect on the injured rat gastric mucosa epithelial cells.
Preservation Effect of Ultrasonic-ε-Polylysine Hydrochloride Compound Treatment on Fresh-cut Apples
ZHANG Yuhua, MENG Yi, ZHU Jinfeng, SUN Yi, SUN Chongde
2022, 43(19): 238-245. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120133
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In order to improve the quality of fresh-cut apples and prolong the shelf life, the optimal parameters and fresh-keeping effect of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment of fresh-cut apple were explored. Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimal parameters of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment of fresh-cut apples with the growth of the total number of colonies as the response value by response surface method. According to the results of the total number of colonies, mold and yeast, color difference and VC content, the fresh-keeping effect of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment on fresh-cut apples during storage was evaluated. The results showed that the optimal parameters of ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment for fresh-cut apples were as follows: Ultrasonic time 10 min, ultrasonic temperature 40 ℃, ε-polylysine hydrochloride concentration 0.2 g/L. The actual values of before and after cutting were 1.59 lg CFU/g and 1.71 lg CFU/g, respectively, and the relative errors with the predicted values were 3.92% and 5.59%, respectively, indicating the high degree of fitting and reliability of the models. During storage at 4 ℃, the growth rates of bacteria, mold and yeast in the fresh-cut apples treated with optimized conditions were significantly lower than that in the CK (P<0.05), and VC was not significantly damaged. The color difference rise rate was lower in the ultrasound-ε-polylysine hydrochloride compound treatment group before cutting than that of the CK. The combined treatment of fresh-cut apples with ultrasonic-ε-polylysine hydrochloride optimized by response surface method was feasible, and the effect of ultrasonic treatment before cutting was better, and the shelf life was longer 4 days than that of the CK.
Optimization the Sulfur-free Drying and Color Protection Process of Lycium barbarum by Response Surface Methodology and Its Effect on Quality
WANG Xiaoyu, REN Guiping, CHENG Zhulin, CAO Longzhou, HUANG Wenshu, YANG Haiyan
2022, 43(19): 246-255. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120225
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In order to study the process of promoting drying and color protection of fresh wolfberry, sodium carbonate, citric acid and soaking time were selected as independent variables, and the water content and color difference were used as response values, the process was optimized by response surface optimization method, and the quality indicators were determined. The results showed that the optimal conditions for promoting drying and color protection of wolfberry were as follows: Sodium carbonate was 1.1%, citric acid was 0.6%, soaking time was 10 min, soaking temperature was 30 ℃, after 50 ℃ hot air drying for 42 h, the water content of wolfberry decreased to 12.41%. The color difference value was 11.09, the color was good and the drying speed was fast, which was 42% faster than that of the untreated wolfberry. Measured Lycium barbarum polysaccharide 2%, total sugar 52.89%, total carotenoids 0.54 g/100 g, total phenols 7.16 mg/g, total flavonoids 1.57 mg/g. The content of total carotenoids, total phenols and total flavonoids in the obtained dried wolfberry was significantly higher than that of the untreated dried wolfberry (P<0.05), and the content of polysaccharide and total sugar was not significantly different from that of the untreated wolfberry (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, this method of promoting drying and color protection can retain more nutrients during the drying process of wolfberry, which had practical reference value.
Removal Process of Benzo(α)pyrene from Linseed Oil
ERDUNBAYAR, SUN Ping, ZHANG Huiru, ZHANG Guoqiang, YUN Xueyan, CHEN Qianru, DONG Tongliga
2022, 43(19): 256-263. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120311
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Aiming at the problem of benzo(α)pyrene residues in linseed oil, a physical adsorption method was used to remove benzo(α)pyrene from linseed oil. The main research methods were as follows: Activated carbon and activated clay were used as adsorbents, and the adsorption rates of the three adsorbents to benzo(α)pyrene were compared by using the two alone or in combination. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in linseed oil before and after treatment by the removal device was identified and analyzed by quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry combined with NIST standard library. Through the determination of the removal capacity of the three adsorbents, the results showed that when the fixed dosage of activated clay was 4%, benzo(α)pyrene removal rate was nearly 40%; When the amount of activated carbon was 2%, the removal rate reached 83%; When the two were used in series, the removal rate could reach 96%. In addition, through the determination of the removal capacity of three adsorbents, the results showed when the concentration of benzo(α)pyrene was less than 15 μg/kg, activated clay was used for adsorption and filtration; When the concentration of benzo(α)pyrene was 15~30 μg/kg, activated carbon adsorption filtration was chosen; When the concentration of benzo(α)pyrene was more than 30 μg/kg, used the two in series for adsorption and filtration. Among them, the best effect of removing benzo(α)pyrene from linseed oil was activated clay and activated carbon in series by physical adsorption. The optimum conditions were as follows: The ratio of activated clay and activated carbon in series was 0.8%+4%, and the removal rate could reach 96% under these conditions. The use of adsorbents did not cause loss of unsaturated fatty acids in linseed oil. This paper provides a theoretical basis for removing of benzo(α)pyrene in flaxseed oil.
Optimization of Extraction Process of Aqueous Extract of Rehmannia glutinosa Based on Entropy Weight Method in Cooperation with Analytic Hierarchy Process and Back Propagation Neural Network with Multiple Indicators
ZHU Ziyu, XIE Yuxin, YU Yueting, ZHANG Mei
2022, 43(19): 264-272. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120331
Abstract(45) HTML (13) PDF(16)
Objective: To optimize the ultrasonic extraction process of aqueous extract of Rehmannia glutinosa based on entropy weight method (EWM) together with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and back propagation neural network (BPNN). Methods: Taking ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio as orthogonal test factors, catalpa, rehmannioside D, ajugol, rehmannioside polysaccharide content, and the yield of water-soluble extract as indexes, EWM-AHP method was used to determine the weight of each index, to obtain the comprehensive score of multiple indexes. Then, the experimental process conditions were used as the input and the synthesis score was used as the output to build and train a BPNN model to find the best process for the extraction process of Rehmannia glutinosa. Results: The preferred process of BPNN was extraction at 60 ℃ with 33 times of water for 70 min. The mean values of catalpa, rehmannioside D, ajugol, rehmannioside polysaccharide content, and the yield of water-soluble extract were 17.04, 3.75, 10.57, 24.86 mg/g and 0.82 g/g, respectively, with a combined score of 97.74; The best process of the orthogonal test was extraction at 50 ℃ with 25 times of water for 1 h. The mean values of catalpa, rehmannioside D, ajugol, rehmannioside polysaccharide content, and the yield of water-soluble extract were 12.72, 2.58, 8.20, 25.02 mg/g and 0.80 g/g, respectively, with a combined score of 97.26. Conclusion: This study determined that the BPNN preferred process was optimal and provided a reference for the application of the EWM-AHP method combined with BPNN in the extraction process.
Optimization of Repeated Freezing-Thawing Reflux for Extraction of Polysaccharide from Hovenia dulcis and Its Antioxidant Activity
YANG Jing, LI Bo, ZHANG Yanni
2022, 43(19): 273-279. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010018
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In order to extract more polysaccharide from Hovenia dulcis and improve the antioxidant activity of the extract, repeated freezing-thawing technology coupled with reflux extraction method was employed, and major freezing-thawing conditions affecting the content of polysaccharide were optimized via orthogonal tests; In the end, the antioxidant activity of polysaccharide extract was evaluated. The results indicated that the optimal freezing-thawing conditions were as follows: The water content for swelling was set at 40 mL/100 g, freezing time was 4 h, the time of repetition of freezing-thawing was twice, and thawing temperature was 60 °C, under which the content of polysaccharides in Hovenia dulcis studied was 1.68%±0.03%. The clearance rates of polysaccharide extract to DPPH free radical and ABTS free radical were up to 86.73% (when the concentration of extract was 0.10 mg/mL) and 91.33% (when the concentration of extract was 2.0 mg/mL), respectively. The results provide a reference for the comprehensive utilization of polysaccharide from Hovenia dulcis.
Optimization of Preparation of Casein-derived Cholesterol-lowering Peptide by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
LIANG Xiaohui, WANG Xiaozhi, ZHAO Jiayuan, JIN Tingfei, LI Xu, LUO Mengfan, TAN Donghu, LIU Mingzhen, LUO Haibo, GUO Yuxing
2022, 43(19): 280-287. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010165
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Casein was hydrolyzed by neutral protease, alkaline protease and trypsin to determine the best protease for preparation of cholesterol-lowering peptide. The effects of hydrolysis pH value, hydrolysis temperature, enzyme to substrate ratio, substrate concentration and hydrolysis time on casein hydrolysis degree and cholesterol micelle solubility inhibition rate were investigated by single factor and response surface experiments, and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. Then the separation process of cholesterol-lowering peptide was determined by ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the optimal enzyme was neutral protease, and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were as follows: Reaction temperature 51.3 ℃, enzyme to substrate concentration ratio 6.47%, pH6.34, substrate concentration 5 g/100 mL, reaction time 3.5 h , and cholesterol inhibition rate 58.25%±0.59%; The separation conditions of casein cholesterol-lowering peptide by Sephadex G-10 were as follows: Loading concentration 80 mg/mL, loading volume 2.5 mL, elution rate 3.5 mL/min; The inhibition rates of cholesterol solubility of peak 1 and peak 2 samples were 24.2%±0.24% and 4.3%±0.16% at 100 µg/mL after ultrafiltration and chromatography.
Study on Improving the Cadmium Removal Ability of Recombinant Pichia kudriavzevii M48 Overexpressed MET14 Gene Based on Medium Optimization
XU Wanying, QI Xiaoxue, XU Ying, WANG Dongfeng
2022, 43(19): 288-297. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020182
Abstract(8) HTML (13) PDF(1)
In this study, the culture medium of a recombinant Pichia kudriavzevii M48 overexpressed MET14 gene with high cadmium resistance and cadmium removal rate was optimized. Taking the comprehensive value of cadmium removal rate and biomass as the evaluation index, the medium composition was optimized through single factor test, 25-1 fractional factorial design and central composite design, so as to provide a research basis for making the recombinant strain M48 into cadmium removal preparation in the later stage. The results showed that the optimal medium was 23.42 g/L glucose, 27.72 g/L yeast extract and 2.04 g/L of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Under these conditions, the cadmium removal rate of M48 was 79.63% and the biomass was 9.95 g/L, which were 2.70 and 1.16 times higher than that before optimization, respectively. Therefore, the cadmium removal rate and biomass of recombinant strain M48 were effectively increased by optimizing the medium composition.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Conditions of Melleolides from Wild Armillaria mellea and Liquid Culture Mycelium, and Analysis of Their Compounds in Extracts
XU Wei, WANG Zhishuo, WANG Ruiqi, WU Fan, LIANG Shanshan, XIE Hongyao, ZHANG Xue
2022, 43(19): 298-306. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022050143
Abstract(36) HTML (16) PDF(10)
Objective: To analyze the differences of compounds in Armillaria mellea and mycelium, this study was conducted to investigate the optimal extraction process conditions of Melleolides and analyze the compounds in the extracts using northeastern wild Armillaria mellea fruit body and liquid mycelium as the research objects. Methods: The indexes of this study were extracted yield and Melleolides content. Ultrasonic cell crushing-assisted petroleum ether was used for extraction, and the extraction process parameters were optimized by single-factor experiments and orthogonal tests. The compounds in the liquid mycelium and Armillaria mellea fruit body were analyzed and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Results: The optimal extraction process conditions were determined as material-liquid ratio 1:20 g/mL, ultrasonic power 300 W, ultrasonic time 20 min, solvent reflux time 50 min, under which the yield of liquid culture mycelium extract was 26.8% and the content of Melleolides was 0.74 mg/g. 305 and 592 compounds were analyzed and identified in the liquid mycelium and wild Armillaria mellea, respectively. 16 Melleolides and 5 fragments of suspected Melleolides were identified, including 15 Melleolides and 3 fragments in the mycelium, with total contents of 2.551 and 0.588 µg/mL, respectively. 7 Melleolides and 4 fragments in fruit body, with total contents of 2.413 and 2.124 µg/mL, respectively. 6 Melleolides and 2 fragments were found in both; The liquid mycelium had 9 unique Melleolides and 1 fragment: 10-dehydroxymelleoloede, Nectarine, Arnamiol, Bexagliflozin, A52a, 4-dehydroxyarmillarin, 9-(2-Chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione, (4R,5S,7R,9S,13R)-2',5-epoxy-4-dehydroxyarmillarin, 4'-demethoxyarmillaribin, and fragment C. Wild Armillaria mellea uniquely possessed one Melleolides and two fragments as: Melledonal as well as fragments D and E. Conclusion: The results showed that Melleolides were more abundant in the liquid mycelium than in the fruit body, providing reference for the development of complementary functional foods and drugs.
Food Additives
Study on Salt Reduction of Yeast Extract and Its Application in Broth Powder
XIONG Jian, QIN Xianwu, LI lina, GUO Hui, LI Pei
2022, 43(19): 307-314. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120158
Abstract(39) HTML (13) PDF(11)
In this paper, several yeast extracts (YE) were taken as the main material to explore their function in salt reduction and effect in reducing salt in stock flavoring powder. Firstly, through physical and chemical index detection of different YE and comparative sensory analysis of saltiness intensity, the optimal effect of salt reduction YE was determined; then the molecular weight distribution of the peptide was detected, and different peptides were applied in the compound salt reduction model solution to explore the mechanism of salt reduction; finally, the effect of salt reducing was verified in the stock flavoring powder. According to the results, it showed that there were differences in salt reduction effect and flavor modification effect of different yeast extracts on low sodium salt, among which strong YE-2 had a better effect of reducing 20% salt in model experiment than other test YE. The components of 1000~2000 Da peptide in dense YE-2 had a significant sense of denseness and effect in saltiness enhancement. The application of strong YE-2 in the seasoning of stock powder could help reduce salt, improve umami taste and strong taste, and enhance the sense of overall coordination. YE products with stronger salt-reducing effect can be developed by increasing the content of 1000~2000 Da peptides in YE-2 products.
Analysis and Determination
Comparative Study on the Nutritional Quality and Flavor Characteristics of Fish Head Soup Prepared by Different Processes
LI Lu, LI Peng, SUN Huijuan, MA Kaihua, MA Lizhen, LI Ling
2022, 43(19): 315-325. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110222
Abstract(45) HTML (19) PDF(19)
In order to understand the effects of different processes on the nutritional quality and flavor characteristics of fish head soup, this experiment used the bone and flesh mud of the head of the leather catfish as the raw material, used ordinary boil (OB) and ultrasound-assisted ordinary boil (U-OB), enzymatic hydrolysis (Eh) and ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (U-Eh) four processes to prepare four groups of fish head soup, and nutrition, GC-MS, GC-IMS, and electronic nose were analyzed. The test results showed that the water-soluble protein content of ultrasonic-assisted treatment (U-OB) was significantly higher than that of the non-ultrasonic treatment group (OB); The calcium content and selenium content in the Eh and U-Eh groups were higher compared with OB and U-OB; The amino acid content of Eh and U-Eh was much higher than that of OB and U-OB, but the content of bitter amino acids was higher than that of umami and sweet amino acids. Taurine, carnosine and other substances were also detected in fish head soup. The results of the electronic nose showed that the odors of the four fish head soups were clearly distinguished, and there was no overlap. The U-Eh flavor profile was far away from the other three samples, and the flavor was relatively rich; GC-IMS technology identified 33 substances, mainly aldehydes and ketones. Compared between OB and U-OB and between Eh and U-Eh, their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were similar in type but different in content. The common VOCs among the four groups of samples were only nonanal (dimer), 2-heptanone and nonanal (monomer), all of which had a good modification effect on the flavor of fish head soup.
Rapid Detection of Heavy Metal Contaminated Tegillarca granosa by Temperature-dependent Near-infrared Spectroscopy
ZHOU Qiwei, SONG Yanru, ZHANG Zhanshuo, YUAN Leiming, SUN Yiye
2022, 43(19): 326-330. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120125
Abstract(11) HTML (7) PDF(2)
Objective: To explore a rapid determination method of heavy metal contaminated shellfish based on enzymatic hydrolysis and temperature-dependent near infrared spectroscopy. Methods: Shellfish of Tegillarca granosa was reared artificially and used in this paper. Three heavy metals, including copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), were used to contaminate Tegillarca granosa. The full protein supernatant samples of heavy metal-contaminated and healthy Tegillarca granosa were extracted by enzymolysis and centrifugation pretreatments. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) was employed to collect spectra of each sample under the process of elevating temperature with each 5 ℃ interval in the range of 25~60 ℃, and a discriminant model was constructed to distinguish these samples contaminated with heavy metals. Results: Partial least square-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the heavy metals contaminated Tegillarca granosa under each temperature. The accuracy rate was influenced by the temperature first increasing and then decreasing with raising the temperature. When the temperature of sample was kept at 40 ℃, the accuracy of discriminant model was 92%, and it can be improved up to 98% by the optimized parameters through variable selection methods. Conclusion: With the help of chemo-metrics, near infrared spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis, the heavy metals-contaminated Tegillarca granosa can be quickly identified and the detection methods of heavy metal pollution of shellfish can be enriched.
Effect of Extraction Methods on Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil from Thymus vulgaris L.
LIU Huan, ZHAO Jutang, LUO Haitao, REN Zhouying, SHAO Dengyin
2022, 43(19): 331-339. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120146
Abstract(16) HTML (5) PDF(2)
The essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L. were extracted by using different methods of stream distillation (SD), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and cold plasma assisted extraction (CPAE) separately, then the volatile components in the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The contents of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins in essential oil were determined. Its antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated by three antioxidant indexes: DPPH•, ABTS+• and total antioxidant capacity, and the correlation between the main active components in essential oil and antioxidant capacity was analyzed. Therefore, the extraction method with higher rate and better antioxidant capacity was obtained. The results showed that different extraction methods had significant difference in yield (P<0.05). And the SDE method had the highest yield, reaching 1.30%. By GC-MS analysis, 36 components of the three essential oils were detected. The main volatile components were borneol (32.194%~32.515%), carvacrol (17.265%~19.998%), thymol (13.031%%~15.202%), α-terpinol (11.296%~12.012%). The SDE and CPAE methods had higher contents of main active ingredients than SD method. In the determination results of total phenols, total flavonoids and anthocyanins, the contents of total phenols and anthocyanins in the essential oil prepared by SDE method were 133.67±0.20 mg GA/g EO and 0.32±0.02 mg/g EO, respectively. The contents of total flavonoids in the essential oil prepared by CPAE method were the highest, reaching 54.82 mg Rutin/g EO. In vitro antioxidant experiments, the three essential oils showed strong antioxidant activity and obvious dose-effect relationship to various antioxidant indexes within the experimental concentration range. Among them, the essential oil obtained by SDE method had better scavenging effect on free radicals, and the scavenging rate was above 96% at the highest experimental concentration. Correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant activity of the essential oils were closely related to the content of phenols and other main substances. In conclusion, according to the experimental results, the SDE method is a more desirable method for the extraction of essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L..
Quantitative Analysis of Three Amines in Thermally Processed Meat Products Using QuEChERS Combined with UHPLC-MS/MS
QIN Zhiwei, YE Bo, LIU Ling
2022, 43(19): 340-348. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120176
Abstract(51) HTML (16) PDF(6)
In this study, QuEChERS technology combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to establish a method for the simultaneous detection of acrylamide (AA), nitrosamines (NAs) and heterocyclic amines (HAAs) in thermally processed meat products. The results showed that the analytic methods of 20 amines in the three components showed good linearity (R2>0.991) in the corresponding concentration range, and the detection limit and quantification limit were 0.01~1.6 ng/g and 0.03~4.8 ng/g, respectively. The average daily recovery rate was between 66.3%~116.5%, and the intraday precision was between 0.78%~9.0%. The daily accuracy range of the 5×LOQ spiked level calculation for each amine was 3.4%~9.4%. The method was applied to the analysis of AA, NAs and HAAs in four meat products for grilling, in them 9 amines were detected with the concentration range of 0.03~31.26 ng/g.
Quantitative Detection of Adulterated Apple Components in European Sweet Cherries by Droplet Digital PCR
CHEN Jia, QIN Li, LIU Hao, YANG Bo, ZHANG Kaijiang, ZHAO Dongmei, GUO Jinying, ZHANG Yuanyuan
2022, 43(19): 349-355. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010002
Abstract(19) HTML (5) PDF(3)
Objective: To establish a method for quantitative detection of adulterated apple components in cherry based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Methods: By screening the component specific primer probes of cherry and apple, the quantitative detection method of ddPCR was established. The fitting curve between quality and DNA content and the fitting curve between DNA content and copy number were constructed. Taking DNA content as the intermediate value, the calculation formulas of quality and amplified copy number were obtained. The linear fitting curves R2 were all above 0.99, and the corresponding adulteration model was established to verify the accuracy of the method. Results: The formula for calculating the mass and amplified DNA copy number of cherry and apple: Mcherry=0.0833C−3.8420, Mapple=0.4084C−1.5747. In the adulteration model of cherries and apples, the maximum relative error was −19.17%, which met the statistical requirements. Conclusion: The establishment of a rapid detection method for European sweet cherry products provides a powerful means to combat the adulteration of European sweet cherries, protects the rights and interests of consumers, and is of great significance for promoting the healthy development of the small berry and its product industry.
Analysis on the Difference of the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Northeast Farmhouse Soybean Paste with Different Salt Concentrations
LIU Dongao, XIE Shuangyu, LI Zhi, LI Tianyi, PENG Yuan, SUN Bo
2022, 43(19): 356-363. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010003
Abstract(14) HTML (14) PDF(5)
This paper studied the influence of salt concentration on the volatile flavor compounds during the fermentation of Northeast farmhouse soybean paste. HS-SPME-GC-MS combined with electronic nose technology were used to analyze the changes of volatile flavor substances and flavor characteristics of soybean paste with different salt concentrations (8%, 10%, 12%) during the fermentation process (0, 30, 60 d). The differences between samples were statistically analyzed through PCA and cluster analysis. The results of HS-SPME-GC-MS showed that there were 2 flavors with OAV≥0.1 at 0 days of fermentation. At the time of 30 days, 8%, 10% and 12% salt concentration samples of flavor substances with OAV≥0.1 increased to 12, 8 and 8, respectively. At the time of 60 days, 8%, 10% and 12% salt concentration samples of the flavor substances with OAV≥0.1 increased to 19, 11 and 10, respectively. And the OAV values of most flavor substances decreased with the increase of salt concentration. This indicated that salt concentration affected the type and content of volatile flavor compounds. The results of the electronic nose showed that the increase in salt concentration would promote the production of organic sulfur compounds and inhibit the production of alkanes, alcohols and hydride compounds. With the extension of the fermentation time, the methyl, alcohol, aldehyde and ketone compounds in the soybean paste would gradually increase, while the ammonia, short-chain alkanes and organic sulfides would gradually decrease. The results of PCA and cluster analysis showed that the difference between samples with different salt concentrations fermented for 0 days was very small, and with the extension of the fermentation time, the difference between the soybean paste with different salt concentrations would become more and more significant. To sum up, the salt concentration has a significant effect on the volatile flavor components in the Northeast farmhouse soybean paste.
Determination of Active Components in the First Physiological Fruit Drop of Citrus from Different Producing Areas by HPLC
LI Yang, AN Qi, SONG Yue, QU Shasha, FAN Gang, REN Jingnan, PAN Siyi
2022, 43(19): 364-371. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010076
Abstract(25) HTML (9) PDF(8)
In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the contents of nobiletin, tangeretin, hesperidin, naringin, limonin and synephrine in the first physiological fruit drop of mandarin orange, orange and pomelo from the main Citrus producing areas in China, such as Yichang in Hubei, Huaihua in Hunan, Chaozhou in Guangdong, Nanning in Guangxi, Zhangzhou in Fujian and Quzhou in Zhejiang. The purpose of comparing the characteristics of the content of effective active components in young fruits of Citrus plants from different habitats was to select Citrus cultivars with high nutritional value and rich active components, so as to lay a foundation for further extracting effective components and applying them to all aspects in the future. The results showed that: The contents of nobiletin and hesperidin in tangerine young fruits in Zhejiang Province were the highest, which were 359.63 μg/g and 222.14 μg/g, respectively. The content of naringin in the young fruit of Hubei Changyang grapefruit was the highest, which was 20.97 mg/g. The content of hesperidin in young fruits of Hubei Newhall orange was the highest, which was 1485.73 μg/g. The content of limonin in the young fruit of Guanxi grapefruit in Fujian was the highest, which was 866.73 μg/g. The content of synephrine in the young fruit of fertile orange in Guangxi was the highest, which was 1004.14 μg/g.
Storage and Preservation
Water Migration and Quality Change of Prawn Preserved under Controlled Freezing-point Storage Combined with Low Frequency Electric Field Technology
YU Ming, LIANG Zuanhao, CHEN Haiqiang, LIANG Fengxue, AO Feifei, DENG Jinjie
2022, 43(19): 372-378. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100109
Abstract(7) HTML (5) PDF(3)
To study the feasibility of shelf life extending for prawns preserved through controlled freezing-point storage combined with low frequency electric field technology. A low frequency electric field was applied on controlled freezing-point storage to keep fresh of prawns (LFEF+CFPS). During storage, the total viable count (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content of prawn were monitored, and the microstructure changes were analysed. Moreover, the water migration and change of prawn meat and head were studied by the low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) technology, respectively. Meanwhile, the CFPS was used as control. The results showed that: Storage of 9th day, the TVC and TVB-N content of the LFEF+CFPS group began to show significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the TVC in the LFEF+CFPS group was one order of magnitude under the control group at 12th day. Its TVB-N content was 36% lower than the control group at 11th day (P<0.05), and with the shelf life of more than 13 days. Compared with the loose structure of the control group, microstructure change of prawn in LFEF+CFPS group was significantly samller. LF-NMR technology also showed that, water migration from immobilized water to free water in prawn head was significantly inhibited by LFEF from storage of 7th day. Slower water diffusion was also found in MRI. As the decay rate in prawn meat was lower than that in prawn head, there was no apparent water migration in prawn meat of LFE+CFPS group within 15 days. LFEF was contributive to delay the corruption in prawn and prolong its shelf life for 3~5 days during CFPS.
Effects of Different Storage Conditions on Shelf Quality of Flat Green Tea
SU Xiaoqin, YANG Xiufang, KONG Junhao, DIAO Chunhua, ZUO Xiaobo, ZHOU Yuxiang
2022, 43(19): 379-384. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120042
Abstract(15) HTML (4) PDF(5)
According to the common industry difficulties that green tea was easily aging and deterioration during storage, the conditions of temperature, humidity, oxygen and moisture were used as control variables to investigate the storage quality stability of green tea. Based on the above, the optimal storage conditions that including the quality, flavor and nutritional value of green tea could be obtained. The storage quality control parameters of green tea were optimized through uniform design experiment combined with PCA (principal component analysis) and regression analysis. The results showed that the content of tea polyphenols and catechins decreased with the storage time, the ration of ester catechins and non ester catechins increased obviously after 6 months. However, the content of caffeine changed insignificantly. The optimal collaborative quality control parameters of green tea were temperature of 25 ℃, relative humidity of 55%, oxygen content of inner package of 0.2%, and the moisture content of 4.5%. Under these conditions, the sensory flavor and phytochemicals were most stable. In addition, the comprehensive scores of tea polyphenols, catechins and sensory scores were 1.28, 1.10 and 2.09, respectively. This study provides technical support and reference for the formulation of green tea storage, circulation and preservation control regulations.
Effect of Exogenous γ-Aminobutyric Acid on the Quality and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Metabolism of Fresh-cut Pumpkins
LIANG Jingyi, GUO Fan, ZHAO Ke, WANG Hongfei, XU Feng
2022, 43(19): 385-392. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010017
Abstract(24) HTML (16) PDF(8)
The effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA synthesis inhibitor 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP) on GABA metabolism and quality in fresh-cut pumpkin was investigated, and the possible mechanism was studied. The results indicated that exogenous GABA induced the accumulation of endogenous GABA and promoted the conversion of glutamic acid to GABA in fresh-cut pumpkin through the catalytic conversion of highly active glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). The 3-MP-treated pumpkin retained lower GABA content than the control, and the activities of GAD and GABA transaminase (GABA-T) were inhibited. The GABA-treated pumpkins possessed relatively lower polyamines (putrescine, spermine and spermidine) contents in comparison with the control during storage. 3-MP treatment restrained the activities of polyamine oxidase (PAO), diamine oxidase (DAO) and amino aldehyde decarboxylase (AMADH). These results demonstrated that GABA treatment could activate the polyamine degradation pathway and promote GABA enrichment in pumpkin. Meanwhile, no significant differences in maximum colony count, color, β-carotene content and soluble solids content were observed among treatments during storage, which suggested that exogenous GABA had little effect on the quality of fresh-cut pumpkin.
Study on the Relationship between Storage Conditions and Quality Changes of High-quality Indica Rice
SHU Zaixi, CHEN Yifan, ZHANG Wei, WANG Pingping, DAI Huang
2022, 43(19): 393-400. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010155
Abstract(27) HTML (8) PDF(9)
In order to explore the relationship between storage conditions and the quality changes of high-quality indica rice, the high-quality indica rice “Fengyou 22” samples were stored at 4 storage temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ℃) and 3 moisture contents (13.5%, 14.5% and 15.5%) and 2 gas composition (modified atmosphere with nitrogen, non-modified atmosphere) simulated storage for 360 d, and the yellow rice content, germination rate, electrical conductivity, α-amylase activity, fatty acid value, gel consistency, straight chain starch content, rice soup solids, iodine blue value and rice hardness, rice viscosity, rice balance, rice elasticity, appearance score, taste score, comprehensive score and other indicators were regularly determined. The results showed that the higher the storage temperature and the higher the moisture content, the more obvious the quality changed; under the same condition of storage temperature and moisture content, nitrogen storage had the effect of delaying the quality change. The principal component analysis method was used to analyze the 16 indicators, and 5 principal component factors with a cumulative contribution rate of 81.055% were obtained through dimensionality reduction. Representative quality indicators were chosen from the indicators with larger positive eigenvalues in each principal component, which were germination rate, electrical conductivity, iodine blue value and amylose content. The correlation analysis of the four characteristic indexes with storage temperature, moisture content and gas composition showed that storage temperature had the greatest influence on the characteristic indexes of high-quality indica rice, followed by moisture content then gas composition.
Nutrition and Healthcare
Characteristics of Water-soluble Pectin from Greengage and Its Anti-inflammatory Activity in LPS-induced RAW246.7 Cells
HOU Jiali, ZHU Zhenzhu, XIE Minhao, YANG Qian, LIU Qin
2022, 43(19): 401-409. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010013
Abstract(18) HTML (7) PDF(5)
In this study, the water soluble pectin (WSP) from greengage juice was extracted. The structure and composition of WSP were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high performance gel filtration chromatography (HPGFC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). And the anti-inflammatory activity of WSP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW246.7 cells was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that WSP was a low-methoxy pectin with DE value of 18.89%. The content of galacturonic acid (GalA) was 69.72%, and the galactose (Gal) was the predominant neutral sugar with the content of 18.36%. The molecular weight (Mw) of WSP was 353.73 kDa. WSP significantly inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (P<0.05), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) (P<0.05), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P<0.001) and increasing the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P<0.01). The effects of WSP on Janus kinase/signal transduction and transcription activator signaling pathway (JAK/STAT signaling pathway) were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot in order to clarify the anti-inflammatory mechanism. Compared with LPS group, WSP significantly upregulated the mRNA expressions of JAK1 (P<0.01), JAK2 (P<0.05), JAK3 (P<0.001), STAT1 (P<0.001), STAT2 (P<0.001) and STAT3 (P<0.05). Further analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of JAK1 and STAT3 were significantly inhibited by WSP treatment (P<0.05). Therefore, the WSP can alleviate LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells by interfering with JAK/STAT signaling pathway and inhibiting the phosphorylation levels of JAK and STAT families related to inflammatory signaling. This study can provide a basis for the evaluation of the health improvement effect of greengage fruit and the development of value added greengage product.
Ameliorative Effect of Gastrodin on Aging and Inflammation of BV2 Cells by Regulating SIRT3
GUAN Tong, GAO Lisha, SUI Dezhi, MI Jia, WANG Binsheng
2022, 43(19): 410-418. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020026
Abstract(20) HTML (9) PDF(3)
Objective: In order to explore the protective effects and mechanism of gastrodin on BV2 cells treated with D-galactose. Methods: The BV2 cells were treated with D-galactose at different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40 μg/mL) for 24 h to establish a senescent cell model, and the optimum concentration of D-galactose was selected by CCK-8 method; The cells were divided into control group, model group, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 3 (SIRT3) inhibitor+gastrodin group and gastrodin group; and the optimum concentration of D-galactose was selected by CCK-8 method; The effects of different concentrations of gastrodin (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μg/mL) on the viability of BV2 cells treated with D-galactose were detected by CCK-8 method, and the best concentration of gastrodin was selected; The aging area of BV2 cells was detected by Senescence β-Galactosidase staining (SA-β-Gal); The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BV2 cells was detected by biochemical method; The levels of neuroinflammatory factor interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); The fluorescence intensity of SIRT3 was detected by immunofluorescence method; The protein expression levels of SIRT3, P16 and P21 were detected by Western blot. Results: Treatment with D-galactose at 30 μg/mL exerted a significant inhibitory effect on BV2 cell viability, resulting in SA-β-Gal staining area and the expression of aging proteins P16 and P21 increased (P<0.01), ROS level and inflammatory factor IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expression of SIRT3 protein and fluorescence intensity decreased in BV2 cells (P<0.01). 30 μmol/L gastrodin significantly increased the of BV2 cells viability treated with D-galactose (P<0.01); Gastrodin reduced SA-β-Gal staining area and the expression levels of aging proteins P16 and P21 (P<0.01); Gastrodin significantly decreased the level of ROS and neuroinflammatory factor IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; The expression level of SIRT3 protein in cells was significantly increased (P<0.01). Treatment with gastrodin increased the fluorescence intensity and protein levels of SIRT3. Conclusion: Gastrodin increased the viability of the BV2 cells treated with D-galactose, improved the SA-β-Gal staining area and aging protein P16 and P21 expression, reduced the ROS level and slowed down the inflammatory response, which may be related to its increasing effect on the expression of SIRT3 protein.
Research Progress on Extraction, Purification and Biological Activity of Marine Peptides
ZHOU Tiantian, ZHANG Hong, YUAN Wenpeng
2022, 43(19): 419-426. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090116
Abstract(12) HTML (7) PDF(6)
Marine life is an important food source for humans, which contains a lot of high-quality protein. Marine peptides have biological functions such as anti-hypertension, anti-oxidation, and anti-tumor. They have great potential as a source of functional foods and medicines. In this paper, the related technologies of chemical hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, microbial fermentation and physical-assisted extraction to extract marine polypeptides and to separate and purify them by chromatography and membrane separation are introduced, and the differences between them are compared. The biological activities and application status of marine peptides such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, antioxidant activity and anti-tumor activity were reviewed.
Research Progress on Bioactive Components, Biological Activities, and Processing Technology of Daylily (Hemerocallis citrina Baroni)
LI Mingyue, LIU Hongyan, XIAO Jing, GENG Fang, WU Dingtao, LI Huabin, GAN Renyou
2022, 43(19): 427-435. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090275
Abstract(19) HTML (5) PDF(6)
As an excellent food raw material with abundant nutrients, daylily (Hemerocallis citrina Baroni) exhibits promising research and application potential. This article summarizes the major nutrients of daylily and finds that dry daylily is a healthy food with low fat, high protein and rich minerals. In addition, due to the bioactive components, daylily has a variety of biological activities beneficial to human health. On this basis, it also reviews the fresh-keeping storage and drying technologies of daylily, and it indicates that the quality of daylily could be improved via the pretreatment of fresh daylily and the drying and packaging of dry daylily. Finally, it introduces the applications and research direction of daylily in the food industry. This review will provide theoretical basis for the research of bioactive components in daylily, preservation and processing technologies, developments of related functional foods, and other industry applications.
Research Progress of Lactic Acid Bacteria High-density Culture Technology
ZUO Mengnan, LIU Wei, QUAN Qi, ZHANG Juhua
2022, 43(19): 436-445. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090289
Abstract(16) HTML (15) PDF(8)
Lactic acid bacteria are of great benefit to human life and are extremely important research objects in industrial and commercial production. High-density culture of lactic acid bacteria is an important step for its industrial application. High-density culture of lactic acid bacteria can obtain higher bacterial density with lower culture volume and shorter culture cycle, improve fermentation speed and fermentation effect, and reduce the subsequent use of starter, control equipment investment and reduce production cost in production practice. High-density culture of lactic acid bacteria is affected by factors such as production strains, medium, fermentation conditions, and fermentation modes. This paper mainly reviewed nutrient consumption mode, medium, culture condition, culture technology from high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria. Finally, the future research directions were prospected, in order to provide theoretical basis for the efficient preparation and industrial application of lactic acid bacteria starter.
Research Progress in Regulation of the Gel Properties of Myofibrillar Protein Based on Polysaccharides
LÜ Xuqin, ZHOU Jiaojiao, CAI Jie, JIA Jilai, CHEN Lei, CHENG Shuiyuan
2022, 43(19): 446-452. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100012
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Myofibrillar protein as a structural protein with important biological functions in muscle, can form a gel alone or as the main part of a gel. The gelling mechanism and gel properties of MP have attracted much attention in meat science research. It is important to clarify the effects of various additives on the quality of meat product, thus providing references for the development of healthy low-fat meat products. Polysaccharides are widely used to improve the quality of meat products because of their good biocompatibility, wide sources, and low prices. This review introduces the definition, classification and functional properties of polysaccharides and summarizes the effects of polysaccharides on the gel properties of MP. Furthermore, the applications of polysaccharides in meat products are discussed, which provides theoretical basis for the production of low-fat meat products. Finally, the prospects and challenges associated with low-fat meat products are proposed.
Application and Progress of Ion Chromatography in Food Analysis
DAI Chenying, HONG Chengyi, QUE Maoyao, LIANG Ruifang, ZHANG Xiaoting, FAN Qunyan, LIU Xuncai
2022, 43(19): 453-461. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100185
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Ion chromatography (IC) is based on the differential promotion of the substance to be tested on the ion chromatography column, so as to separate different substances, and then determine the content of the substance to be tested through the detection instrument. Because of its convenience, high sensitivity and good selectivity, it is widely used in the fields of food detection, industrial production and environmental monitoring. In recent years, with the continuous development of science and technology, the update of ion chromatography and the development with new and efficient coupling technologies have become the focus of research. In recent years, with the upgrading and improvement of ion chromatography, its detection technology for conventional inorganic ions is advancing with each passing day. At the same time, the combined technology of ion chromatography has greatly broadened the application scope of ion chromatography in the field of food. This paper reviews the research results and new trend of ion chromatography in the field of food in recent five years and also provides direction and reference for follow-up researchers.
Research Progress in the Biosynthesis, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Application of Lipopeptides in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
LUO Xiaojiao, SUN Jing, LU Yingjian
2022, 43(19): 462-470. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100259
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens) is widely used as beneficial bacteria for biological control, and the main antimicrobial substances are lipopeptides. These lipopeptides have antimicrobial, anti-tumor, antiviral activities and other biological activities, and they are safe, broad-spectrum, efficient, non-toxic, and easily decomposed in the body. Therefore, B. amyloliquefaciens and its lipopeptide metabolites can be widely used in the biological control of crops, freshness and preservation of fruits and vegetables, as well as post-harvest microbial control, which have great prospects for development and application. This paper focuses on the types and biosynthesis of lipopeptides in B. amyloliquefaciens, the mechanism of microbial inhibition and their application prospects.
Research Progress on the Structure, Properties and Application of Dextranase
LI Peiting, FAN Guangyu, LAN Yusi, LIU Nannan
2022, 43(19): 471-478. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110024
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Dextranase can specifically hydrolyze the α-1,6 glycosidic bond in dextran, reduce the viscosity of sugarcane juice, prevent the blockage of the instrument, and increase the recovery and quality of the target product. Dextranase degrades dextran and produces oligosaccharides such as isomaltose and isomaltotriose. These oligosaccharides are not digested and absorbed by human body, which can directly enter the large intestine and selectively proliferate beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium. They have the effects of moistening intestine, promoting the absorption of mineral elements and enhancing immunity. Based on the research progress at home and abroad, the article reviews the structure of dextranase, dextranase production strains, dextranase enzyme activity and improvement technology of enzymatic properties. It is found that traditional mutagenesis technology and optimization of fermentation conditions can improve dextranase to a certain extent. Through the construction of genetically engineered bacteria, the heterologous expression level of dextranase can be effectively improved, combined with enzyme immobilization technology to improve the stability and recovery rate of the enzyme under unfavorable conditions. It is widely used in oligosaccharide preparation and sugar industry. This paper provides a reference for the research direction of late dextranase.
Research Progress on Bioactivities of Oleuropein
WANG Qian, GE Yiqing, TONG Tao
2022, 43(19): 479-486. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110063
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Oleuropein is a natural cleaved cyclic enol ether glucoside polyphenolic compound, which has bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic. It can improve human chronic diseases such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cancer by regulating body metabolism, modulating gene expression and changing enzyme activity. At the same time, it has a protective and restorative effect on various organs. This article summarizes and compares the latest research on the bioactivities of oleuropein, with the aim of providing a scientific evidence for the development and application of oleuropein in food, medicine, and health products.
Recycling Technology and Supervision Strategies of Food Contact PET Bottle
LI Qiang, LIU Puzhen, DUAN Min, HUANG Rong
2022, 43(19): 487-493. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022040124
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According to its excellent properties, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is widely used as food containers in mineral water, soft drinks, beers, etc., resulting in a huge waste of PET bottles which increases the environmental burden. With the development of the recycling technology of PET bottles, the discarded PET bottles after consumption have been reused as food containers in many countries successfully. This paper is mainly focused on the new developments of chemical and physical PET recycling technology and its application in enterprises and outlines regulations in the United States, Canada, the European Union, Britain, Japan, South Korea and other countries. The relevant laws and regulations of PET recycling as food containers in our country have also been reviewed. The purpose of this paper is to provide reference opinions on recycling PET to produce food contact materials in China, including promoting waste classification management, improving the risk assessment systems, and formulating relevant national food safety standards.