2021 Vol. 42, No. 12

2021, (12): 1-1.
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2021, 42(12): 2-2.
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2021, 42(12): 2-3.
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Effects of Short- and Medium-wave Infrared Radiation Drying on Drying Characteristics, Nutritional Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Mulberry
LIU Qiling, WANG Qingwei
2021, 42(12): 39-45. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090209
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In order to explore the effects of short-and medium-wave infrared radiation drying on the drying characteristics, energy consumption, nutritional quality and antioxidant activity of mulberry, fresh mulberry was dried by short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying at different drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 ℃), and compared with hot air drying under the same drying temperature (50, 60, 70 ℃), the drying characteristics, energy consumption, contents of phenolic monomers, total phenols, total flavonoids, vitamin C, total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity of mulberry under different drying conditions were investigated, and the short- and medium-wave infrared drying mathematical model of mulberry fruit was established. The results showed that the short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying could significantly improve the drying efficiency of mulberry (the drying efficiency increased by 55.7% at 50 ℃, 46.1% at 60 ℃, and 33.3% at 70 ℃), and the Weibull distribution model could well simulate the drying process of short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying at different drying temperatures. In addition, the energy consumption of mulberry dried by medium and short wave infrared was lower. Twelve phenolic substances were detected in dried mulberry fruit, among which chlorogenic acid, rutin and catechin were the main phenolic substances. Compared with the traditional hot air drying, the short-and medium-wave infrared radiation drying had higher drying efficiency, higher contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, vitamin C and total anthocyanins, the total phenol content was 463.1~568.8 mg/100 g. The total flavonoids content was 312.6~402.6 mg/100 g. The contents of vitamin C was 30.1~37.8 mg/100 g. The total anthocyanin content was 153.6~195.6 mg/100 g. In addition, compared with hot air drying, the antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit was significantly enhanced after short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying (DPPH free radical scavenging ability was improved by 32.8% to 42.6% compared with hot air drying). Compared with hot air drying, iron ion reduction ability was improved by 21.1%~34.1%), short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying of mulberry fruit had higher drying efficiency, lower energy consumption and better quality of dried products. Therefore, short- and medium-wave infrared radiation drying was an excellent drying way of mulberry fruit, which could provide theoretical reference for the dried processing of mulberry fruit.
Establishment of Growth Prediction Model of Escherichia coli in Imported Fresh Beef at Different Temperatures
CHEN Yu, LIANG Ying, ZHOU Pingping, REN Jianluan, YANG Jielin, GUO Dehua, XUE Feng, JIANG Yuan, TANG Fang, DAI Jianjun
2021, 42(12): 81-88. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110003
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In order to establish the growth prediction model of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in imported fresh beef at different temperatures. Fresh imported beef purchased from supermarkets and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were selected as the research objects. The growth data of Escherichia coli in imported fresh beef stored at 4, 16, 25, 30 and 37 ℃ were monitored and the growth curve was drawn. Four models of modified Gompertz, Logistic, Richards and MMF were used to fit the growth curve, and the first-order model of Escherichia coli in imported fresh beef was established. The data fitted by the first-order model was substituted into Ratkowsky equation to establish the second-order model. The accuracy of the model was tested by the accuracy factor, bias factor and root mean square error. Results showed that, the correlation coefficients of the four models were all above 0.98. The data of modified Gompertz model showed that the fitting degree of the modified Gompertz model was the best, and it was most suitable to predict the growth dynamics of E.coli in imported fresh beef. The accuracy factors of the models were 0.99, the bias factors were 1.14 and 1.03, and the determination coefficients R2 were 0.97 and 0.99, indicating that the established model was highly reliable. The growth prediction model established in this study could effectively predict the growth of Escherichia coliO157:H7 in imported fresh beef at 4~37 ℃.
Preparation of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Punica granatum Composite Beverage and Its Resisting Exercise Fatigue Effect
LIU Wenjing
2021, 42(12): 203-208. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-2020090125
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The composite beverage was developed with Punica granatum fruit and polysaccharide of Amaranthus caudatus L. as main raw materials and observed its anti-fatigue activity. Sensory evaluation score was used as the index. The single factor experiments and response surface analysis method were used to optimize the formula of composite beverage, and investigateits effect of exhaustive swimming time and related biochemical indexes after animal exercise. The results showed that the best formula of the compound beverage was as follows: The volume ratio of 10% Prunus syringae polysaccharide liquid to 20% Punica granatum juice was 2:5, the amount of sucrose was 4.5%, the amount of citric acid was 0.4%, the amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was 0.06%, and the sensory score was 89.8. Compared with the blank control group, the animal groups of composite beverage at middle and high dose could significantly prolong the exhaustive swimming time (P<0.01), obviously decreased BLA (P<0.01) and BUN (P<0.01) contents after exercise. Therefore, the composite beverage of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Punica granatum had better anti-fatigue function.
Optimization of Preparation Technology and Antioxidant Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Boletus edulis Hydrolyzed by Protease
HUANG Dian, GAO Ya, LIU Lei, ZHANG Huiying, ZHANG Yuyu, CHEN Haitao, SUN Baoguo, ZENG Yan
2021, 42(12): 209-217. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090169
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To prepare the enzymatic hydrolysate of Boletus edulis with high antioxidant activity, the degree of hydrolysis and DPPH· scavenging rate were used as indexes. Protease was used to hydrolyze Boletus edulis. The preparation process of enzymatic hydrolysate was optimized by response surface analysis based on single factor experiment. The results showed that neutral protease was the best enzyme. The optimal process parameters were substrate concentration of 4%, hydrolysis time of 120 min, enzyme dosage of 2500 U/g, and temperature of 40 ℃. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis of the hydrolysate was 34.12%, and the DPPH· scavenging rate was 55.91%. The enzymatic hydrolysate prepared under these conditions had scavenging effects on DPPH·, OH·, and ${\rm{O}}_2^- \cdot $, with IC50 of 0.88, 0.24, and 12.50 mg/mL. The total antioxidant capacity of the optimized hydrolysate was 18.82 U/mL. Under the conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis determined in this study, the hydrolysate of Boletus edulis had antioxidant activity in vitro, which would provide a theoretical basis for the further development of edible fungi protein and polypeptide.
Effects of Plasticizer Acetyl Tributyl Citrate Exposure on Learning and Memory Abilities and Protective Effects of Vitmain E
LIU Xudong, ZHANG Zhihuai, YANG Jianbang, LIU Liangyu, ZHU Sijie, ZHANG Yuchao, YANG Xu
2021, 42(12): 233-239. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110300
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In order to investigate the effects of plasticizer acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) exposure on learning and memory abilities and protective effects of vitmain E (VE). C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 200 mg/kg·day for 90 days by gavage, and the VE gavage was performed at 50 mg/kg·day during ATBC exposure as a VE protection group. The learning and memory abilities were detected by Morris water maze test and Step-down passive avoidance test, the pathological changes of brain tissue were observed, the oxidative stress and inflammation levels in mice brain were detected. Results showed that under the experimental conditions, ATBC exposure induced learning and memory disorder, abnormal structure of hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice; the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynoneal (4-HNE) in mice brain increased, while glutathione (GSH) content and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, and the expression of nuclear transcription κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increased. After VE gavage, the learning and memory disorder of the mice in the protection group was significantly recovered (P<0.05), hippocampus and cerebral cortex tissue abnormalities were improved, the contents of ROS, MDA, 4-HNE, NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-1β in the brain tissues significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the GSH contents and SOD activity significantly increased (P<0.05). This study showed that gavage exposure of 200 mg/kg·day ATBC for 90 days could induce learning and memory disorder and brain damage in mice, while VE could protect the brain tissue of mice by reducing the levels of oxidative stress and inflammation, and the learning and memory abilities were significantly improved.
Determination of Zeaxanthin Dipalmitate and 2-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) Ascorbic Acid in Fruit of Lycium barbarum L.
ZHOU Huiji, PENG Bo, LI Tingzhao, CHEN Liang, LI Bo
2021, 42(12): 294-299. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090069
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Objective: To establish LC methods for zeaxanthin dipalmitate and 2-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ascorbic acid determination in the fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Methods: For the HPLC analysis of zeaxanthin dipalmitate, the test was performed on a Luna C18 (2) column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with the column temperature at 25 ℃. The isocratic elution was adopted with the mobile phase of acetone/MeOH 55:45(V/V) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min−1, and UV detection was performed at 450 nm. UPLC analysis of ascorbic acid was carried out on Torus TM Diol Column (3 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) at the temperature of 40 ℃. An isocratic system was also used at which the mobile phase (flow rate of 0.4 mL/min) consisting of acetonitrile (solventA) and 66.7 mmol/L ammonium acetate (solvent B) was set as 85% A and 15% B. UV detection wavelength was set at 260 nm. Results: The linear range of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and 2-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ascorbic acid were 0.01~0.1 mg/mL and 3.125~100 μg/mL, with the correlation coefficient being 0.9990 and 1.0000, the average recovery was 99.44% and 96.30%, while the RSD was 4.04% and 3.61% respectively. In 22 batches of L. barbarum samples, the contents of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and 2-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ascorbic acid were up to 0.51% and 1.33%, respectively. Conclusion: The two methods were accurate and reliable, which could be used to control the quality of L.barbarum fruit.
Flavor Analysis of Fermented Laminaria japonica Based on Gas Chromatograph-Ion Mobility Spectrometer (GC-IMS)
SHAO Yuechun, FU Xiaoting, XU Jiachao, GAO Xin
2021, 42(12): 300-306. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090210
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In this study, along with the addition of 4% and 6% sugar and salt, effect of lactic acid bacteria fermentation, yeast fermentation and both of them co-fermentation on Laminaria japonica (L.japonica) were investigated, thereafter the flavor changes of which were determined by gas chromatograph-ion mobility spectrometer (GC-IMS). The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of L.japonica were identified and compared before and after fermentation, the fingerprint spectra were established, and the differences between different fermentation conditions were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA). According to the results of the fingerprints, there were significant differences between the VOCs in the fermented samples under different conditions. Totally 33 VOCs were identified in the fermented samples, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers and aromatic compounds, of which aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones were main substances. The contents of aldehydes was the highest before fermentation, while after fermentation by yeast, the content of certain aldehyde of low molecular weight such as hexanal, heptanal, and pentanal were significantly reduced, which resulted in the reducing the fishy smell of L.japonica. PCA results showed that the contribution rate of the first two main components was 86.58%, which could represent the characteristics of the samples basically. In addition, samples under different fermentation conditions were well distinguished. According to this study, fermentation was an efficient way to reduce the fishery smell and thus improve the flavor of L.japonica. GC-IMS technology could be effectively applied to distinguish different fermented samples, and had potential application value for the construction of fingerprints and databases of VOCs of L. japonica.
Progress of Bio-preservatives Combined with Physical Technologies in Fruits and Vegetables Preservation
LI Guangrong, LIU Huan, ZHANG Wenxiang, LIANG Guanhai, QIAN Zhengming, LI Wenjia
2021, 42(12): 383-388. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070060
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Bio-preservatives are widely used in fruits and vegetables preservation because of the characteristics of natural, safety and widely sources, and have attracted more and more attention from researchers. The combination of bio-preservatives and physical preservation technologies has synergistic and complementary effects and could achieve better preservation effect. The mechanism of quality deterioration of harvested fruits and vegetables are summarized, the application of bio-preservatives coupled with physical preservation technologies such as low-temperature, modified atmosphere, ozone, irradiation, microwave, ultrasonic, ultra-high pressure, pulse electric field in the preservation of fruits and vegetables are presented in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are summarized to provide reference for development and application of bio-preservatives and the exploration of combined preservation methods.
Extraction, Functional Properties and Food Applications of Rapeseed Meal Protein Isolates
ZHAI Xiaona, SHI Jianfang, ZHAO Huining, SHAO Guang, XIE Qizhen
2021, 42(12): 389-397. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070065
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As a by-product of rapeseed oil extraction, rapeseed meal is rich in protein and balanced in amino acid composition, which is a high-quality plant protein resource, however, it is commonly used for animal feed resulted in a lower economic benefit. Rapeseed protein extracted from rapeseed meal has been documented in excellent functional properties including emulsifying properties, gelling ability and so on. Its biological activities such as antihypertensive activity and antioxidant properties are also reported. At present, rapeseed protein has generally recognized as safe status and approved for food use in the European Union and FDA. In the current article, the different methods to extract rapeseed protein from rapeseed meal, the functional properties and the application statue in food industry are reviewed to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the further development and rational application of rapeseed meal protein.
Future Food
Effect of Microwave Heat Treatment on Whole Potato Flour and Digestive Properties of Potato Bread
LI Ruizhi, LI Shi, CHEN Ge, WANG Yanwen, YANG Qingyu, ZHU Huaping, ZHAO Wenchen, TANG Renjin
2021, 42(12): 1-7. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030071
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Microwave heat treatment was used to improve the potato powder, and the change rules of lipase, water holding capacity, insoluble dietary fiber and powder properties were determined. Potato bread was made from improved potato flour and high gluten flour in the ratio of 3:7. The effects of different microwave power on the structural and starch digestibility of potato bread were studied. The results showed that the characteristics of the whole potato powder were improved after microwave heat treatment. With the increase of microwave power, the lipase residual activity decreased to 1.23%, the water retention increased to 5.71 g/g, and the insoluble dietary fiber content decreased by 21.35%. Compared with the potato bread made from potato flour without microwave heat treatment, the nutrition and digestion characteristics of the improved potato bread were significantly improved. When the microwave power was 750 W, all the indexes of the bread were the best, and the specific volume was increased to 4.04 mL/g, hardness decreased to 115.50 g, elasticity increased to 9.17 mm, resistant starch increased to 43.60%, HIWB750 and PGIWB750 decreased by 67.29% and 46.34, respectively. The anti-aging ability and sensory quality of potato bread were improved.
Research on Sensory Quality of Roasted Beef and Plant-based Meat Analogues Based on SPME-GC-O-MS and Texture Analysis
LI Xuejie, SONG Huanlu, WANG Zhongjiang, LI Jian
2021, 42(12): 8-18. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030081
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The volatile components in 3 commercial plant-based meat analogues(sample I, sample B, sample O), 1 homemade plant-based meat analogues (sample C) and 1 commercial beef were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS), and the sensory properties were evaluated by texture analysis and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the homemade plant-based meat analogues (sample C) had a high content of meat flavor-related compounds, and the meat aroma and meat taste were similar to beef, and the overall quality was higher than that of the three commercially samples. However, there was a large gap between plant-based meat analogues and beef in appearance, texture and other sensory properties. A total of 154 volatile components were identified in 5 meat samples, among which 40 odor active compounds were identified by GC-O, 69 compounds were identified in beef, 46 of which were also identified in plant-based meat analogues. The contents of aldehydes, alcohols and other compounds related to fat oxidation in beef were significantly higher than those in plant-based meat analogues, and the contents of pyrazine, furan and other heterocyclic compounds related to Maillard reaction in plant-based meat analogues were significantly higher than those in beef, and the contents of heterocyclic compounds in homemade plant-based meat analogues were higher than those in 3 kinds of commercial samples. The texture properties of beef in terms of hardness, elasticity, viscosity and masticability were better than those of plant-based meat analogues, and the texture properties of samples I, O and C were better than those of sample B.
Research and Investigation
Effects of Water Temperature and Steaming Time on Water State and Textural Characteristics of Naked Oats Noodles
ZHANG Ledao, LV Junli, LI Junfang, ZENG Youhua, REN Guangyue, MA Li
2021, 42(12): 19-23. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080201
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The effects of water temperature and steaming time on water state and textural characteristics of naked oats noodles were discussed in this paper, and the aim of this paper was to found critical parameters of naked oats noodles making technology. Water temperature and steaming time were the two critical important parameters for naked oats noodles making. The water state and the texture properties of noodles were obtained by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and the textural analyzer, respectively. The effects of water temperature and steaming time on the water state and texture properties of naked oats noodles were studied. The results showed that the change of water temperature and steaming time could not change the main form of water in noodles, and the main form of water was weakly bound water, and the increasing of water temperature led to the decrease of the bound water in noodles and make the binding water migrated to the weak binding water and free water. In the process of water temperature rising from 70 ℃ to 90 ℃, the free water content increased first and then decreased, A23 increased from 5.14% to 11.2% and then decreased to 10.4%. When the steaming time increased from 6 min to 10 min, the value of A22 and A23 increased first and then decreased, the maximum value of A22 and A23 was 77.85% and 10.67%, respectively, and the steaming time corresponding to the maximum value of A22 and A23 was 9 min. When water temperature increased from 70 ℃ to 90 ℃, the hardness, adhesiveness, and resilience were gradually decreasing, the springiness and cohesiveness were gradually increasing, and the chewiness was decreasing first and then increasing. When the steaming time increased from 6 min to 10 min, the hardness, adhesiveness, chewiness, and resilience were increasing first and then decreasing, springiness and cohesiveness were decreasing first and then increasing. The results of this paper would provide the theoretical basis for the large-scale production of naked oats noodles.
Comparison of the Sensory Quality and Active Ingredients of 8 Kinds of Chrysanthemum Tea Infusion
SONG Jiahui, XIA Yixun, SHEN Huijuan, DONG Gangqiang, HOU Jiaoliang, LI Tingzhao, ZHONG Fang
2021, 42(12): 24-31. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090088
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This research mainly compared the sensory quality and active ingredients of 8 kinds of Chrysanthemum tea infusion: Hangbaiju, Hangbaiju, Fubaiuu, Qibaiju, Gongju, Boju, Huaiju, Chuju, and Wujunju. The sensory properties and volatile component of the Chrysanthemum tea infusion were analyzed through the quantitative descriptive analysis, headspace - solid microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and colorimeter. The result showed that through the descriptive sensory evaluation, the Chrysanthemum tea could be divided into four categories. The relationship between infusion color and the results of the colorimeter was that: yellow-green color=−32.274+0.324L*−0.564a*+0.084b*. Through partial least squares regression analysis, it was determined that the flavor of traditional Chinese medicine was related to 6 components including terpinen-4-ol, the flavor of beet was related to 13 components including (E)-ocimenone, and the flavor of vegetable was related to 14 components including (1R)-(−)-myrtenol. The organic plant Chrysanthemum ‘Hangbaiju’ had the highest content of total flavonoids and the ‘Qibaiju’ Chrysanthemum had lowest content. Chlorogenic acid, cynaroside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucuronide, 3, 5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside were detected in 5, 7, 8, 4 and 5 kinds of Chrysanthemum tea infusion by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and their content were highest in ‘Qibaiju’, ‘Gongju’. ‘Huaiju’, ‘Qibaiju’, and ‘Fubaiju’ respectively.
Microwave Drying Characteristics and Moisture Content Prediction of Hawthorn
HE Fangjian, LI Jing, LIU Mingbao, FU Wenjie, LI Zhenfeng
2021, 42(12): 32-38. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090098
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This study aimed to explore microwave drying characteristics and realize moisture content prediction of hawthorn during drying process. The effects of drying temperature (50, 60, 70 ℃) and relative humidity (5%, 15%, 30%, 50%, 70%) on the drying characteristics and quality of hawthorn were studied. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) was established to predict hawthorn moisture content. The results showed that the optimum drying conditions were 60 ℃ and 30% relative humidity. The color changed the least, the content of VC was the highest, and the content of total flavonoids was higher for hawthorn. The model of ELM with the structure of “3-8-1” was established to predict moisture content. The determination coefficient R2 value was 0.996 and root mean square error RMSE was 0.00952 between predicted value and experimental, which could effectively predict the moisture content of hawthorn during microwave drying. The results would provide a theoretical basis for microwave drying application and on-line moisture content prediction of hawthorn.
Effects of NaCl Stress on Lutein Accumulation and Antioxidant Capacity of Broccoli Sprouts
ZHOU Zhiyi, HE Weiwei, LI Dajing, FU Qun, BAO Yihong, XIAO Yadong, LUO Hao, XU Hao, SONG Jiangfeng, ZHANG Zhongyuan
2021, 42(12): 46-54. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020100100
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To explore the effect of NaCl stress on the lutein enrichment and antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts, the "Qingfeng" broccoli seeds were used as the experimental raw material. The sprouts length, fresh weight, dry weight, moisture content, soluble protein, reducing sugar, malondialdehyde, proline, lutein content and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and peroxidase catalase activity were studied in this experiment. Results showed that different NaCl concentrations had a greater impact on the growth of broccoli sprouts. As NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 300 mmol/L, the content of lutein in the sprouts first increased and then decreased. Under 100 mmol/L NaCl stress, the lutein content in 4-day old sprouts was 546.25 g/g, which was 37.54% higher than that in the control group. The sprouts length, fresh weight, dry weight, moisture content, soluble protein and reducing sugar content also increased by 20.88%, 161.16%, 68.65%, 2.86%, 54.90% and 40.0%, respectively. At the same time, the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD, POD and CAT increased by 36.26%, 14.62%, and 32.34% respectively. The results of this study provided a new way to improve lutein content through NaCl stress on the germination of broccoli seeds, thus providing a reference for the development of functional food of broccoli sprouts.
Effects of Hydrocolloids Coating Pretreatment on the Drying Kinetics and Quality Attributes of Heat Pump Dried Scallop Adductors
ZHU Zhizhuang, ZHANG Yuexiang, LIU Jing, WU Xiaotian, ZHAO Ya, SHI Qilong
2021, 42(12): 55-60. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020100112
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In order to improve the heat pump drying efficiency of scallop adductors and improve the quality of dried products, the effects of low methoxy pectin (LMP) and chitosan (CTS) on drying kinetics and quality characteristics (texture, rehydration rate, shrinkage rate, color) of scallop adductors were investigated. The results showed that moisture content of scallop adductors was decreased with increasing drying time. The drying process of scallop adductors was in the falling rate stage, and the drying process was controlled by internal water diffusion. The drying rate was increased by LMP and CTS treatments. Compared with CK, LMP and CTS pretreatment could increase the effective water diffusion coefficient by 11.08% and 26.73%, respectively. Compared with CK, LMP treatment reduced the shrinkage rare, total color difference, hardness and toughness of scallop adductors, and improved the rehydration rate of dried products. CTS treatment decreased shrinkage rate, and enhanced the rehydration rate, toughness and hardness, but showed no effect on total color difference. Eight mathematical models were used to fit the drying kinetics data. The Midilli et al. was the most suitable model to describe the drying process of scallop adductors. Hydrocolloid’s coating pretreatment has a significant effect on improving the drying efficiency of scallop adductors during heat pump drying and enhancing the quality of dried products. The findings provide theoretical basis and practical reference for heat pump drying of aquatic products.
Steam Processing Technology of Lotus Root Slices and the Changes of Its Volatile Flavoring Substances
TANG Xiaoxian, DONG Mingqin, LUO Yanghe, LI Guanli, WU Shujie, LI Xiaochun, LIU Yan, NIE Hui
2021, 42(12): 61-69. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020100147
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Based on single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the optimum processing technology of steaming lotus root slices were discussed. The changes of volatile flavor substances before and after steam treatment was analyzed by solid phase micro extraction-GC. The results showed that sensory scores of steam lotus root slices was 89.08, color difference was 9.85 and hardness was 555.57 g under the condition of 1400 W power, 4 mm thickness of lotus root slice and steam time 16 min. 45 and 42 volatile flavor compounds were identified by SPME-GC-MS in fresh and steamed lotus root slices. There were 28 compounds in common. The main flavor substances in lotus root were nonanal, decanal and other aldehyde substances, in addition, there were limonene, ethyl palmitate, octanol, 1-nonanol, vanillin acetone and so on, these flavor substances made lotus root slices showed different flavor characteristics. After steaming, the relative contents of aldehydes, heterocycles and nitrogen-containing compounds increased, the contents of esters, alcohols, phenols and acids decreased, and the contents of ketones, ethers and hydrocarbons did not change significantly. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the analysis of lotus root volatile flavor substances and lotus root processing industry.
Analysis of Volatile Components in Laoxianghuang During Fermentation by Electronic Nose, GC-MS and GC-IMS
CHEN Xiaoai, CAI Huitian, LIU Jingyi, TANG Niang, CHEN Shuxi, ZHOU Aimei
2021, 42(12): 70-80. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020100170
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The changes of volatile components in Laoxianghuang during fermentation were analyzed by electronic nose, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), and their contribution to odor was evaluated by relative odor activity value (ROAV). The results showed that, E-nose PCA could effectively distinguish the samples at different fermentation time, and the volatile components began to change significantly after 6 months of fermentation. GC-MS identified 46 volatile compounds, including terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, esters, ethers, heterocyclic compounds and others. α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, terpinene, limonene, isoterpinene, 1-caryophyllene, valencia limonene, linalool, α-terpinene, furfural, maltol, anethol and 2, 4-dimethylstyrene were 14 common components at high and relatively stable contents during fermentation. 38 known volatile components were detected by GC-IMS, including terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, phenol, acids, heterocycles and other volatile components. The results of ROAV showed that the main aroma of Laoxianghuang were citrus, woody, herbal and burnt sweet, and citronellal, nonanal, isoterpinene, trans-β-ocimene and limonene contributed the most to the flavor of Laoxianghuang. Fermentation could enrich the volatile components of Laoxianghuang and the volatile components such as trans nerolidol, heptanal, furfural, hexanal, isovaleraldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2-ethyl furan, furan methanol and 2-acetylfuran were produced during fermentation.
Effects of Different Coagulants on Intermolecular Forces and Secondary Structure of Soybean Protein Isolate
DAI Yiqiang, LIU Xiaoli, WU Han, YIN Liqing, ZHOU Jianzhong, DONG Mingsheng, XIA Xiudong
2021, 42(12): 89-94. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110009
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To study the changes of intermolecular forces and secondary structure of soy protein induced by MgCl2, CaSO4, lactic acid, acetic acid, GDL and fermented soy whey, the effects of different coagulants on the pH value, surface hydrophobicity, free sulfhydryl group (SH), Zeta potential, α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn and random coil during SPI tofu processing were analyzed, while the SPI was used as the research object. Both salt coagulants and acid coagulants could reduce the pH values of SPI solution, and the final pH value was 6.08~6.14 and 5.25~5.58, respectively. Compared with heated SPI solution without coagulant, the addition of coagulants caused increases in the surface hydrophobicity and free SH content, and a decrease in Zeta potential in SPI solution. The surface hydrophobicity of SPI induced by coagulants increased first and then decreased, and free SH content decreased at 0~45 min. The Zeta potential of SPI solution added with fermented soy whey was significantly higher than that of other coagulants (P<0.05), ranging from 9.19 mV to 9.90 mV. In addition, salt coagulants induced a shift of α-helix and β-turn into β-sheet of soy proteins, and acid coagulants destroyed β-sheet of SPI. In particular, the SPI added with fermented soy whey had α-helix ratio between lactic acid and salt coagulants, and β-turn ratio between lactic acid and acetic acid.
Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Chitosan/Mango Peel Extract Composite Film
CHENG Jun, LIU Qun, GAO Yahui, ZHANG Yucang
2021, 42(12): 95-102. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010198
Abstract(332) HTML (117) PDF(33)
In order to explore the high-value utilization of mango peel waste, mango peel extract (MPE) was used by microwave technology. Chitosan (CS) was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (AAG) or citric acid (CA), then MPE was blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and CS. The PVA/CS/MPE composite film was prepared by solution casting. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of the composite film were characterized by UV, FT-IR, SEM and TG to determined the mechanical properties, water resistance, antibacterial, anti-oxidation and degradation properties of the composite film. The experimental results showed that: Compared with ordinary stirring (35 °C, 500 r/min, 4 h, yield 13.86%), the yield of MPE under the microwave process (35 °C, 300 r/min, 1 h) increased to 38.26%. The components of the composite film were mainly combined through hydrogen bonding with good compatibility and without obvious phase separation. The composite film showed good antibacterial activity and degradability. The elongation at break of the composite film of the CA system was nearly double that of the pure PVA film, and the elongation at break was higher after adding MPE. MPE could significantly improve the water resistance of the composite film in AAG system. Meanwhile, MPE improved the UV resistance and oxidation resistance of the composite film. Therefore, there are the extensive prospect in medicine and food packaging about the PVA/CS/MPE composite film.
Effect of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Coupled with Electrodialytic Desalination on the Physicochemical Property of Green Tea Infusions
CHEN Jinding, GAO Yaxin, GAO Yanxiang
2021, 42(12): 103-110. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030057
Abstract(236) HTML (89) PDF(18)
In this article, the impact of different extraction methods (including ultrasonic-assisted hot water extraction and conventional hot water extraction) on the physicochemical property of green tea infusions was investigated. Moreover, the influence of the electroosmosis process on the turbidity and precipitation rate of green tea infusions before and after cooling was also evaluated. The results implied that the contents of soluble-solid, catechin and caffeine in green tea infusions extracted by ultrasonic-assisted hot water method were higher than those extracted by conventional hot water extraction alone. With increasing of the ultrasonic power, the levels of catechin and caffeine in green tea infusions firstly increased and subsequently decreased, and reached the maximum values (5903.14 and 1091.87 mg/kg, respectively) when the ultrasonic power elevated to 390 W. The results also indicated that the level of metal ions and electrical conductivity were significantly decreased after electrodialysis treatment. After electrodialysis treatment of green tea infusions extracted by hot water extraction alone and ultrasound-assisted hot water extraction at power levels of 130 W and 390 W, the removal rates of potassium were 67.46%, 80.20% and 89.59% respectively, the removal rates of manganese were 64.92%, 77.35% and 88.56% respectively. The turbidity of green tea infusions significantly deceased and the formation of tea cream after cooling was obviously inhibited after electroosmosis treatment.
Screening of High Oxalate-degrading Lactic Acid Bacterial Strains and Its Characteristics in Yogurt Fermentation
LIU Jianli, HE Xu, SUN Qinfei
2021, 42(12): 111-118. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090129
Abstract(227) HTML (66) PDF(23)
In this paper, 49 strains of lactic acid bacteria from self-made yogurt, pickles, fermented head and other characteristic fermented food were selected as candidate strains. The oxalate degradation ability and tolerance of simulated gastrointestinal tract in vitro were determined by spectrophotometry, and the characteristics of fermented yogurt were evaluated by principal component analysis. The result showed that the oxalate-degradation rate of 9 strains was more than 70%, the highest was 86.96%. Among them, the survival rate of the strains “Sichuan Pixian A1”, “Ewenki”, “Luqing6” in pH3.0 acid solution, artificial simulated gastric juice, bile salt solution and artificial simulated intestinal juice was more than 50%. The sensory evaluation, holding water capacity, titratable acidity, post-acidity, rupture force, hardness, gumminess, cohesiveness, chewiness and springiness of yoghurt fermented with the strains “Ewenki” and “Luqing6” were better. The strains “Ewenki” and “Luqing6” were Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus paracasei. They could efficiently degrade oxalate and tolerate gastrointestinal environment, and at the same time, they had good fermentation characteristics in yoghurt and would be used as candidate strains for the development of functional yoghurt.
Screening the Cordyceps militaris Strain for Reducing Glycemic Index of Rice Substrate under Solid Fermentation
HU Long, FAN Xiuzhi, YAO Fen, YIN Chaomin, SHI Defang, GAO Hong, HU Zhongze
2021, 42(12): 119-124. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090155
Abstract(277) HTML (97) PDF(30)
In order to shorten the production cycle, reduce the cost, and obtain the fermentation product with low glycemic index (GI) and high content of active substances, the dominant strains of Cordyceps militarisfor solid fermentation of rice substrate were screened with mycelial growth rate, expected glycemic index (eGI), contents of polysaccharide and cordycepin as screening indicators. The results showed that the content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) in all the fungal substances fermented by strains of C.militaris (Shennongda, Wanxi, Yun and Quan) decreased after fermentation, while the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) increased. Further digestion kinetics in vitro showed that the eGI value in fungal substance was significantly lower than that before fermentation (P<0.05). Then combined with the results of four indexes, strain Quan was determined as the best one for solid fermentation of rice. After 25 days fermentation, the eGI value of fermentation product decreased from 80.33 (before fermentation) to 65.63, which reached the level of medium GI value. The polysaccharide content in fungal substance of Quan was 5.29%, and the content of cordycepin was 5185.98 mg/kg, which were higher than those in fruiting body. Therefore, the fermentation substance could be used to replace the fruity body in the development of nutrition and functional food, and would provide raw materials for the development of low GI products of C.militaris.
Effects of Neohesperidin on the Differentiation of Adipocyte and the Underlying Mechanism in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes
GUO Lixia, KONG Shuzhen, YIN Zhongyi, ZHENG Xuxu
2021, 42(12): 125-132. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.20201001641
Abstract(334) HTML (189) PDF(22)
This investigation aimed to identify the effects of neohesperidin on the differentiation of adipocyte and the underlying mechanism in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The cell viabilities of neohesperidin were detected in 3T3-L1 cells by MTS assay. The intracellular accumulation of lipids was visualized with Oil-red O staining and spectrophotometry analysis. The mRNA of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α(C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptorγ(PPARγ), adipogenic-specific genes during adipocyte differentiation, were measured by RT-PCR. Glycogen synthase kinase3β (GSK3β), glycogen synthase (GS) andprotein phosphorylation, the Akt signaling pathway, were analysed by immunoblotting. To confirm this GSK3β effect, 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with neohesperidin and GSK3β inhibitor (LiCl), and the intracellular accumulation of lipids and the level of adipogenic-specific protein were measured.The results showed that, neohesperidin significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and intracellular triglyceride formation (P<0.01), activated Akt signaling pathway, and promoted p-Akt and p-gsk3β, significantly inhibited C/EBPα, PPARγ, the expression of AP2 mRNA and protein (P<0.01). These effects were partly reversed by inhibition of GSK3β activity by LiCl. In summary, neohesperidin suppresses adipocyte differentiation via the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
Processing Technology
Optimization of Polypeptides Extraction from Takifugu flavidus by Response Surface Methodology
QU Shuaijie, LIU Shuji, SU Yongchang, PAN Nan, LIAO Dengyuan, XU Min, WANG Qin, LIU Zhiyu
2021, 42(12): 133-138. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019110133
Abstract(275) HTML (156) PDF(29)
In order to optimize the enzymatic preparation technology of peptide from the muscle Takifugu flavidus, the response surface methodology was used to study the preparation technology. Taking the degree of hydrolysis as the index, six kinds of proteases, such as acid protease, alkaline protease, trypsin, neutral protease, flavor protease, papain, was screened by the preparation ability, and flavor protease was identified as the target enzyme for the further experiments. The single factor method was used to investigate the effects of solid-liquid ratio, pH value, hydrolysis time, temperature and enzyme concentration on the preparation of polypeptides from the muscle of Takifugu flavidus. The results showed that temperature had the greatest influence on the degree of hydrolysis, enzyme concentration was the second and pH value was third. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: Enzyme concentration was 4521.96 U/g, the temperature was 55 ℃, the pH value was 7, the solid-liquid ratio was 1:10, and enzymolysis time was 4 h. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis of protein in muscle was 26.26%, while the predicted value was 26.66%, and the relative error was 1.48%, and the predicted result was basically consistent with actual measurement result. It could be seen that the response surface methodology would be reasonable and feasible to optimize the preparation process of polypeptides.
Optimization of Spray Drying Process of Antarctic Krill Oil Microcapsule by Response Surface Methodology
MIAO Junkui, WEI Shulei, LIU Xiaofang, YU Yuan, ZHANG Xiaomei, LENG Kailiang
2021, 42(12): 139-144. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060032
Abstract(214) HTML (83) PDF(35)
In order to improve the embedding rate of Antarctic krill oil and reduce the costs, sodium caseinate, gelatin and maltodextrin were used as wall materials to prepared microencapsulation of Antarctic krill oil by spray drying method. Then, physicochemical properties of the products were studied. The results showed that the mass fraction of sodium caseinate was 24.55%, the mass fraction of gelatin was 4.86%, the mass ratio of core to wall was 0.33, the mass fraction of maltodextrin was 45.60%, and the embedding rate was 93.79%. The water content and ash content of the prepared microcapsule were 2.31%±0.12% and 2.04%±0.14%. The microcapsule power had no shrimp smell and the particle size focuses on 14.8~26.7 μm. The order of the effects of various factors on the embedding rate of Antarctic krill oil microencapsulated was: The mass ratio of core to wall > the mass fraction of gelatin > the mass fraction of sodium caseinate. The mechanical strength test showed that the release rate of Antarctic krill oil in the microcapsules was less than 0.3% under different pH conditions and centrifugal time, and the structure of the microcapsules was very stable.
Optimization of Formulation of NFC Nanguo Pear and Okra Compound Juice and Effects of Different Sterilization Treatments on the Quality of Juices
DUAN Lamei, HUANG Wei, JI Xiufeng, WANG Xinming, WANG Yanhui, YU Yongbo, YU Yi, LV Changxin
2021, 42(12): 145-150. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080114
Abstract(260) HTML (86) PDF(20)
Nanguo pear and okra were used as the main raw materials to produce NFC. The sensory quality were used as evaluation indicators, the formulation of juice was optimized by single factor experiments and orthogonal test. The three different sterilization methods, pasteurization, microwave sterilization and ultra high pressure sterilization were compared, and the changes of microbial, physicochemical properties and flavour was researched. The results showed that, the optimum formulation of juice was as that: The content of Nanguo pear and okra in juice was 93.98%, the mass ratio of Nanguo pear juice to okra was 15:1, the amount of sugar was 6%, and citric acid was 0.02%, and the sensory score was the highest 89.4. After sterilizated, the juice were commercial sterility. Compared with the unsterilized juice, the total acid and free radical scavenging rate by pasteurization and microwave sterilization were significantly decreased(P<0.05), the value of pH, non-enzymatic browning index, the bitterness and astringency were significantly increased, and the soluble solid content of juice by microwave and ultra high pressure terilized increased(P<0.05), the total acid and the bitterness and astringency by ultra high pressure terilized significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the other methods, the ∆E of the juice by ultra high pressure treatment had minimum change was 4.26±0.12, and the scavenging rates of DPPH and ·OH were 78.79%±0.37% and 68.84%±0.42%, respectively, which was higher than the other methods significantly. Taken together, ultra high pressure sterilization could maintain the color and antioxidant properties of Nanguo pear and okra juices.
Optimization of Extraction Technology of Horse Bone Marrow Protein by Response Surface Methodology and Its Antioxidant Activity
WUGULNISA Mamattohti, PARHAT Rozi, YANG Xiaojun, MAHIRA Kasim, DENG Jie, ABDUSALAM Abdukayyum, ABDUWAHAP Yimit, WANG Juan
2021, 42(12): 151-159. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080151
Abstract(291) HTML (124) PDF(19)
This paper deals with the optimization of the process conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of horse bone marrow protein using response surface methodology. Taking the concentration of horse bone marrow protein and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability as indicator, single factor test were conducted with extraction temperature, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction times as experimental factors, then the response surface method was used to optimize the extraction process and select the optimal extraction conditions. Meanwhile, the antioxidant activity of horse bone marrow protein was evaluated under the determination of DPPH, hydroxyl (·OH), superoxide free radical (${\rm{O}}_2^- \cdot $) and 2, 2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) free radicals scavenging ability and total reduction ability. The results showed that the optimal extraction condition for horse bone marrow protein was: extraction temperature 45℃, extraction time 2 h, solid-liquid ratio 1:20 g/mL, extraction times of 2. The concentration of horse bone marrow protein was up to 70.40 mg/mL, DPPH free radical scavenging activity was 68.92%, and its comprehensive score was 91.017%. The horse bone marrow protein exhibited good antioxidant capacity, and its half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) for scavenging DPPH, ·OH, ${\rm{O}}_2^- \cdot $ and ABTS radicals are 0.061, 0.067, 0.250 and 0.290 mg/mL, respectively. This study could provide a theoretical basis for the further development and application of horse bone marrow protein.
Research on the Imitative Natural Air-dried Processing of Shallow Fermented Sausage
ZHANG Jiamin, WANG Wei, JI Lili, BAI Ting, ZHAO Zhiping, CHEN Lin
2021, 42(12): 160-167. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080166
Abstract(255) HTML (67) PDF(13)
In this paper, the effects of air-drying temperature, air velocity, and humidity on the drying time, uniformity, and sensory quality of shallow fermented sausage were studied. On the basis of single factor experiment, response surface methodology employing Box-Behnken design was applied to get the optimal air-drying process conditions. Furthermore, the effects of different temperature gradients on the air-drying characteristics and product quality of sausage were investigated. The results showed that, the optimum conditions of constant temperature air-drying were as follows: Temperature 9.0 ℃, the air velocity 1.0 m/s, and the humidity 64%. A suitable temperature gradient could improve the drying efficiency and product quality. The optimal process conditions of the gradient air-drying method were temperature gradient 7~13 ℃ (alternating every 12 hours), air velocity 1.0 m/s, and humidity 64%. Under these conditions, the time to air-dry the shallow fermented sausage to the ideal moisture content was 66 h. The product quality indexes were as follows: Uniformity 0.987, moisture content 37.693%, aw 0.875, pH5.54, and TBA 0.735 mg/kg. The ideal product quality could be obtained at the same time of considering air drying efficiency under this gradient air-drying condition.
Optimization of Compound Color-preserving Agent to Inhibit Browning of Apricot Wine
XU Jia, TU Zhihong, YANG Jianfei, HUANG Xueqin, MA Qian, YI Yuan, ZUO Yong
2021, 42(12): 168-175. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080187
Abstract(224) HTML (109) PDF(12)
In order to study the effect of different color-preserving agents on inhibiting browning of apricot wine, the browning inhibition rate and color difference were used as indicators. Single factor experiments were carried out to confirm the optimal concentrations of six color-preserving agents added to apricot wine, then through orthogonal experiment, the three color-preserving agents with the greatest effects on browning inhibition were selected, and optimized by response surface methodology. The results showed that the best color-preserving agent formula for apricot wine was sodium erythorbate 0.70 g/L, L-cysteine 1.10 g/L and phytic acid 0.01%. Under these conditions, the alcohol content, reducing sugar and total acid of apricot wine had no significant difference with the control group, the browning inhibition rate was 53.11%, the color difference was 22.35, and the coincidence rate with the predicted value reached 97.00% and 95.84%, respectively, which could effectively inhibit the browning of apricot wine.
Optimization of Extraction and Antioxidant Activities of Triterpenic Acids from Blacked Jujube by Response Surface Methodology
FU Yaling, YAO Junxiu, ZHANG Rentang
2021, 42(12): 176-183. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080218
Abstract(354) HTML (115) PDF(64)
Objective: Blacked jujube was used as raw materials to study the extraction conditions and antioxidant activity of triterpenic acids. Methods: The ultrasonic extraction process of triterpenic acids from blacked jujube was optimized by single factor and Box-Behnken response surface experiments. The antioxidant activity of before and after purification of triterpenic acids were evaluated by determining the scavenging capacity of DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals and total reducing power. Results: The optimum extraction parameters were as follows: 50% ethanol concentration, liquid-solid ratio 23:1 mL/g, ultrasonic time 30 min, ultrasonic power 300 W. Under these conditions, the yield of triterpenoid acids was 1.313±0.01 mg/g. The half inhibitory concentration (IC50) for scavenging of DPPH· and ABTS+· of crude and purified triterpenoid acids from blacked jujube were 0.571, 0.053, 0.186 and 0.059 mg/mL, respectively. The total reducing power showed a certain dose effect relationship with the sample concentration. Conclusions: The process was simple, reasonable and feasible. The triterpenic acids of blacked jujube would have a good antioxidant activity.
Optimization of the Ultrasound Extraction Technology and Antioxidant Activity Analysis of the Total Flavonoids from Debregeasia orientalis Leaves by Box-Behnken Method
GAO Linxiao, MA Wensheng, SHI Huili, GUO Meng, YANG Zaibo
2021, 42(12): 184-190. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080230
Abstract(296) HTML (81) PDF(28)
Using Debregeasia orientalis leaves as raw materials, the Box-Behnken model was designed by single factor experiments and the optimal technological conditions for extracting total flavonoids from Debregeasia orientalis leaves were optimized, and the antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated. The results showed that the ethanol concentration, liquid-material ratio, ultrasonic time and ultrasonic temperature were 35%, 42 mL/g, 47 min and 70 ℃, respectively, which were consistent with the predicted values of Box-Behnken model. The average extraction rate of total flavonoids from Debregeasia orientalis leaves was 3.15%±1.82%. Under these conditions, the total antioxidant capacity of extract was equivalent to 1.969 mmol/L (FeSO4 equivalent value), and the IC50 of DPPH free radical scavenging rate was 0.075 mg/mL, which indicated that the total flavonoids of the extract from Debregeasia orientalis leaves could exhibit good antioxidant activity, and provide certain theoretical data support for further research and development of wild resources of Debregeasia orientalis.
Study on Preparation of Mixed Beverage of Dendrobium candidum Polysaccharide and Hawthorn and Its Effect on Relieving Exercise Fatigue
XIAO Qingqun
2021, 42(12): 191-197. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080248
Abstract(247) HTML (62) PDF(33)
A new formula of compound beverage was developed by polysaccharides of Dendrobium candidum and hawthorn juice as raw materials. On the basis of single factor tests, analyzing the optimum parameters of the mixed beverage byorthogonal test and response surface method, then measuring the exhaustive swimming time and related biochemical indexes in different groups of mice, respectively. Results showed that, the optimum parameters of mixed beverage were as follows: The volume ratio of polysaccharide extract of Dendrobium candidum and hawthorn juice was 1:3, the amount of sucrose was 4%, the amount of citric acid was 0.4%, the amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was 0.20%, the amount of sodium alginate was 0.08%, and the amount of xanthan gum was 0.04%. The sensory evaluation score and centrifugal sedimentation rate of the beverage that optimum process preparation was (91.7 ± 0.4) scores and 0.61%± 0.02%. The beverage solution presented a light yellow-green color, transparent, and smooth taste with the proper acidity and sweet, without obvious precipitation or stratification after storage, and had strong mixed fragrance of Dendrobium candidum and hawthorn. Compared with the blank control group, the exhaustive swimming time of the groups of compound beverage at middle and high doses could separately prolong 1.5 min (P<0.05) and 4.4 min (P<0.01) in mice, the BLA concentration respectively decreased 1.2 mmol/L (P<0.05) and 3.4 mmol/L (P<0.01) in vivo, and BUN concentration separately decreased 2.6 mmol/L (P<0.01) and 3.5 mmol/L (P<0.01) in vivo. Therefore, the mixed beverage of Dendrobium candidum polysaccharide and hawthorn had better relieve exercise fatigue, and could be used in the field of sports nutrition.
Optimization of Tea Making Process with Bagasse
PENG Xiaoyan, WANG Zegang, CHEN Jiafeng, LIU Shuyan
2021, 42(12): 198-202. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080251
Abstract(200) HTML (92) PDF(14)
In this study, sugar cane tea was prepared with bagasse. The effects of cooking temperature, cooking time and rotating speed on sensory scores of sugar cane tea were investigated by quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design experiment. The optimal processing conditions were determined, and the nutritional components of sugarcane tea were determined. Results showed that: Cooking temperature 127 ℃, cooking time 33 min and rotating speed 60 r/min. Under these conditions, the sensory score of sugarcane tea prepared was 92.47 with a good sensory evaluation. The contents of nutritional components of sugarcane tea prepared under optimal conditions were determined as fat 0.25%±0.06%, protein 1.99%±0.39%, reducing sugar 7.26%±0.38%, water 6.48%±0.27% and mineral 1.89%±0.20%. The research could provide the reference for the utilization of bagasse.
Packaging and Machinery
Detection of Moldy Rice by Self-made Electronic Nose
LI Chao, ZHOU Bo
2021, 42(12): 218-224. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090092
Abstract(257) HTML (91) PDF(18)
In order to identify the moldy rice rapidly, an electronic nose system based on LabVIEW was developed. The volatiles of rice samples mixed with different proportions of moldy rice in different days were detected by the electronic nose system. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were performed on the collected data. Finally, back propagation (BP) neural network was used to establish the prediction model. The results showed that, there was significant difference in volatile matter between normal rice and moldy rice volatiles, and the LDA classification effect was better than PCA. The correlation between predicted value and actual value of the model was more than 0.953, the average relative error of training set and test set was 3.56% and 4.18%, and the recognition rate of training set and test set was 100% for normal rice samples. In conclusion, the electronic nose system could be used as an effective means of non-destructive detection of moldy rice, and had practical significance in rice quality identification.
Food Safety
Content Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Three Heavy Metals in Different Parts of Boletaceae in Yunnan Province
CHEN Fengxia, YANG Tianwei, LI Jieqing, LIU Honggao, FAN Maopan, WANG Yuanzhong
2021, 42(12): 225-232. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020100148
Abstract(219) HTML (115) PDF(18)
Heavy metal pollution and dietary risk assessment of Boletaceae from different parts of Yunnan Province were conducted in this paper. The contents of Cd, As and Pb in 9 species of Boletaceae in Yunnan Province were determined by ICP-MS, and the content characteristics of different parts were analyzed. The single factor pollution index and Nemerow comprehensive pollution index were used to evaluate the heavy metal pollution of Boletaceae. Objective hazards quotient method was used to evaluate the health risk of Boletaceae. It was found that the contents of Cd, Pb and As in Boletaceae exceeded the standard in varying degrees. The enrichment of heavy metals may be related to the location, species and origin. The highest content of Cd was 20.89 mg/kg. Cd was the main heavy metal pollution source of Boletaceae, and it played a leading role in the comprehensive health risk. The difference analysis showed that there were significant differences in heavy metal contents in most of the same species, same parts and different habitats. There was no significant difference in heavy metal content of the same species of Boletaceae from the same urban area. The pollution degree of different types and parts was different. Most of the three heavy metals in Boletaceae were Pi>1. The comprehensive pollution index showed that there were more samples of mild and severe pollution. The purpose of this study is to provide reference to the development and utilization of resources and reasonable diet for consumers.
Analysis and Determination
Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Fermented Surimi
JIANG Feng, ZHENG Xinru, ZHOU Changyi, JIANG Xiaoying, LIN Weiyan, LIU Yu, SU Wenjin, SU Guocheng
2021, 42(12): 240-245. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070234
Abstract(384) HTML (152) PDF(37)
In order to study the variation of volatile compounds in surimi fermented by lactic acid bacteria, the technology of extraction by simultaneous distillation extraction(SDE) and detection by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) of volatile flavor compounds from fermented surimi used as the research object was established. The two methods of natural fermentation and fermentation of surimi with Lactobacillus reuteri were compared, and the change of flavor substances in the process of fermented surimi was analyzed. The results showed that 37 kinds of volatile substances were detected in surimi fermented by Lactobacillus method, and the substances with obvious flavor characteristics were acetic acid, n-hexanal, 1-octene-3-ol, ethyl acetate, etc. And 25 kinds of volatile substances were detected in surimi fermented naturally, among which acetic acid, n-hexanal and 1-octene-3-ol were the main substances. The content of esters, acids, alkanes and alcohols in surimi fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri was higher than that in naturally fermented surimi, which accounted for 1.20%, 2.72%, 1.56% and 11.35% in naturally fermented surimi, while 21.83%, 14.86%, 14.98% and 16.37% in the fermented surimi by Lactobacillus reuteri, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria could improve the sensory quality and flavor of fermented surimi.
Determination of 9, 10-Anthraquinone in Tea Packaging Paper by GC-MS/MS
LIANG Jianfeng, LI Ya, WEI Shiqin, QIAO Ruying, CHEN Meiban
2021, 42(12): 246-252. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080128
Abstract(254) HTML (85) PDF(31)
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) method was established for the detection of 9, 10-anthraquinone in tea packaging paper. The sample was extracted with acetone-n-hexane mixed solution, and then the extract was concentrated by centrifugation and nitrogen blowing, and then purified by SPE with a Florisil solid phase extraction column. The purified liquid was analyzed by a gas-mass spectrometer. The instrument used DB-5MS gas chromatography. Column (20 m×0.18 mm×0.18 μm) was separated, scanning in multi-reaction monitoring mode was selected, and internal standard method was used for quantification. The results showed that the method had a good linear relationship in the mass concentration range of 10~200 ng/mL, the linear regression equation was Y=0.23249X+0.001203, the fit R2 was 0.9989, the detection limit of the method was 3 μg/kg, the limit of quantification was 10 μg/kg, the recovery rate of standard addition was 89.3%~98.7%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.01%~4.42%. This method was suitable for the qualitative and quantitative detection of 9, 10-anthraquinone in tea packaging paper.
Comprehensive Analysis and Evaluation of Welsh-Onion Quality Traits of Different Varieties
ZHAO Lili, YANG Guodong, JIA Junxiang, LI Na, JIANG Xintao, TIAN Yun, JIANG Binbin, ZHANG Rongfeng, CUI Lianwei
2021, 42(12): 253-261. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080131
Abstract(418) HTML (135) PDF(19)
Comprehensive evaluation system was established in order to provide technological support for screening and utilization of excellent welsh-onion (Allium Fistulosum L.) germplasm resources. Quality indicators of 42 varieties of trial welsh-onion were observed and determined. Data acquired was evaluated by means of variation analysis, principal component analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis, and finally the best variety was obtained. The results demonstrated that some quality traits differences were existed in different varieties of welsh-onion. The plant weight was appeared significant correlation with plant height, the length and coarseness of scallion stalk, blade length and plant width at 0.01 level. Wax powers were showed a significant correlation with Vitamin C at 0.01 level. By the component principal analysis, the cumulative contribution of variances of 10 principal components extracted was up to 81.2%. Together with correlation analysis, we finally considered 14 factors as quality evaluation indicators of welsh-onion, including the plant height, the length, coarseness and hardness of scallion stalk, the length and color of blade, leaf sheath color, wax, water rate of cauloid, cellulose, soluble sugar, free amino acids, ethereal oil and alcohols contents. Based on the comprehensive rankings, the five highest scores were in order as follows: ‘Liaocong No.7’, ‘Liaocong No.12’, ‘Wanneng Yecong’, ‘Wu Yeqi’ and ‘Teji Yuanzang’ Welsh-onion. Finally, the grade division obtained from K value cluster analysis was in sequence of C>B>D>A. This experiment comprehensively analyzed the quality of different welsh-onion varieties, comprehensively and objectively evaluated the quality of welsh-onion varieties, and provided scientific reference and guidance for the development of excellent germplasm resources and variety promotion.
The Correlation Between Sodium Content of Western Sausage and Electronic Tongue Established Based on Grey Correlation Method
XIAO Kang, MA Yangyang, ZHAO Chunbo, ZHU Yaodi, ZHAO Lijun, LI Miaoyun, ZHAO Gaiming
2021, 42(12): 262-268. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080134
Abstract(138) HTML (58) PDF(10)
In order to further develop low-sodium meat products, in this study, western sausage was chosen as the research object, the relationship between the sodium content of sausages with different sodium contents and taste characteristic was investigated using electronic tongue. And the correlation model between the sodium content of western sausage and electronic tongue taste characteristics was established using the grey relational analysis. The results of sensor response value and principal component analysis indicated that, the responses of the electronic tongues of 15 kinds of western sausage with different sodium content showed certain differences (P<0.05). In addition, there were significant differences (P<0.05) in CT0 (salty) sensor response values of samples with different sodium content. Furthermore, grey correlation analysis results of sodium content correlation with five kinds of electronic tongue sensor size was the CT0 (salty) >CA0 (sour) > AAE (freshness) >AE1 (astringency) >C00 (bitter);and the correlation of the model between sodium content and electronic tongue sensor was greater (R2=0.918), which showed that the correlation between sodium content and these three sensors (CT0, CA0, AAE)was good. This suggested that further exploration of the relationship between sodium content and these three taste values. This study could contribute to evaluate the effect of sodium contents on taste value objectively, and it was expected to help the effective development and optimization of salt-reducing technology for low-sodium meat products through the key taste values related to the sodium salt content, so as to promote the rapid development of low-sodium meat products.
Effect of Extrusion Temperature on Characteristic Flavor Compounds in Pea Flour
GUAN Lina, LIU Yanxiang, LIU Ming, TAN Bin, SUN Ying, TIAN Xiaohong, WANG Liping
2021, 42(12): 269-278. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080163
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In order to explore the effects of extrusion processing on characteristic flavor compounds of pea flour and improve the flavor quality, in this study, electronic nose(E-nose) and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry(GC-IMS) were used to investigate the effects of extrusion temperatures (120, 150, 180 ℃) on volatile flavor compounds of pea flour and compared with unextruded pea flour. The flavor differences between samples with different extrusion temperatures can be evaluated objectively by the electronic nose system. A total of 53 volatile substances in 8 compounds, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, acids, esters, pyrazines, furans and ethers were identified by GC-IMS. The relative content of alcohols, ketones, acids, esters, ethers decreased, the relative content of pyrazines and furans increased. The relative content of characteristic beany flavor compounds such as trans-2-octenal, hexanal, 1-octene-3 alcohol, n-hexanol, 1-pentanol, n-butanol and 2-pentylfuran decreased by 23.53%, 33.23%, 50.44%, 88.82%, 77.69%, 84.51%, 26.19%, respectively and the relative content of 2, 5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-methylpyrazine and 2-furanmethanol with roasted flavor increased by 16.16, 23.92, and 7.95 times, respectively at the extrusion temperature of 180 ℃. Relative odor activity value (ROAV) showed that n-nonanal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, n-octanal, 1-octen-3-ol, heptanal, ethyl acetate, n-butyraldehyde, trans-2-octenal, 2-pentylfuran, 2-ethylfuran and n-hexanol were the characteristic flavor compounds of raw pea flour. Principal component score determined that the flavor of the 180 ℃ extruded sample was the best.
Determination of Rosin in Meat and Their Products by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
WU Wanqin, JIANG Feng, FAN Xiaolong, ZHU Xiaoling, HUANG Kun, HAN Zhi, LIU Guojiao, ZHANG Yazhen, ZHU Songsong, FAN Zhiyong, WANG Huixia
2021, 42(12): 279-286. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080257
Abstract(168) HTML (74) PDF(13)
To establish a method for the determination of rosin in meat and their products by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), the sample was extracted by ultrasonic instrument with acetonitrile. The extracts were then purified through solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridges. The target of dehydroabietic acid was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS, and quantified by internal standard method. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY HSS T3 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) with isometric elution using 0.1%(v/v)formic acid aqueous solution-acetonitrile (30:70) as the mobile phase.The analysis of dehydroabietic acid was detected under electrospray positive ionization mode and the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. The dehydroabietic acid demonstrated good linearity in the range of 5~400 ng/mL, with the correlation coefficient values (r) being higher than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were found to be 80 and 200 μg/kg. The recoveries at three spiked levels (200, 400 and 2000 μg/kg) in blank matrix were in the range of 96.05%~104.17% with the relative standard deviations between 0.62%~3.68% (n=6). The analysis results of actual samples showed that the number of positive samples of dehydroabietic acid accounted for 16.67% of the total samples, and the residual content was in the range of 390.15~1850.03 μg/kg. The method was convenient, rapid, accurate and efficient. It could be employed for accurate determination of rosin in meat and their products.
Quality Analysis of 13 Kinds of Natural Plain Fermented Soy Sauce
ZHONG Xiaoting, LI Ke, LV Jie, ZHANG Renhu, WU Qian, ZHOU Yubai, WU Yinglong
2021, 42(12): 287-293. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080263
Abstract(216) HTML (78) PDF(15)
Electronic nose, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), amino acid analyer were employed to investigate the flavor substances and amino acids of thirteen kinds of natural plain fermented soy sauce. Meanwhile, sensory evaluation was combined to analysis the components differences of different products.The results showed that raw materials and fermentation technology were the main factors leading to different flavor and quality of soy sauce. According to the analysis of physical and chemical indexes, the change of ethanol and total sugar content in different products were the most obvious. Ethanol, nitrogen oxides and inorganic sulfides were the main material bases of flavor differences in soy sauce. The free amino acid composition of soy sauce not only had a significant impact on the flavor characteristics of soy sauce, but also directly or indirectly affect the flavor characteristics of soy sauce, such as umami, salty, sweet and sour, together with sugar, acid and total nitrogen. According to the comprehensive analysis, when amino acid nitrogen was greater than 1.00 g/100 mL, total nitrogen ≥1.80 g/100 mL, the sugar content was higher than 6.0 g/100 mL, the sugar/acid ratio was 3.40~5.80, the free amino acid content was higher than 60 mg/mL, soy sauce flavor quality would be pleasant. The results of this study were helpful to supplement and improve the flavor fingerprint of soy sauce, guide the establishment of quality evaluation standards of soy sauce, and could also be used to evaluate the production process and technical conditions and guide the actual production.
Simultaneous Determination of 22 Inorganic Elements in Moringa Seeds by ICP-MS and Principal Component Analysis and Cluster analysis
NIU Yanfei, CAO Hongyun, XU Yi, ZHANG Xiaonan, WU Chunhua
2021, 42(12): 307-312. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021010096
Abstract(252) HTML (68) PDF(16)
Objective: To establish ICP-MS for the simultaneous determination of Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb 22 kinds of inorganic elements, Determine the content and distribution characteristics of inorganic elements in Moringa seeds. Method: Collected samples from 10 different origins (Honghe Yuanyang, Honghe Honghe, Honghe Kaiyuan, Chuxiong Yuanmou, Dehong Mangshi, Chuxiong Shuangbai, Zhaotong Qiaojia, Kunming Dongchuan, Yuxi Yuanjiang, and Lijiang Huaping). The samples were treated by microwave digestion and determined by ICP-MS. The fingerprint of inorganic elements was established. The inorganic elements were evaluated by SPSS cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Results: The proposed method showed good linearity with r>0.999 for all inorganic elements, the detection limits were 0.04~78.44 μg/L and the RSD of precision complied with the regulations (RSD<5%). The recoveries were 80.13%~113.66% (RSD<10%). Moringa seeds were rich in inorganic elements that are beneficial to the human body, and lower harmful elements; The principal component analysis selected 4 principal factors, and the results indicated that Zn, Ca, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ba and Al may be the characteristic elements. The cluster analysis was divided into two groups, indicating that the element contents were related to the ecological environment. Conclusion: ICP-MS can be used for the content determination of the inorganic elements of Moringa seeds. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis can be used to evaluate the quality of Moringa seeds, and provide research foundation for the development and utilization of Moringa seeds.
Storage and Preservation
Effect of Air-conditioned Refrigerated Container on Preservation of Vegetables
PAN Yidan, YU Man, GUO Yeqing, GUO Zhimei
2021, 42(12): 313-320. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020110032
Abstract(212) HTML (121) PDF(26)
In order to study the fresh-keeping effect of air-conditioned refrigerated container, both the air-conditioned refrigerated container and common cold storage were used to preserve fresh vegetables (pakchoi, leaf lettuce, celery and spinach) under 1 ℃. The controlled atmosphere was 5%±1% O2, 95%±1% N2, and the relative humidity was 90%±5%. The ethylene removal module runned for half an hour every morning, and the ozone sterilization module worked for 10 minutes once a day, with the concentration of 2 g·min−1. While, there were no other measures for common cold storage in addition to cold storage. The indicators of the weight loss rate, soluble solids content, titratable acid content, VC, respiration intensity, MDA and chlorophyll content were investigated to evaluate the preservation performance of the equipment. The results showed that during 45 d storage period, the air-conditioned refrigerated container performed better on effectively preventing vegetables weight loss, maintaining high soluble solids and titratable acid content, inhibiting the respiration intensity of vegetables, reducing the consumption of VC and chlorophyll, also relieving the degree of cell membrane peroxidation in leave. Furthermore, it can effectively retard the corruption of vegetable and maintain the fresh quality of vegetables. In conclusion, air-conditioned refrigerated container has a better application prospect for storage of large quantities of vegetables.
Effect of Arginine Treatment on Disease Resistance to Alternaria Rot of Postharvest Winter Jujube
CHANG Lulu, ZHANG Lele, YU Youwei, WANG Xiaojia, ZHANG Shaoying
2021, 42(12): 321-326. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020120055
Abstract(269) HTML (104) PDF(16)
In order to study the effect of arginine (Arg) treatment on disease resistance of postharvest winter jujube fruit, the fruits were soaked in Arg solutions at different concentrations (0, 20, 200, 1000 μmol/L), then Alternariaalternata challenge inoculation was performed on the treated jujube fruits, and later the lesion diameter, the activities of resistance-related enzymes and the contents of flavones, polyphenols and lignin were determined. The results showed that Arg treatment significantly slowed down the expansion of the lesion diameter in the jujube fruitsinoculated with A.alternata. Further studies showed that Arg treatment induced the increase of the activities of phenylalamine ammonialyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI), among which Arg treatment at 200 μmol/L was the most active concentration. At the same time, Arg treatment increased the contents of flavones, polyphenols and lignin in winter jujube, and the contents of flavones, polyphenols and lignin in the fruits treated by 200 μmol/L Arg were the highest. Therefore, Arg treatment enhanced the disease resistance of postharvest winter jujube fruits by increasing the activities of disease-resistant enzymes (PAL, POD, GLU, CHI) and the contents of flavones, polyphenols and lignin,and it can be a promising alternative that will be used in the preservation of postharvest winter jujube.
Nutrition and Healthcare
Analysis of Nutrient Composition and Bioactivity of Cyperus esculentus (C. esculentus L.) before and after Germination
CHAO Xiaoling, LI Yanghui, JING Siqun, ZHAI Hongyue, LIU Genmei, ZHANG Junyan, QI Kun, ZHU Xinliang, Buweizuohere·Aikeremu
2021, 42(12): 327-333. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020050314
Abstract(286) HTML (169) PDF(32)
To reveal the effect of germination on nutrient composition of C. esculentus L. and the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activity in vitro of its polysaccharide, a near infrared spectrometer and an amino acid analyzer were applied to analyze the content of starch, fat, protein, fibre, ash and amino acid while anthrone sulfuric acid method was adopted to determine the content of polysaccharides. DPPH·, ABTS+· and total antioxidant capacity were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of C. esculentus L. polysaccharide while PNPG method was employed to observe the hypoglycemic effect of C. esculentus L. polysaccharide with acarbose as control. The results showed that the effects of germination on the nutritional components of C. esculentus L. were different, the fat contents of C. esculentus L. increased by 8.22% while amylose, protein, fibre and ash contents respectively reduced by 11.75%, 11.09%, 10.31% and 7.69% after germination. Furthermore, the total contents of amino acid improved by 8% while the yield of polysaccharides from C. esculentus L. was significantly increased by 9.23%. On the other hand, in the bioactivity assay, the results showed that the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of polysaccharides from C. esculentus L. after germination were higher than that of ungerminated. The analysis results of high performance anion exchange chromatography with PAD detector (HPAEC-PAD) showed that germination changed the monosaccharide composition ratio of C. esculentus L. polysaccharide, which produced more monosaccharides (rhamnoose, Rham) with stronger antioxidant activity. Correlation analysis showed that the strong antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of germinated C. esculentus L. polysaccharide were significantly correlated with high polysaccharides content (P<0.01, r=0.985~0.997). Mentioned above, our study would provide important scientific reference for the further processing and the development of functional products of C. esculentus L.
Screening of Uric Acid-lowering Food and Medicinal Materials Based on Inhibiting Xanthine Oxidase Activity and Zebrafish Hyperuricemia Model
ZHANG Yingyu, PUBU Duoji, LU Cong, WANG Fengzhong
2021, 42(12): 334-339. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080220
Abstract(669) HTML (159) PDF(39)
Through the combination of in vitro (the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity) and in vivo (a zebrafish hyperuricemia model) methods, the uric acid-lowering activity of 15 edible herbs crude ethanol extracts was screened. In vitro experiment set up blank group, enzyme reaction group, inhibitor group and control group. The absorbance at 295 nm with microplate reader was measured. In vivo experiment 5 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae with normal development were randomly divided into blank group, model group (200 μmol/L PO+10 μmol/L XSS), edible herbs group (200 μmol/L PO+10 μmol/L XSS+extracts of different concentrations) and positive control group (200 μmol/L PO+10 μmol/L XSS+APL 2 mmol/L). All groups were cultivated at 28.5 ℃ for 24 h to determine the uric acid contents and further verify the uric acid-lowering activity. In vitro experiment showed that 15 ethanol extracts were inhibitory, with 8 having greater than 50% inhibitory rate at 400 μm/mL. The most active one was the ethanol extracts of the Rhodiola crenulate, which was followed closely by Lagotis brevituba, Poeania suffruticosa, Patrinia scabiosaefolia, Phellodendron chinense, Scindapsus aureus, Cassia tora and Coreopsis tinctorial. In vivo experiment showed that the uric acid level of all these eight extract groups were significantly lower than the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
The Modulated Role of TG-DHA Liposome on the Appetite of High Fat Diet-fed Mice
YANG Ruili, LIU Fang, ZHANG Hui, ZHOU Sainan, WANG Zhiguang, LU Na, TANG Qingjuan
2021, 42(12): 340-346. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020080274
Abstract(231) HTML (77) PDF(16)
Objective: To prepare TG-DHA liposome and investigate its effect on the expression of appetite regulating factors in high fat diet-fed mice. Methods: Firstly, TG-DHA liposomes were prepared by thin film dispersion method. Subsequently, C57BL/6J mice were housed and randomly divided into control group (C), model group (M), and TG-DHA liposome group (L-DHA). The gavage dose was 1000 mg/kg.bw. After 8 weeks gavage, Serum leptin, insulin and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were detected using ELISA; The mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) 、α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) 、cholecystokinin (CCK)、peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined using RT-PCR method. Results: The encapsulation efficiency of TG-DHA liposomes was 85.83%. Compared with the M group, the L-DHA group significantly improved the content of serum leptin (23.03%) and POMC (1.30) (P<0.01), and the mRNA expression levels of α-MSH (1.60)、PYY (1.32) and GLP-1 (78.10%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: TG-DHA liposome could improve the abnormal expression of appetite regulating factors such as serum appetite hormones, hypothalamic neuropeptides and brain-gut peptides, inhibit the appetite of high-fat diet mice, thereby improving obesity induced by high-fat diet.
Molecular Composition, Digestion and Absorption Characteristics of Astaxanthin in Antarctic Krill Oil
ZHOU Qingxin, HUANG Ziqian, GU Caixia, ZHANG Zhixuan, LI Lu, ZHOU Jinruo, LI Yuhuan
2021, 42(12): 347-353. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090089
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The extraction of Antarctic krill oil enrich astaxanthins using n-hexane-ethanol solvent systems was studied, taking the total astaxanthin content, phospholipid content and yield of Antarctic krill oil as the investigation indexes. Meanwhile, the molecular species composition of astaxanthins in Antarctic krill oil which extracted under the optimized conditions were characterized and analyzed. Then the digestion process and bioaccessibility of astaxanthins in Antarctic krill oil were investigated by single-dose oral gavage with different doses of Antarctic krill oil, using ICR mice as model animals. Furthermore, the bioacceptability of astaxanthin from Antarctic krill oil and Haematococcus pluvialis were compared. The results showed that the 60%(V/V) n-hexane-ethanol solution was selected as the best solvent to extract Antarctic krill oil enrich astaxanthins. The astaxanthins in krill oil were mainly present as fatty acid esters, the relative percentages of astaxanthin diesters, monoesters, and free astaxanthin were 73.5%, 24.8%, and 1.62%. The astaxanthin diesters were hydrolyzed to monoesters or free from in the gastrointestinal tract. After 24 hours of gavage, the bioaccessibility of astaxanthin in low, middle and high dose groups was not significant, and the bioaccessibility of astaxanthin in Antarctic krill oil was about 74%. In addition, the bioaccessibility of astaxanthin in Antarctic krill oil was about 1.25 times of that in Haematococcus pluvialis oil. These results could provide a scientific basis for the rational production and the evaluation of dietary nutritional of Antarctic krill oil.
Ameliorative Effect of Panax quinquefolius Polysaccharides on Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea Induced by Clindamycin Phosphate
REN Duoduo, SHAO Zijun, LIU Songxin, WANG Zeshuai, ZHAO Lijuan, XIA Yunshi, LI Shanshan, SUN Yinshi
2021, 42(12): 354-361. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020090144
Abstract(221) HTML (79) PDF(25)
Objective: To investigate the effects of Panax quinquefolius polysaccharides on intestinal side effects induced by antibiotics (clindamycin phosphate), including diarrhea, intestinal structural integrity, composition and diversity of gut microbiota. Methods: After water extraction, alcohol precipitation and deproteinization, the water-soluble Panax quinquefolius polysaccharide (WQP) was obtained from the root of Panax quinquefolius. The model of antibiotic-related side effects was established by intragastric administration of clindamycin phosphate, and then intervened with normal saline (natural recovery group, NR) or WQP group. Results: The results showed that WQP was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose. The yield, total sugar content, uronic acid content and protein content were 6.71%, 85.2%, 31.9% and 2.1%, respectively. The results of pharmacological experiments showed that WQP could relieve diarrhea symptoms, improve colonic edema, increase the length of intestinal villi and restore the diversity of gut microbiota. Compared with NR group, WQP decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in gut microbiota and increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in gut microbiota, while WQP decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Clostridium at genus level. Conclusion: WQP can improve the richness and diversity of gut microbiota by promoting the repair of intestinal structure in rats, and then alleviate the antibiotic-related side effects such as diarrhea and flora imbalance caused by clindamycin phosphate.
Advances in Extraction Methods and Physiological Activities of Antarctic Krill Oil
ZHOU Li, ZHANG Minghao, YAO Jiaxu, YANG Fu
2021, 42(12): 362-368. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060250
Abstract(329) HTML (143) PDF(51)
Antarctic krill are a group of perennial crustacean zooplankton that widespread in Antarctic Ocean, with a large amount of biological storage. Antarctic krill oil is rich in phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and has important physiological functions. This article summarizes the common extraction methods of Antarctic krill oil (solvent extraction, biological enzyme method, and critical fluid method) and physiological activities (reducing inflammation, protecting cardiovascular, protecting nerves and improving osteoporosis). In addition, the application potential of krill oil is discussed.
Research Rrogress of Dandelion and Its Formula Value and Product Development Trend
XIAO Falin, HUANG Shiyu, CHEN Lihua, SHI Tiannv, GAO Ling, GUAN Yongmei, JIAN Hui
2021, 42(12): 369-375. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060251
Abstract(354) HTML (124) PDF(52)
Dandelion is a dual-purpose substance for food and medicine which has the properties of medicine and edible value. It is suitable to be developed into medicine, food, health food and so on to promote the innovation and development of great-health industry. In this study, the compatibility of 126 prescriptions containing dandelion are analyzed and its dietary therapeutic values in ancient works and modern research are summarized. The safety and potential hazards of dandelion are also discussed, the development status and trend of dandelion products through database retrieval, the database includes National Medical Products Administration, National Intellectual Property Administration, PRC and State Administration for Market Regulation are analyzed. A review of dandelion’s compatibility, therapeutic value, safety and market products provide a reference for the development and utilization of dandelion, as an edible and medicinal resource.
A Systematic Review for the Characteristic Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce
ZHAO Juyang, YUAN Huiping
2021, 42(12): 376-382. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060349
Abstract(292) HTML (91) PDF(31)
The flavor of soy sauce is one of the key factor to determine its quality, but the formation mechanism of flavor is complex. The flavor is difficult to control. The formation mechanism of soy sauce flavor from different sources are analyzed, such as protein degradation, starch saccharification, fat hydrolysis and microbial species metabolism. The separation and identification techniques for volatile and non-volatile flavor substances in soy sauce are summarized, such as solvent direct extraction, purge and trap, solid-phase microextraction, electronic nose and electronic tongue. The theoretical basis and guidance for soy sauce processing technology and detection of volatile and non-volatile flavor compounds are provided.
Research Progress on Application of New Labeling Materials Based Immunoassay on the Detection of Mycotoxin
HU Gaoshuang, WU Tianqi, SU Dan, GAO Juanjuan, CHEN Yongyuan, HAN Xue, HAO Jianxiong, LI Na, GUO Feng, GAO Shan
2021, 42(12): 398-404. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070071
Abstract(182) HTML (84) PDF(19)
In recent years, mycotoxin contamination in food has become a hot and difficult issue in the field of food safety. Immunoassay has the advantages of short detection time, simple operation steps, low cost and environmental friendliness, which is suitable for food safety detection. The research of new labeling materials-based immunoassay techniques in rapid detection of mycotoxin in cereal products is reviewed in this paper, including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immunochromatography, electrochemical immunosensor, immunochips, cytometric bead array based on immunoassay and time resolved fluorescence immunoassay. The advantages and disadvantages of the above immunoassay are systematically analyzed, which provides references for the application and development of immunoassay techniques in the detection of mycotoxins, and also provides new ideas for ensuring safety of grain products.
Research Progress on the Safety Risk of Ochratoxin A in Tea
DENG Xiujuan, TU Qing, WU Xianxue, HUANG Ganghua, SHI Hongyuan, LI Yali, ZHOU Hongjie
2021, 42(12): 405-412. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070080
Abstract(287) HTML (126) PDF(28)
Tea is one of the most consumed drinks in the world. Its drinking safety is particularly important for consumer's health and the development of tea industry. In recent years, the contamination of tea with mycotoxin has aroused widespread concern in the society, how to deal with this problem scientifically and objectively is crucial. Ochratoxin A(OTA) is a highly harmful fungal toxin. It’s produced by a wide variety of fungus, soluble in water and not easy to degrade, and has strong hepatorenal toxicity, teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive effects. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics, harm and toxicological mechanism, main toxogenic fungus and toxogenic conditions of OTA, possible OTA-producing microorganisms in tea as well as OTA detection methods and results are summarized. The potential risks of OTA in tea are analyzed and discussed, and suggestions are put forward to provide reference for the risk assessment, prevention and control of OTA contamination in tea.
Advances in Application of Fingerprint Technology in Food Analysis
ZHENG Zhenjia, ZHU Wenqing, LIANG Hao, ZHANG Li, ZHANG Peng, MA Yue
2021, 42(12): 413-421. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070109
Abstract(446) HTML (103) PDF(61)
Fingerprint technology is based on a certain characteristic of the sample. It uses modern analysis methods to obtain chromatogram, spectra and other spectral data that can represent the characteristics of the sample, so as to carry out component identification and quality control. It is a quantifiable method that is fast, sensitive, convenience and other advantages. It is a quantifiable method that has the advantages of rapid, sensitive and convenient. It is not only widely used in the traditional Chinese medicine industry, but also have huge application potential in food sources, quality testing and authenticity identification. The commonly used technical means of fingerprints include high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and other chromatographic methods, ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and other spectroscopy methods, biological fingerprints and nonlinear chemical fingerprints, etc. Analysis methods mainly include chemical pattern recognition and other similarity evaluation methods. This paper mainly introduces the common technical methods and analysis methods of fingerprints, and summarizes the application of chemical fingerprint, biological fingerprint and non-linear chemical fingerprint in many fields such as food origin, species identification, adulteration identification, identification of famous and excellent products, batch consistency evaluation and variety selection. At the same time, the future development of food fingerprints is prospected.
Advances in the Extraction and Emulsification System of Oil Bodies: A Review
LIU Jing, HU Jingwei, ZHOU Yibin
2021, 42(12): 422-429. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070118
Abstract(377) HTML (158) PDF(63)
The oil body is a special organelle for storing oil in plant tissues. Triglycerides form the hydrophobic core of the oil body, while phospholipid and oleosins form the monolayer membrane structure, giving the oil body good stability, which can resist drought, high temperature and other adverse external conditions and can keep the oil body stable in aqueous solution in vitro. In this paper, the composition and structure of vegetable oil body, the extraction methods and emulsification system of oil body including the composition, the stability of oil body emulsification system and its mechanism are reviewed, in order to provide reference for the technical improvement of effective demulsification during oil extraction by water (enzyme) method and the development and research of new oil-body products.
Characteristics and Application of Bifidobacterium longum
GUAN Jiaqi, QIU Ji, YUE Yingxue, SHI Jialu, MD Masumuzzaman, LENG Youbin, LI Chun, HUO Guicheng, LI Bailiang
2021, 42(12): 430-438. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020070121
Abstract(499) HTML (205) PDF(41)
Bifidobacterium longum is an important probiotic in human and animal intestines, which is related to many physiological and pathological phenomena of the body cloesly. Its prebiotic function in relieving metabolic syndrome, brain gut syndrome and immune related diseases has become a hot spot of experts in various fields. In order to deepen and improve the understanding of Bifidobacterium longum, this paper reviews the biological characteristics of subspecies identification and colonization of Bifidobacterium longum, the hot prebiotic function in relieving metabolic syndrome, brain gut syndrome and immune syndrome, as well as the research progress and hot application prospect at home and abroad.