2022 Vol. 43, No. 12

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Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee
Research Progress of Edible Oil Nutrition and Management Statue of Their Health Claims
CHEN Jingru, ZHAO Jinkai, WANG Chen, CHEN Xin, WANG Liming, YING Jian, MENG Qingjia
2022, 43(12): 1-9. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110368
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With the change of people’s consumption concept and the increase of edible oil types, more and more people pay attention to the nutritional value of edible oil. This article summarizes the research progress of nutritional components of edible oil (including fatty acid nutrients and micronutrients), investigates the current situation of management regulations of edible oil health claims in China, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Japan, and comprehensively analyzes the factors affecting edible oil health claims. It is suggested that China should strengthen the construction of food labeling standard system, based on the comprehensive relationship between food and health, and comprehensively consider the overall nutritional status of food, which is of great significance for consumers to reasonably choose edible oil and improve health awareness.
Detection of Total Arsenic and Inorganic Arsenic Content in Health Food Raw Materials from Different Habitats
LI Yaxian, TIAN Huaixiang, YU Haiyan, LU Zhi
2022, 43(12): 10-17. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120117
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To investigate the arsenic pollution in health food raw materials and to ensure the quality and safety of health food, the contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic in 14 kinds of health food raw materials from 16 habitats were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS), respectively. The relationship between arsenic concentration and signal intensity is linear with R2 higer than 0.9999 in range of 0~100 μg/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of detecting results of health food raw materials were from 0.00% to 2.52%, and the precision was satisfactory. The total arsenic content was between (0.0004~0.3900) mg/kg, which did not exceed the health food limit standard. The content of the inorganic arsenic was (0.0003~0.1962) mg/kg. Among them, total arsenic and inorganic arsenic content of Hebei honeysuckle was the highest, the contents of arsenic in ginseng from Jilin, jujube from Xinjiang, walnut from Yunnan, white peony root from Anhui, cornus officinalis from Shanxi and Hericium erinaceus from Fujian were low. The total arsenic contents of ginseng, jujube and walnut meat were the same and the lowest, 0.0004 mg/kg, and the inorganic arsenic contents were also the same, 0.0003 mg/kg. The data of arsenic residues in a variety of health food raw materials were given, which expanded the arsenic content database of health food raw materials and would provide an important reference for arsenic pollution risk assessment.
Comprehensive Risk Assessment of Food-related Products Based on Supervision and Sampling Inspection
WANG Yulong, ZHANG Xuena, SUN Qian, XIE Min, LUO Wenhua, CHEN Zhiliang
2022, 43(12): 18-26. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010082
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In order to predict and deeply excavate the food-related products risks through massive detective information, a total of 7704 batches of national supervision and sampling data on food-related products were collected from 2018 to 2020 to analyze the current situation and risk factors. Subsequently, a risk assessment model by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was constructed and further used to calculate comprehensive evaluation index. The results showed that the mean fraction defective of food-related products was 4.56%, which was all above the unqualified rate of food sampling inspection in the same year. Products with higher risks included 7 categories, such as melamine tableware, paper cups and detergent etc. Their unqualified rates were all above the average level. And lower unqualified rates (less than 1%) were found in other 10 kinds of products, including plastic cups, plastic cutting boards and stainless steel kitchen utensils etc. The rate of unqualified enterprises showed an increasing trend, while nonconforming products and problems were repeated. The evaluation system was composed of 5 first-level indicators and 7 second-level indicators by AHP. The weights of the first class indicators which would affect the safety of food from high to low were 0.354 for chemical substances migration, 0.331 for microbiological disqualification, 0.171 for excessive heavy metals, 0.100 for physical performance and 0.044 for hygienic property, respectively. Secondary indicators were types of food-related products, and higher risk were found in detergent and disinfector (0.252), food contact paper containers (0.189) and plastics (0.177), followed by bamboo and wood products (0.170) and food processing equipments (0.105), while glasswork (0.056) and ceramics (0.051) were relatively lower risk. The results also demonstrated that the comprehensive evaluation index was consistent with the trend of nonconforming rate, and would provide technical support for food-related products safety risk analysis and early warning.
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Future Food
Analysis of the Secondary Metabolites in Kadsura coccinea Fruit and Their Accumulation Difference in Peel, Pulp and Seed Organs
GAO Jianfei, ZHOU Wei, WEN Ximei, YANG Yan
2022, 43(12): 27-35. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100173
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In order to explore Kadsura coccinea fruit development and utilization, widely-targeted metabolomics was used to identify the compounds in different organs of K. coccinea fruit, according to their structural distribution and categories, the diversity and abundance of the secondary metabolites were analyzed. Results: A total of 307 secondary metabolites were identified in the fruit of K. coccinea, among which phenolic acids (38.8%) and flavonoids (27.7%) were the dominant. In particular, 272 were found in the peel, 286 in the pulp, 201 in the seed, and 180 in all three parts. The amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and terpenoidswas significantly lower in seed than in pulp and peel, resulting in a lower diversity of secondary metabolites. The abundance of secondary metabolites in the peel (81.62×107) was much higher than that in the pulp (25.61×107) and seed (24.38×107), mainly due to the high enrichment offlavonoids (quercetins, catechins and cyanidins) and the significant up-regulation of alkaloids. The metabolic components were mainly phenolic acids and flavonoids. The peel of K. coccinea was rich in flavonoids (quercetin, catechins and cyanidins, etc), and the seeds were rich in lignins. All three parts contained triterpenoids with novel structures, indicating that the fruit had significant utilization potential and research value.
Mechanism of Action of Hawthorn Leaves against Hyperlipidemia Based on Network Pharmacology and Preliminary Validation Study
LIU Xuegui, LI Zhiming, LIU Changfeng, ZHOU Jingyao, WANG Yaoyao, GAO Pinyi, LI Danqi
2022, 43(12): 36-45. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100176
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Objective: Network pharmacology was used to predict potential compounds, targets and pathways of action in hawthorn leaves for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia, and the network pharmacology predictions were validated in conjunction with target enzyme and cellular assays. The material basis and mechanism of action of hawthorn leaves against hyperlipidemia. Methods: The chemical components of hawthorn leaves were obtained through the traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology database analysis platform and literature mining, and the potential targets were obtained by using the relevant databases. GO and KEGG analysis were carried out to construct the “component-target-pathway” network. The effective components and potential targets predicted by network pharmacology were verified by ERK2 kinase, oil red O staining and triglyceride experiment. Results: After the network pharmacology screening, 96 active ingredients and 40 interacting target proteins were obtained from hawthorn leaves. The results of KEGG analysis indicated that the therapeutic effects of the active ingredient on hyperlipidaemia were mainly through the following signalling pathways: Metabolic pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, insulin resistance, thyroid hormone signaling pathway. According to the prediction results of network pharmacology, combined with the representative compounds of hawthorn leaves isolated by the research group, the ERK2 kinase activity of six compounds such as vitexin was tested. The results showed that the inhibition rate of vitexin on ERK2 kinase was the highest, reaching 84%. By constructing high-fat HepG2 cell model, oil red O staining and quantitative experiment were carried out, and TG content was measured. It was found that after vitexin intervention, the number of lipid droplets in cells gradually decreased with the increasing of vitexin concentration, and TG content decreased, indicating that vitexin could reduce lipid accumulation and TG content in cells. Further, the results of network pharmacology predicted the anti hyperlipidemia effect of vitexin in hawthorn leaves were verified. Conclusion: In this paper, network pharmacology was used to predict the material basis and mechanism of action of compounds in hawthorn leaves against hyperlipidemia. Target enzyme, oil red O staining and TG quantification experiments initially confirmed the network pharmacology predictions, while suggesting that vitexin would be promising as a potential therapeutic compound for reducing intracellular lipid content.
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Research and Investigation
Impact of Supplement of Lactobacillus casei K17 on Fillet Tastes of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides
WANG Jinsong, ZHANG Changzhuo, CHEN Yan, ZHU Zhuoying, FU Huiyu, CHEN Lanming
2022, 43(12): 46-53. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080225
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Impact of supplement ofLactobacillus casei K17 on fillet tastes of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were researched for improving its fillet tastes. The M. salmoides was given commercial feed supplemented with live L. casei K17 (1×108 CFU/g), live L. casei K17 protected by skim milk powder (10%), heat-killed dead L. casei K17, its fermentation supernatant, skim milk powder (10%), and saline (0.85% NaCl), designated as LB, MB, DB, FS, MG, and SG, respectively. At the end of the trial, the outline of the whole taste difference of each group was determined by using the electronic tongue. The contents of free amino acids and flavor nucleotides were analyzed. The results showed that the electronic tongue adopted discriminant factor analysis based on principal component analysis, the difference of six groups could be effectively distinguished, and the umami, bitter and sweet taste of each group could be effectively distinguished by using radar map. Sixteen free amino acids were detected from the fillet of six groups. Total umami amino acids and aspartic acid (Asp) in the MB group, the valine (Val), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), phenylalanine (Phe) and total bitter amino acids in the FS group, and the total essential amino acids in the MG group were significantly higher than those in the control SG group (P<0.05). Combined with equivalent umami concentrations (EUC), MB group had the most significant increase in EUC compared with the control group, and the order was MB>FS>DB>LB>MG>SG. Consistent with the predicted results of the electronic tongue, EUC was recommended to quantify the umami of fish fillet. These results showed the fillet taste compositions and contents of M. salmoides fed with different L. casei K17 diets were improved obviously compared with the control group, especially LB and MB, which could provide a useful theoretical reference for further development and utilization of M. salmoides.
Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Analysis of Daylily Polysaccharides
LIU Yizhu, LIU Peiye, ZHAO Yumei, CAO Jiankang
2022, 43(12): 54-61. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080280
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Daylily is a traditional and typical dry product in our country. In order to explore the functional components from daylily, daylily polysaccharides were extracted with water adjusted to pH1.8 using nitric acid. Proteins were removed by the Sevag method. The basic characteristics, physical and chemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activity of the daylily polysaccharides were analyzed. The results showed that the yield of daylily polysaccharides after protein removal was 0.72%, the polysaccharide content was 34.91%, and the galacturonic acid content was 26.42%. Daylily polysaccharide contains high-ester pectin, and the degree of methyl esterification was 96.13%±0.3%. The neutral sugar of daylily polysaccharide was mainly composed of galactose, glucose and xylose, and its molar ratio was 62.50:17.31:11.30. Microscopic observation revealed that the daylily polysaccharide had a flocculent structure, and the surface was uneven and discontinuous. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) diagram showed that the daylily polysaccharides contained more ester bonds. Analysis of the rheological properties showed that as the shear rate increased, the apparent viscosity of the daylily polysaccharide solution decreased rapidly and then maintained at a low level. At each concentration, its G' was greater than G''. The molecular weight of daylily polysaccharide peak 1 was relatively high, with Mw of 1310.32 kDa. Peak 2 molecular weight was relatively small, with Mw of 83.81 kDa. The rheological properties of the daylily polysaccharide solution showed that the apparent viscosity of the polysaccharide decreased rapidly as the shear rate increased, its G' was greater than G" at all concentrations. Results from antioxidant analysis showed that daylily polysaccharides possessed strong 2,2'-azinobi-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical (ABTS+·) scavenging ability and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) ability. This study could provide a profound understanding on the physical and chemical properties of daylily polysaccharides and provide a basis for the development and utilization of their biological activities.
Changes of Quality and Flavor Compounds in Alaska Pollock Fillet During Salting
JING Yuexin, ZHANG Qing, MA Changwei, ZHANG Jian, LI Zhenduo, LIU Xin, LIU Huihui, ZHAO Yunping, WANG Gongming, LIU Fang, QU Min
2022, 43(12): 62-69. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090002
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In order to explore the quality changes of Alaska pollock fillet during salting, the Alaska pollock fillet were selected as raw materials and the drying conditions of Alaska pollock fillet were as follows: The amount of salt added was 100% (w/w), salting time was 15 days, and salting temperature was 10 ℃. The effects of different salting time on the quality of Alaska pollock fillets were studied with TBA, nitrite, fatty acid, free amino acid, tissue structure and volatile flavor compounds as indicators. The results showed that the TBA value of Alaska pollock fillet increased from 0.14 mg/kg to 0.26 mg/kg, the final content of nitrite which showed a trend of first increased and then decreased was 2.91 mg/kg. The total amount of saturated fatty acids in Alaska pollock fillet was slightly increased, the contents of pentacenoic acid and oleic acid in monounsaturated fatty acids significantly increased (P<0.05), and the contents of DHA and EPA in polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased (P<0.05). The content of free amino acid showed a trend of first decreased and then increased. The macromolecular proteins which molecular weight was 100~245 kDa were gradually degraded, the content of actin which molecular weight was 48 kDa gradually increased and the proteins which molecular weight was less than 20 kDa were partially degraded. The cross section of muscle fibers of Alaska pollock fillet became irregular, muscle fibers contracted obviously, and the intercellular space first became larger and then smaller. The fishy components of Alaska pollock fillet decreased, and the contents of esters and alcohols increased. During the salting process of Alaska pollock fillets, the TBA value and nitrite of Alaska pollock fillet were within safe limits, the lipid oxidation was mainly polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation, some macromolecular proteins were gradually degraded, the total amount of free amino acids increased in the middle and later stages of salting, the muscle fiber shrinked, the fishy smell decreased, and the overall flavor of fish meat was improved.
Effects of Four Kinds of Antioxidants on the Oxidative Stability of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge Oil and Analysis of Its Fatty Acid Compositions
CHEN Jiangkui, LI Jing, YIN Chunyan, LIAN Qimeng, YE Jia
2022, 43(12): 70-76. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090033
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Taking cold-press Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil as material, the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability were studied by Schaal oven test according to peroxide value(POV), acid value(AV) and carbonyl value. The oxidation kinetic model were established with the POV determination, the effects of four antioxidants on the fatty acid compositions of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil at 180 ℃ were studied. The results showed that the antioxidant effects of rosemary extract(RE), ascorbal palmitate(AP) and tert butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) were in the order of TBHQ>RE>AP, and antioxidant effect of vitamin E(VE) was not significant. The fitted kinetic equation model showed that the oxidation of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil with blank and VE group accorded with the first-order kinetic reaction, and the addition of RE, AP and TBHQ accorded with the zero order kinetic reaction. According to the fitting equation, the shelf life of blank Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil was 177 d, and that of antioxidants VE, RE, AP and TBHQ were 178, 346, 341 and 425 d respectively. When Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil was treated at 180 ℃, RE, AP and TBHQ inhibited the increasing of low carbon chain fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids in the initial stage. However, the inhibitory effect disappeared after 30 hours, and there was no significant difference compared with the blank group. Unsaturated fatty acid, especially linoleic were enriched in Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil, it was easy to be oxidized. This study would provide certain data support for the storage and utilization of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge oil.
Functional Properties of Gluten from Different Wheat Cultivars
ZHANG Lingwen, LI Xinxin, WANG Xuefei, HU Xinyue, JI Hongfang, BI Jicai
2022, 43(12): 77-83. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090184
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The glutens obtained from ten different wheat cultivars were employed as materials, and the hydration properties (water and oil holding capacity), and surface properties (foaming ability and foaming stability, emulsifying capacity) of gluten were investigated. Subsequently, available sulfhydryl group, disulfide bond, and secondary structure of gluten were analyzed. The results indicated that the functional properties of gluten were different among cultivars. Both of the water-holding capacity and oil-holding capacity of gluten from high-strength wheat flour were significantly higher than those from low and medium-strength wheat flour (P<0.05). Gluten from Xinmai26 and Shiluan02-1 displayed the highest water holding capacity (356.58%) and oil holding capacity (392.5%), respectively. Gluten from low-strength wheat flour had higher foaming ability and surface hydrophobicity. YubaoNo.1 gluten had the highest foaming property with the value of 183.33%, and Zhengmai103 gluten had the strongest surface hydrophobicity (P<0.05). The contents of free sulfhydryl group and disulfide bond in gluten were also different among cultivars. The content of disulfide bond from high-strength wheat was higher while low-strength wheat had more free sulfhydryl group. Additionally, gluten from high-strength wheat contained the highest ratio of α-helix, while β-sheet and random coil occupied larger in gluten from low-strength wheat. These data would provide scientific basis for the deep-processing and its application in specific fields of gluten protein.
Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Properties, Changes in Volatile Substances and Antioxidant Capacity of Black Jujube Vinegar Egg Liquid
KONG Weihao, GAO Lin, YAN Jingyan, ZHANG Rentang
2022, 43(12): 84-91. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090190
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The differences in composition and function between black jujube vinegar egg liquid and white vinegar egg liquid were analyzed to develop the black jujube vinegar egg liquid with both nutritional and functional properties. The changes of polyphenols, phosphorus, amino acids and volatile components during the soaking process were tracked. The antioxidant capacity of the vinegar egg liquid and the different volatile components of the black jujube vinegar egg liquid and white vinegar egg liquid were investigated. The results indicated that the most suitable soaking method for black jujube vinegar egg liquid was secondary soaking. The concentration of polyphenols in black jujube vinegar egg liquid reached the peak at 40 h, which was 2.38 times as high as that before soaking. The concentration of phosphorus showed an overall increasing trend. Compared with soaked for 24 h, the total amount of amino acids in black jujube vinegar egg liquid soaked for 64 h were increased by 42.62%. The volatile components of the two types of vinegar egg liquid differed greatly during the soaking process, and the types of volatile components detected in black jujube vinegar egg liquid were about twice as many as that of white vinegar egg liquid. There were more ketones and aromatic hydrocarbon substances such as geranyl acetone in black jujube vinegar egg liquid, and its aroma was fuller. The radical scavenging rate of 1,1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenylhydrazine (DPPH), 2,2-azido-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging rate, and the total reducing power (FRAP) results showed that the IC50 values of black jujube vinegar egg liquid were lower than those of white vinegar egg liquid, which were 0.19, 0.31 and 0.66 mg/mL respectively, indicating that it had better antioxidant capacity. The results demonstrated that black jujube vinegar egg liquid was better than ordinary vinegar egg liquid in terms of nutrient composition and antioxidant capacity, which fully proved the superiority and feasibility of black jujube vinegar egg liquid.
Inhibition Effect and Molecular Mechanism of Hypericin on Xanthine Oxidase
WANG Min, XU Guohui, ZHAO Yiling, WANG Gangqiang, HUANG Ganhui
2022, 43(12): 92-99. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090207
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Dietary flavonoid has been reported to possess a high potential for inhibition xanthine oxidase (XOD). Herein, hypericin was investigated for its inhibition effect and interaction mechanism on XOD by enzyme inhibition kinetics, multi-spectroscopy and molecular docking. Enzyme kinetics analysis indicated that hypericin reversibly inhibited XOD in a mix-competitive manner with IC50 value of (162.059±2.291) μmol/L and inhibition constant (Ki) value of (18.079±0.154) μmol/L. Multi-spectroscopy displayed that hypericin bound to XOD with high affinity, and the interaction was predominately driven by hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces. Circular dichroism (CD) demonstrated that hypericin induced the conformational change of XOD with increased α-helix and Random coil while reduced β-sheet and β-turn. Molecular docking suggested that hypericin interacted with residues located within the active pocket of XOD (e.g. GLN767, GLY797 and PHE798). These results would provide experimental and theoretical basis for hypericin in development of functional food or drug.
Formation of DDMP, HMF and Furfural in Caramelization and Maillard Reaction
WANG Dan, KUANG Danni, LIU Ruoyang, ZHANG Zhijun, HOU Tianyu, LI He
2022, 43(12): 100-107. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090221
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Maillard reaction (MR) is widely found in food heat processing, can not only give food color and flavor, but also produce harmful or odorous substances. 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are important products of MR. In this paper, three kinds of caramelization and three kinds of Maillard reaction models were established to study the formation of DDMP, HMF and furfural. Results indicated that HMF and furfural were easily generated in fructose and xylose caramelization models, respectively. In Maillard reaction model, the participation of lysine inhibited the production of HMF and furfural, and promoted the production of DDMP. Combined with the characterization of the intermediate product and the final product, the structural difference of monosaccharides was the main factor affecting the production of the three compounds. Lysine competitively inhibited the caramelization pathway of monosaccharide degradation, thereby inhibiting the production of HMF and furfural. The present paper would provide guidance on the production, control and oriented synthesis of DDMP, HMF and furfural in food thermal processing industry.
Optimization of Formula of Bovine Colostrum Immunoglobulin Thermal Protective Agent by Response Surface Methodology
YANG Hong, LIU Aiguo, LIU Lizeng, QIANG Feng, YANG Yi
2022, 43(12): 108-116. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090302
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In order to screen an optimal thermal protective agent for immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum, the IgG was extracted from bovine colostrum. Based on single factor experiments, the response value was the retention rate of IgG activity, and the response factors were glycine, maltitol and inulin. Box–Behnken experimental design on three levels and three variables was used for optimization of IgG thermal protectant. The structure of IgG was characterized by Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy and endogenous fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the best formula of IgG thermal protection agent was: Glycine 0.48%, inulin 14.98%, and maltitol 12.50%. Under these conditions, the IgG activity retention rate at 75 ℃ for 5 min was 36.59%, indicating that the response surface model had high accuracy and the optimized thermal protectant formula had practical application significance. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectrum and endogenous fluorescence spectrum analysis showed that compared with bovine colostrum IgG without compound heat protectant, the β-fold content decreased significantly (P<0.05), the irregular curl content decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the secondary conformation showed a more orderly state. The fluorescence intensity decreased, and IgG molecules piled up more tightly. The results showed that the structural stability of IgG in bovine colostrum was improved after adding compound heat protection agent. This research explored a new type of bovine colostrum IgG heat protectant formula, which would provide a reference for the further development and utilization of f functional foods from bovine colostrums.
Effects of Cold Plasma Treatment on Production and Contents of Bioactive Substances in Broccoli Sprouts
GAO Shiwei, ZHU Yumeng, WANG Qilei, CAO Qian, WANG Chengjian, LÜ Xingang
2022, 43(12): 117-123. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090309
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In order to achieve the enrichment of sulforaphane, polyphenols, flavonoids and other bioactive substances in broccoli sprouts so as to reduce production costs, this study used plasma treatment induction method to treat broccoli sprouts. The plasma treatment conditions and its effects on the sprouts of different varieties of broccoli were studied. The results showed that the plasma treatment voltage and time had significant effects(P<0.05) on the germination state and the contents of bioactive compounds in broccoli sprouts. Under the conditions of voltage 30 kV and treatment time of 2 min, the germination rate, bud length and bud weight of broccoli sprouts after 5 days germination were significantly increased compared with the control. In addition, the sulforaphane content reached 3.24 mg/g DW, which was 6.75 times higher than that of untreated samples. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the sulforaphane, total polyphenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity among different broccoli sprouts. MNL had the highest sulforaphane and glucosinolates content, while MTL and LY had the highest polyphenols and flavonoids content. After plasma treatment, WX, MNL, LY and LJ´s polyphenols and flavonoids content and antioxidation activity were all improved compared with control. In short, plasma treatment could be an effective way to enrich sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts, which would significantly improve the efficacy of sprouts and reduce the cost of sulforaphane acquisition.
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Bioengineering
Screening, Compounding and Mixed Fermentation Process Optimization of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Food Spoilage Fungi
DU Yingrui, LI Shichang, FENG Tengzhu, ZHANG Yajuan, CHEN Yan, GONG Minggui
2022, 43(12): 124-131. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090312
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Chemical preservatives are used to control spoilage microorganisms in food. Preservative residues have certain potential hazards to the human body. In this paper, lactic acid bacteria resistant to food spoilage fungi were screened and compounded and mixed fermentation were carried out to improve the antifungal activity of the fermentation broth. The 24-well double-layer agar method and the graded inhibitory concentration method were used to screen the more antifungal strains from multiple strains of lactic acid bacteria and Propionibacterium and determine the optimal combination of mixed bacteria. Through the Plackett-Burman test and the steepest climbing test, the fermentation process was optimized, and the antifungal activity of the fermentation supernatant was measured with a 96-well plate microplate reader method. The results showed that the optimal combination of mixed bacteria was Lactobacillus plantarum L9 and Propionibacterium frederi D5. The optimized formula of fermentation medium: Glucose 55.0 g/L, calcium carbonate 6.7 g/L, yeast extract 14.8 g/L, hydrogen phosphate dipotassium 0.25 g/L, manganese sulfate 0.1 g/L, sodium acetate 5.0 g/L, ammonium citrate 2.0 g/L, the inoculation ratio was 5:1 (D5:L9), and the fermentation temperature was 37 °C. The optimized fermentation medium of the selected L9 and D5 was verified by mixed fermentation, and the antifungal activity of the fermentation broth could be as high as 47.07AU.
Influence of Heat Pre-treatment and Oxidative Pre-treatment on the Spray Dried Powder of Lactobacillus rhamnosus
ZHANG Chenchen, GUI Ya, HAN Yuemei, WA Yunchao, YIN Boxing, GU Ruixia
2022, 43(12): 132-137. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090329
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Spray drying is a commonly used method in the food industry since it is cost-effective and highly flexible, but spray drying typically results in lower survival rate of starter cultures than freeze-drying. In this study, the influence of heat pre-treatment (46 ℃, 1 h) and oxidative pre-treatment (0.5 mmol/L H2O2, 1 h) on the spray dried powder of Lactobacillus rhamnosus hsryfm 1301 was investigated. The results showed that heat pre-treatment and oxidative pre-treatment could improve the survival rate. The survival rate of the untreated group was only 29%, while the survival rates of heat pre-treated and oxidative pre-treated cells were 98% and 76%, which increased by 3.38 and 2.62 folds, respectively. At the same time, the acid-resistant of the untreated bacterial powder was 0.8%, while the acid-resistant survival rates of heat pre-treated and oxidative pre-treated bacterial powder were 76% and 72%, which increased by 95.0 and 92.5 times, respectively. Moreover, the heat pre-treated and oxidative pre-treated bacterial powder had good storage ability in the environment of −20 ℃. The survival rate of heat pre-treated bacterial powder remained greater than 80% after stored at −20 ℃ for 4 months, and that of oxidative pre-treated bacterial powder was greater than 40%. It was suggested that the strengthened heat stress and oxidative stress tolerance of L. rhamnosus hsryfm 1301 by heat pre-treatment and oxidative pre-treatment were helpful to survive spray drying.
Optimization of the Technological Conditions for Glycolic Acid Production by Gluconobacter frateurii Using Response Surface Methodology
CAI Shuai, GUO Qiushuang, LIU Yan, SUN Yang, LI Hua, LIU Yupeng
2022, 43(12): 138-145. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090342
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The response surface methodology was employed to optimize the process conditions of Gluconobacter frateurii for producing glycolic acid. First, single factor test and Plackett-Burman test design were used to screen out the three main factors affecting the production of glycolic acid: Sorbitol concentration, yeast powder concentration, and ethylene glycol concentration. On this basis, the steepest climbing path method was used to approach the maximum response value range, and the response surface methodology was used to determine the interaction and optimal conditions between these main factors. The results showed that the optimization concentration were: Sorbitol 40.30 g/L, yeast powder 36.90 g/L, CaCO3 2.50 g/L, ethylene glycol 28.14 g/L, culture temperature 30 °C, pH7, inoculum size 10% (v/v), rotating speed 200 r/min, fermentation period 48 h. Under the optimized condition, the titer of glycolic acid reached 21.04 g/L. After three parallel experiments, the actual average titer was close to the predicted titer. The conversion rate of glycolic acid was increased by 28.25%, reaching 74.77%, and the productivity was 10.52 g/(L·d).
Optimization of Fermentation Conditions of Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis by Response Surface Methodology
LI Guangyue, LI Xueling, QI Jiaojiao, ZHU Jianfeng, LAI Meilian, HU Wenfeng
2022, 43(12): 146-154. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100025
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In order to improve the surfactin production capacity of Bacillus subtilis FHYB201030, taking Bacillus subtilis FHYB201030 as the experimental strain, and CPC-BTB (cetylpyridyl chloride-bromothymol blue) value was used as the evaluation index. Single factor tests, Plackett-Burman test, steepest climbing test and response surface test were used to optimize the optimal fermentation conditions for surfactin production. Plackett-Burman test showed that temperature, lactose and glutamic acid (Glu) had significant effects on surfactin yield. The steepest climbing design and the Box-Behnken central combination design three-factor three-level test were used to calculate the culture medium composition with the highest surfactin yield: 25 g/L of lactose, 10 g/L of casein, 3 g/L of beef extract, 10 g/L of peptone, 5 g/L of NaCl, 0.5 mmol/L of Mn2+, 2.5 g/L of Glu. The optimum cultivation conditions were temperature of 40 ℃, rotation speed of 200 r/min, filling volume of 30%. Under the fermentation condition, the amount of surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis FHYB201030 was 0.48 mg/mL, which was 34.56% higher than the 0.35 mg/mL before optimization. This result would lay a good foundation for improving the production level of surfactin.
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Processing Technology
Formula Optimization and Antioxidant Activity of High-added Tartary Buckwheat Noodles
KONG Weifeng, LI Xiuhua, SHAO Lijun, JIANG Yiting, JU Feilong, LIANG Jin, SUN Yue, CHEN Hong, LI Xueling
2022, 43(12): 155-162. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070292
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To optimize the formula of high addition tartary buckwheat noodles and study its antioxidant activity, single factor experiments and response surface method were used to determine the optimal formula of high-added tartary buckwheat noodles. Secondly, the thermal mechanical properties of dough and the cooking characteristics of noodle and its antioxidant activity were determined. The results showed that the best formula of high addition tartary buckwheat noodles were as follows: 62% tartary buckwheat, 38% flour, 0.4% sucrose ester, 0.2% edible alkali, 0.4% konjac gum and 2% salt. The dough cooking stability (C4/C3) of this formula was better than that of the pure wheat noodles and the comprehensive score of the high addition tartary buckwheat noodles prepared with this formula was the highest. The total phenol content and in vitro antioxidant activity results showed that the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the improved group were significantly higher than the pure wheat noodles (P<0.05), and the total phenolic content of the improved group was 9.11 mg GAE/g, the scavenging rate of DPPH· and ABTS+· was respectively 70.55% and 87.73%. While the total phenolic content, the scavenging rate of DPPH· and ABTS+· were 1.11 mg GAE/g, 36.70% and 9.10%, respectively. According to the results of cooking characteristics, the cooking loss rate, break rate and noodle soup turbidity of Tartary buckwheat noodles without improved agents were significantly greater than that of pure wheat noodles (P<0.05), while the cooking loss rate and break rate of the improved group were not significantly different from pure wheat noodles, but the turbidity of the improved noodle soup was significant. Therefore, the optimized high content tartary buckwheat flour mixture had the higher antioxidant activity and the noodle processing suitability.
Analysis of Ultrasonic-Microwave Synergistic Enzyme Extraction of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Millet Bran and Its Antioxidant Activity
YAN Feixiang, ZHU Libin, ZHU Dan, MIAO Xinyue, NIU Guangcai, WEI Wenyi
2022, 43(12): 163-172. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080297
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Ultrasonic­-microwave synergistic enzyme method was used to study the effects of liquid-material ratio, synergistic time, extraction temperature and compound enzyme addition on the yield of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from millet bran. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process, and the antioxidant activity of soluble dietary fiber from millet bran were analyzed. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions of SDF from millet bran were as follows: The liquid-material ratio was 31:1 mL/g, the synergistic time was 21 min, the extraction temperature was 56 ℃, and the compound enzyme addition was 1.4%. Under these conditions, the yield of the soluble dietary fiber was 6.35% and its purity was 91.27%. The antioxidant activity showed that when the sample concentration was 14 mg/mL, the SDF reducing power of millet bran was 1.219, and its IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging rate, ABTS+ radical scavenging rate and hydroxyl radical scavenging rate were 2.45, 26.15 and 5.98 mg/mL respectively. The results indicated that the SDF from millet bran had good antioxidant activity.
Key Technology of Compound Functional Starter of Low-salt Curing Cowpea
WANG Ying, ZHANG Hui, FAN Linlin, SHI Yaping, FU Qing, WANG Fan, LIU Xiaoli
2022, 43(12): 173-180. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080365
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To prepare the compound functional starter of low-salt curing cowpea, the growth compatibilitys among Lactobacillus plantarum SD-7 strain, Lactobacillus plantarum FM-LP-9 and Lactobacillus alimentarius FM-MM4 were analyzed. At the same time, the effects of co-culture on function of the three strains and the effects of compound inoculated fermented on the quality of cowpea were also studied. The results showed that the three strains of compound functional starter had excellent biocompatibility, and the cell density was increased by 0.49~6.32 times. In the co-culture system, when the inoculation ratio of the three strains was 1:1:1, the functional characteristics of the three strains were the best. The nitrite degradation rate of the composite system was 96.15%, which was 8.59% higher than that of Lactobacillus plantarum SD-7 alone, the DPPH radical scavenging rate, the ABTS radical scavenging rate and the reducing power of the composite system were 51.23%, 64.52%, and 175.23 μmol·L−1(L-cysteine), which were increased by 15.82%, 14.58% and 20.66%, respectively. The bacteriostatic ability of the composite system was also significantly higher than that of Lactobacillus alimentarius FM-MM4 alone (P<0.05). Compared with natural fermentation, inoculation fermentation was beneficial to improve the quality of low-salt curing cowpea.
Optimization of Preparation of Flavoring Syrup by Impregnating Jasmine Flower with Yellow Multicrystal Rock Sugar at Low-temperature
WEI Tiantian, WEI Bo, WANG Cheng, LI Kai, XIE Caifeng, HANG Fangxue
2022, 43(12): 181-187. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090008
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To clarify the influence of yellow multicrystal rock sugar on the yield of jasmine flavor syrup, the jasmine flowers from Hengxian County, Guangxi Province were taken as raw materials, jasmine flavor syrup by impregnating jasmine flowers with yellow multicrystal rock sugar was prepared at low temperature in this paper. Taking the yield of jasmine flavor syrup as an indicator, on the basis of single-factor experiments, response surface analysis (RSM) was used to determine the optimal preparation process of flavor syrup. And the quality of the obtained jasmine flavor syrup was analyzed. Results showed that, the optimal conditions were: Impregnation time was 130.0 h, the mass ratio of flowers to sugar was 1:1.2 g/g, and the size of yellow multicrystal rock sugar was 0.780 mm through 21 mesh sieve. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of jasmine flavor syrup was 39.82%. RSM predicted that the order of the influence of various factors on the yield of jasmine flavor syrup as follows: Impregnation time > the mesh of yellow multicrystal rock sugar > the mass ratio of flower sugar. Through the experiment, the jasmine flavor syrup with high soluble solid content, moderate acidity, low water content, bright color, containing jasmine's natural flavor, color and some thermal nutrients, high flavor peak and pure syrup taste was obtained, which met the sensory requirements of concentrated liquid (juice and slurry) for national food industry.
Study on Aqueous Two-phase Extraction Process of Volatile Oil from Cinnamon and Its Flavor Composition
ZHANG Jia, TIAN Xue, JIA Yongxiu, ZHAN Zhijing, SUI Wenjie, ZHANG Min, LIU Rui, WU Tao
2022, 43(12): 188-196. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090009
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Objective: This study aimed to optimize the extraction process of essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl. and reveal its effect on flavor compounds. Methods: The aqueous two-phase extraction of essential oil was optimized by orthogonal design, and the yield of the essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia Presl. was employed as the index to evaluate the outcome. The flavor compounds of cinnamon volatile oil were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with principal component analysis. Results: The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: The mass fraction of ethanol 25%, the mass fraction of sodium dihydrogen phosphate 34%, the solid-liquid ratio 1:15 g/mL, the extraction time 60 min, and the temperature of extraction 35 ℃. Under these conditions, the yields of cinnamon volatile oil and cinnamaldehyde were 2.82% and 0.037%, which were 1.07 times and 1.31 times higher than those of the conventional steam distillation method. Furthermore, a total of 14 and 15 chemical compounds were identified in the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia Presl. by two-phase extraction and steam distillation method, respectively. The results demonstrated that most of these compounds were terpenes and aldehydes. Compared with the conventional steam distillation method, the main components of the volatile oil prepared by aqueous two-phase extraction were distinct, and the latter contained more terpene components such as α-pinene (59.93%), cadina-1(10),4-diene (10.20%), α-muurolene (7.35%), cycloalfalfa (2.44%) and yilanene (1.50%). Conclusion: The aqueous two-phase extraction has several advantages of mild conditions, high yield and easy recovery of solvent for the extraction of cinnamon volatile oil. It can be used as an effective method for the extraction and separation of volatile oil from spices.
Optimization of Ultrasonic Combined with Enzymatic Extraction Process of Total Alkaloids from Artemisia argyi Leaves and Its Antibacterial Activity
CHEN Yang, LIAO Ziwei, TAO Juanjuan, JIANG Dan, SUN Daihua, CHEN Zhiyuan
2022, 43(12): 197-205. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090016
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The yield of total alkaloids from Artemisia argyi leaves was used as the index, and the optimal range conditions of solid-liquid ratio, compound enzyme addition amount, enzymolysis time, enzymolysis pH, ultrasonic time, ultrasonic power, ethanol concentration and ultrasonic temperature were obtained through single factor experiments. The Plackett-Burman method was employed to screen out the factors that had significant effects on the yield of total alkaloids from Artemisia argyi leaves. The Box-Behnken method was used to optimize the extraction process to obtain the optimun extraction conditions. Finally, the inhibitory effect and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the total alkaloid extract of Artemisia argyi leaves against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The results showed that the important factors affecting the yield of total alkaloids from Artemisia argyi leaves were ultrasonic time, compound enzyme addition amount and enzymolysis time. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: Ultrasonic time 40 min, compound enzyme addition 1.60%, enzymolysis time 1.5 h, solid-liquid ratio 1:25 g/mL, enzymolysis pH6.0, ultrasonic power 160 W, ethanol concentration 80%, ultrasonic temperature 60 ℃. Under the optimized conditions, the highest yield of total alkaloids was 0.720±0.05 mg/g. The total alkaloids from Artemisia argyi leaves had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were 3.2 and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. The actual value of the extraction process and the predicted value had a high degree of fit, which was reliable for prediction of the extraction of the total alkaloids from Artemisia argyi leaves, and the obtained total alkaloids from Artemisia argyi leaves had a certain antibacterial activity.
Optimization of Extraction Process and Properties of Protein from Porphyra haitanensis
XU Haiju, FENG Shangkun, CHEN Zhengdong, BAO Ruohan
2022, 43(12): 206-214. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090055
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The protein extraction rate from Porphyra haitanensis was investigated as index to carry out high-value processing and utilization of Porphyra haitanensis. The supersonic wave extraction techniques of protein from Porphyra haitanensis were studied by single factor experiments and orthogonal method. Extraction solvent, ultrasonic time and wave power, solid-liquid ratio and pH were investigated, and the Porphyra haitanensis protein was analyzed for its spectral properties such as equielectric point, emulsification, foaming, and antioxidant activities. The optimum extraction conditions of Porphyra haitanensis protein were as follows: Ultrasonic wave power 1350 W, working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the extraction ratio of Porphyra haitanensis protein was 60.98%±1.01%. The results showed that the isoelectric point (pI) of Porphyra haitanensis protein was 4.5. At the isoelectric point, Porphyra haitanensis protein had better foam stability, reaching 80.84%±2.95%. Porphyra haitanensis protein extract exhibited an excellent antioxidant ability within 5~50 mg/mL. When the concentration was 50 mg/mL, the total antioxidant capacity was 2.89±0.09 U/mL and the scavenging capacity of ABTS+ radical was equivalent to 0.83±0.08 mmol/L Trolox, and the scavenging capacity of DPPH radical was 68.04%±0.73% at 10 mg/mL. This study can provide theoretical basis and technical support for the exploitation and utilization of Porphyra haitanensis resources.
Optimization of Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids from Passiflora edulis peel by Ultrasonic Assisted with Complex Enzyme and Its Antioxidant Activity
ZHANG Xiaomei, WANG Cong, JIN Xiaolin, HOU Yini, ZHENG Liping
2022, 43(12): 215-222. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090175
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The total flavonoids form Passiflora edulis peel were extracted by compound enzyme assisted ultrasonic method. Taking the yield of flavonoids as the index, the effects of the amount of compound enzyme, enzymatic hydrolysis time, liquid-solid ratio and ultrasonic time on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis peel were analyzed by single factor tests. The main influencing factors and optimal combination of flavonoids extraction were further analyzed by response surface test (Box-Behnken), and the scavenging rate and reducing power of DPPH free radical and hydroxyl free radical were detected in vitro. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions for ultrasonic extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis peel assisted by composite enzyme were as follows: The ratio of cellulase to pectinase was 2:1, the dosage of composite enzyme was 4.8%, the enzymolysis time was 1 h, the ethanol concentration was 60%, the liquid-material radio was 30:1 mL/g, and the ultrasonic time was 41 min. Under the optimized conditions, the total flavonoids yield was (2.20%±0.05%), which was similar to the predicted yield 2.24% (<1%) of the regression model. The results of antioxidant activity showed that the scavenging rates of DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical were 90.8% and 84.1% when the concentration of flavonoids from Passiflora edulis peel reached 0.44 mg/mL and 44 µg/mL respectively. The extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis peel by complex enzyme assisted ultrasound could provide a way for the resource utilization of thyme peel. Based on the above research results, the total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis peel had good antioxidant activity and were an ideal natural antioxidant.
Optimization of Extraction Process for Total Flavonoids from Abelmoschus manihot and Its Inhibitory Effect on Xanthine Oxidase
WANG Min, XU Guohui, ZHAO Yiling, WANG Gangqiang, ZHU Xiangyue, HUANG Ganhui
2022, 43(12): 223-230. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090191
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Total flavonoids from Abelmoschus corolla were extracted by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-assisted ultrasonic wave, and its inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XOD) was studied, so as to achieve the efficient utilization of the resources of Abelmoschus manihot. Taking the content of total flavonoids as the index, the solid/liquid ratio, ultrasonic power and concentration of SDS were determined by single factor experiment. The extraction process of total flavonoids was optimized by combining Box-Behnken center and response surface analysis, and the effect of the extract on inhibiting XOD was determined. The results showed that the optimal extraction method was as follows: The solid/liquid ratio was 1:48 g/mL, the ultrasonic power was 320 W, the concentration of SDS was 0.05 g/mL. Under these conditions, the total flavonoids in Abelmoschus corolla were 4.63 mg/g. In the range of inhibitor concentration of 0.38~1.92 mg/mL, the inhibition rate of extracting solution was 98.35%, which had a good inhibitory effect on XOD.
Formula Optimization of Fermented Hollow Noodles
WANG Ting, LIU Chong, ZHENG Xueling
2022, 43(12): 231-239. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090261
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Machine-made fermented hollow noodles are a new nutritious flavored noodle product that appeared in the market in recent years, however, the influence of the formula on the quality of machine-made fermented hollow noodles is still unclear. In this paper, the direct fermentation method was used to make fermented hollow noodles. The effects of different addition amounts of yeast, salt, and water in flour on the cooking characteristics, texture characteristics, and sensory quality of fermented hollow noodles were investigated by a single factor experiments. On this basis, the formula of fermentation hollow noodle was optimized by response surface Box-Behnken experiment. The results showed that the best formula for fermented hollow noodles was: Based on the quality of flour, the amount of yeast added was 0.83%, the amount of salt added was 0.64%, and the amount of water was 33.67%. The evaluating value of the fermented hollow noodles under the optimized conditions was 0.909, which was consistent with the evaluating value of 0.932 predicted by the model, indicating that its flavor was good, the taste was smooth, cooking and texture characteristics were excellent. The addition of salt and water had extremely significant effects on the chewiness of the fermented hollow noodles (P<0.01), the addition of yeast and water had a significant effect on the total sensory score (P<0.05), and the addition of salt had a very significant effect on the cooking loss (P<0.01). This research could provide theoretical and technical guidance for the production of machine-made fermented hollow noodles.
Study on the Process Optimization of Quinoa Black Medlar Yogurt and Its Antioxidant Activity
WANG Juan, SUN Ruilin, LIU Xin, XIE Keying, QIAN Zhiwei
2022, 43(12): 240-245. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022010075
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Using quinoa and black medlar as compound additives, the adhesion and sensory scores were used as indicators to investigate the effects of quinoa slurry, black medlar powder, xylitol and lactic acid bacteria inoculation on quinoa black medlar sugar free yogurt. For the influence of quality, orthogonal experiment was carried out on the basis of single factor experiments to optimize the yogurt craft formula, and conduct research on physiochemical indexes, microbiological indexes, lactic acid bacteria counts and antioxidant activities. Results showed that the optimal processing parameters were as follows: Guinoa slurry 25%, black medlar powder 1.0%, xylitol 8%, lactic acid bacteria inoculation 1.0%. The yogurt made under this process had rich aroma of quinoa and black medlar, a sensory score of 93.2 and an adhesion of −2.35 N. At the same time, the physiochemical and microbiological indexes, lactic acid bacteria counts met the corresponding national food safety standard for yogurt. The IC50 of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in quinoa black medlar yogurt were 6.1 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, and the scavenging abilities were higher than those of the control group (35.9 and 40.5 mg/mL). The scavenging ability of DPPH and hydroxyl radical increased in different degrees during storage.
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Food Safety
Investigation of the Biogenic Amine Content in Jiangxi-made Sufu and Isolation and Identification of Amine-producing Bacteria
WANG Weiya, HUANG Ruiyu, LUO Yu, WU Shanshan, LIU Yuting, LI Jinlin
2022, 43(12): 246-252. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110004
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The biogenic amine Level in Jiangxi-made sufu was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and amine-producing bacteria were isolated and identified by microbiological methods combined with HPLC confirmation. The results showed that total biogenic amine level ranged from 68.5 to 1084.0 mg/kg in sufu samples. Major biogenic amines were tryptamine, putrescine, histamine and tyramine, among which putrescine and tyramine were of the highest level. Biogenic amine level produced by 9 amine-producing bacteria ranged from 93.8 to 369.2 mg/L. For six bacteria with relatively high amine productivity, phenotype and genotype 16S rDNA sequence determination had found one Bacillus sporothermodurans strain, one Rummeliibacillus stabekisii strain, three Lysinacillus boronitolerans strains and one Staphylococcus piscifermentans strain. The current research offered theoretical evidence for edible safety evaluation of sufu and served as research basis to investigate how to inhibit activity of amine-producing bacteria in sufu.
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Analysis and Determination
Bioactive Composition, Antioxidant, and α-Glucosidase Inhibition of Edible Areca catechu Waste Seed
ZHANG Peiyue, TANG Minmin, SONG Fei, LIU Can, CHEN Hua
2022, 43(12): 253-260. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090023
Abstract(54) HTML (23) PDF(13)
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In view of the problem that edible Areca catechu seeds treated as waste and cannot be massively used after processing, in this study, the waste seeds after edible Areca catechu processing (PAS) are used. 75% ethanol extract of PAS (processed seed extraction, PSE) was extracted assisted by ultrasonic with a 75% ethanol solution as the extraction solvent. The contents of total polyphenols, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in the PSE were determined. Three methods (radical scavenging activities and Fe3+ reduction) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of PSE. Then the inhibitory of PSE on the activity of α-glucosidase was studied. The result showed that PSE was rich in polyphenols and flavonoid. The total contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were (127.29±5.16) milligram gallic acid, (421.84±13.82) milligram rutin, and (87.83±6.60) milligram epicatechin in per gram of PSE, respectively. PSE contains 44 flavonoids were detected in PSE, in which the relative content of catechins was up to 77.27%. The IC50 for scavenging DPPH free radical and ABTS+ free radical of PSE were (310.10±0.62) and (150.10±11.57) μg/mL, respectively. In addition, PSE had significant inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, and its ability to inhibit α-glucosidase (IC50=(90.10±1.89) μg/mL) was significantly stronger (P<0.05) than acabosose as a positive control (IC50=(453.60±4.02) μg/mL). Therefore, it is necessary to recycle the PAS.
Comparison of 37 Fatty Acids and Squalene in Walnut Oil and Common Vegetable Oils
JIN Chun’ai, WANG Rongcan, WANG Xinyi, JIN Meiling, WANG Yufang, LI Yali
2022, 43(12): 261-267. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090043
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To explore the difference of nutritional value between walnut oil and soybean oil, sesame oil, corn germ oil and other common vegetable oils. The content of 37 fatty acids and squalene in four vegetable oils were determined by the gas-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography method, and the results were compared and analyzed. The results showed that walnut oil and vegetable oil commonly used nutritional value exists significant difference (P<0.05), walnut oil was rich in α-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, linoleic acid 3 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acids and oleic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids, also contained a small amount of palmitic acid, stearic acid and other saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acid in the walnut oil composition and proportion was significantly higher than other vegetable oils (P<0.05). The composition and proportion of saturated fatty acids were significantly lower than those of other vegetable oils (P<0.05). Walnut oil contained slightly less squalene than sesame oil, making it a high-quality vegetable oil. The order of total fatty acid content was soybean oil> sesame oil>walnut oil>corn germ oil, and the contents were 78.11, 73.96, 69.20 and 48.83 g/100 g, respectively. The four vegetable oils all contained human essential fatty acids (EFA) such as α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid and eicosadienoic acid. The content of ETA from high to low was walnut oil>soybean oil>corn germ oil>sesame oil, accounting for 90.0%, 70.7%, 64.9% and 54.1% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The ratio analysis of oleic acid content to linoleic acid content showed that the order of the ratio R for four kinds of vegetable oils from high to low was sesame oil>corn germ oil> soybean oil>walnut oil, and the value was 0.62, 0.35, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. The results showed that sesame oil had the highest antioxidant capacity and the longest shelf life among the four vegetable oils in this study. Squalene was detected in soybean oil, sesame oil and walnut oil, but not in corn germ oil. The content of squalene in soybean oil, sesame oil and walnut oil from high to low were173.3、72.9 and 31.4 mg/kg , respectively. The study indicated that the content of fatty acids and squalene in different vegetable oils were different, which would provide scientific data support for the analysis of nutritional value of edible vegetable oil and the research and development of related food and health care products.
Effect of Adding Compound Sugar on the Quality of Solidified Yogurt
ZHU Yuting, HU Zhihe, HUO Chenchen, MI Chunying
2022, 43(12): 268-282. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090082
Abstract(70) HTML (20) PDF(18)
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Erythritol, mogroside and stevioside were compounded and mixed in 49.5:1:1 to replace sucrose, and the ratio of compound sugar and sucrose under the same sweetness was 7.77:1. The differences of sensory characteristics and physical and chemical indexes between sucrose-free yoghurt with compound sugar and plain yoghurt with the same sweetness sucrose fermented at 43 ℃ were studied. The color, odour and taste of plain yogurt and sucrose-free yogurt were detected by electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue, respectively. The acidity, hardness, viscosity and lactic acid bacteria were determined by phenolphthalein indicator, mass structure, rheometer and plate counting. The results indicated that the acidity range of sucrose-free yogurt with compound sugar and plain yogurt with the same sweetness sucrose ranged from 70.11°T to 72.18°T, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). During the fermentation process, the acid production rate of sucrose-free yoghurt with compound sugar concentration of 4%, 8%, 10% and 12% was faster than that of plain yogurt with the same sweetness sucrose, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The acid production rate of sucrose-free yogurt with compound sugar concentration of 6% was significantly higher than that of plain yogurt within 1 to 3 h of fermentation (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in acid production rate between the two types of yogurt within 4~5 h (P>0.05). Within 1 to 3 h of fermentation, the hardness and viscosity of plain yogurt and sucrose-free yogurt with the same sweetness increased slowly. The increasing rate of hardness and viscosity of sugar-free yogurt was significantly higher than that of plain yogurt with the same sweetness (P<0.05). In the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria proliferation of sucrose-free yogurt with the same sweetness was faster than that of plain yogurt, and there was a significant difference (P<0.05). The sensory score of sucrose-free yogurt was higher than that of plain yogurt with the same sweetness. The odour and color of plain yogurt with sucrose concentration of 4%, 10% and 12% were significantly different from that of sucrose-free yogurt with the same sweetness (P<0.05). The volatile component analysis results showed that 31 and 44 volatile components were detected in different plain yogurt and sucrose-free yogurt, respectively. And there was no significant difference in taste (P>0.05). In addition, there were no significant difference in color and smell between the plain yogurt with sucrose concentration of 6% and 8% and the sucrose-free yogurt with the same sweetness (P>0.05), but there were significant differences in taste (P<0.05). Therefore, plain yogurt was significantly different compared to the equivalent sweet sucrose-free yogurt.
Determination of 14 Pesticide Residues in Tea by QuEChERS Combined with Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry
ZHU Yingjie, CAO Yanqing, MAO Jie, ZHANG Kang, DONG Fangting, HE Kun, WANG Na
2022, 43(12): 283-290. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090215
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A method for the determination of 14 pesticide residues in tea was developed by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) pretreatment combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The tea samples were extracted with acetonitrile (with 1% acetic acid), purified using QuEChERS purification columns and then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The effects of four purification columns on tea extracts and the recoveries of pesticide residues were compared. The column with better purification effect and recovery was selected to further investigate the matrix effect, linear relationship, and recovery of the method. The results showed that the detection limit of the method was 0.001~2.000 μg/L, and the limit of quantification was 0.003~5.000 μg/L. Reliable linear relationship within the corresponding concentration range were observed for 14 pesticides, with coefficient of determination between 0.9926 and 0.9989. The average recoveries were 71.2%~117.4% at the spiking levels of 100, 500, and 800 μg/kg with RSDs at the range of 1.1%~14.2%. This method showed its advantages of simple and fast operation, sensitivity and recovery rate, meeting the requirements for determination of multi pesticide residues in tea.
Changes of Components Affecting Color, Aroma and Taste during the Processing of Anxi Tieguanyin
KANG Yuxin, CHEN Yongkuai, XIAO Liangde, LIAO Shuilan, ZHAO Jian
2022, 43(12): 291-298. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090283
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The effects of different processing procedures on the aroma and quality components of Anxi Tieguanyin were studied, to provide a certain scientific basis for improving further development of Tieguanyin. In this study, Tieguanyin was processed according to the production process of Anxi Tieguanyin. The changes of aroma components, tea polyphenols, caffeine, free amino acids, flavonoids, tea pigments and other important internal components of Tieguanyin were investigated. Significant differences of the component contents were observed in different processing stages. The content of tea polyphenols and caffeine showed an overall downward trend. The content of tea polyphenols and caffeine were decreased by 68.52% and 47.74% during the entire processing process, while the content of amino acids and flavonoids showed an overall upward trend. The amino acids content during the entire processing process was increased by 59.67% and the flavonoids content was increased by 1.62 times. The content of tea pigments showed no obvious changes. Among them, the Shaqing process had the greatest impact on the color and fragrance components of Tieguanyin during the processing. After the Shaqing process, the content of tea polyphenols was decreased by 40.66%, and the content of flavonoids significantly was increased to 6.93 mg/g, which was the key processing node. In addition, Shaiqing, Yaoqing and Liangqing were also important processes that affected the aroma and quality of Tieguanyin. This article provided scientific basis for the quality improvement and process optimization of Anxi Tieguanyin.
Comparative Study on the Green Sichuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) and Their Leaching Residue with Different Origins
ZHOU Zhishuai, LI Jiao, XU Liming, YANG Meng, HE Li
2022, 43(12): 299-309. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090331
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In order to increase the comprehensive utilization rate of green Sichuan pepper and improve economic benefits, the slag material with higher quality was screened out to develop related products. This study used ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy scanning, principal component factor analysis, correlation analysis and cluster analysis to comprehensively evaluate the green Sichuan pepper slag from five different origins (Sichuan Han, Sichuan Hongya, Sichuan Jinyang, Chongqin Jiangjin, Yunnan Zhaotong). The results showed that the similarity of the five types of green Sichuan pepper in the early soaking period was between 0.994 and 0.997, and the similarity after the extraction was between 0.980 and 0.991, indicating that the extraction process had a certain influence on the quality of green Sichuan pepper. The hydroxy-β-sanshool content, opening ratio, ash, moisture, chlorophyll, △L*, △b* and sensory score of the green Sichuan pepper showed a downward trend, △a* and △E*showed an upward trend. The overall quality of the slag after the leaching of green Sichuan pepper was as follows: Sichuan Jinyang, Sichuan Hongya, Chongqing Jiangjin, Yunnan Zhaotong and Sichuan Hanyuan. When the threshold was less than 35.54, there were significant differences between Sichuan Jinyang and the other four producing origins of green Sichuan pepper. This study could provide a theoretical reference for the comprehensive utilization of raw materials and product development of green Sichuan pepper residue.
GC-MS Analysis of Constituents of Volatile Oil in Different Parts of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla
WEI Jing, TANG Lijie, LOU Xiaoyue, HOU Tingting, CHU Yuru, LIU Yan, LIU Bingbing, WANG Ning, QIAN Huiqin
2022, 43(12): 310-316. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100145
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Objective: The study aimed to compare the variance of constituents of volatile oil in the stems, leaves and flowers of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (VNH). Methods: The volatile oil in the stems, leaves and flowers of VNH were extracted by hydrodistillation, respectively, and their constituents were analyzed and identified by GC-MS, and the differences in their chemical compositions were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Results: Total of 83 volatile components were identified from different parts of the VNH, including olefins, alcohols, ketones, esters, etc. 14, 58 and 55 volatile components were detected from the stems, leaves, and flowers, accounting for 59.91%, 98.32% and 95.83% of the total volatile oils in each part, respectively. Only 8 volatile components were shared by three parts, whereas 4, 22 and 21 volatile components were unique to the stems, leaves and flowers, respectively. The differential components of the volatile oils from different parts of VNH were obtained by PCA, in which the signature volatile components in the stem were 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, 14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid, methyl ester, heneicosane, etc, and the trademark volatile components in the leaves were β-terpinene, elemol, caryophyllene oxide, etc, whereas the hallmark volatile components in the flowers were formed by sabenene, 2,3-dihydro-3-[2-aminoethyl]-5-methoxy-1,3- dimethyl-indole-2-one, citenamide, etc. As revealed by the results of the cluster analysis, the stems of VNH were clustered with the flowers and then with the leaves. Conclusion: The composition of the volatile oil in the stems, leaves and flowers of of VNH had certain variability, which would provide a scientific basis for the further medicinal or industrial exploitation of different parts of VNH.
Establishment of Highly Sensitive Determination Method for Mineral Oil Contaminants in Vegetable Oil-based Canned Fish Products
YANG Mengqi, LIU Lingling, LI Bingning, WU Yanwen
2022, 43(12): 317-324. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100291
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A method for the high-sensitive determination of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in vegetable oil-based canned fish was established, and applied in some commercial products. The samples were extracted and purified by saponification and epoxidation, and were fractionated, concentrated and quantitatively determined by on-line high performance liquid chromatography coupled with gas chromatography (HPLC-GC) for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). The results showed that the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.5 mg/kg and the spiked recovery was 90.0%~106.0%, and the precision (RSD) was 1.6%~12.7%, which met the requirements of the European Joint Research Center (JRC) for the analysis of MOH in the higher-fat/oil-content foods. This method was applied to detect ten canned fish products sold in Beijing. It was found that all of those contained MOSH with contents of 2.6~53.7 mg/kg, of which five detected MOAH with a content of 0.7~5.5 mg/kg. The MOH chromatographic profiles indicated that the contaminants were closely related to the sources of the vegetable oils and fish meat in those products.
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Storage and Preservation
Changes of Trachurus japonicus Muscle Quality and Protein Physicochemical Properties during Frozen Storage and Correlation Analysis
LI Hongyue, WANG Jinxiang, LI Xuepeng, LI Jianrong, LI Tingting, LIN Hong, WANG Mingli, GUO Xiaohua, YU Jianyang, LAO Minjun
2022, 43(12): 325-337. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100278
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In order to explore the changes of Trachurus japonicus freshness quality during frozen storage, the color, conductivity, ice crystal size and morphology, texture, K value, TBA value, Raman spectrum, secondary structure of total protein, total sulfhydryl content, active sulfhydryl content and Ca2+-ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein were investigated during the frozen storage of −18 ℃ for 90 days with vacuum and air packaging. The results showed that the K value, L* value, whiteness value and TBA value of samples both in VP and AP groups increased gradually with the extend of storage time, among which the K value increased by 65.83% and 66.44% after frozen storage for 90 days, respectively. At the same time, the porosity of ice crystal in fish muscle increased gradually, while a* value, b* value, hardness, chewiness and resilience decreased gradually, however the cohesiveness and conductivity increased firstly and then decreased. The α-helix percentage of muscle protein decreased from 63.28% to 43.70% and 41.91%, respectively, while β-folding, β-turning and random curling percentage increased gradually. The total sulfhydryl content and active sulfhydryl content of myofibrillar protein decreased gradually, Ca2+-ATPase activity decreased by 63.58% and 72.52%, respectively. The packaging had little different effect on muscle quality during frozen storage, but had a certain effect on protein biochemical characteristics in which vacuum packaging effect was slightly better than that of air packaging. Correlation analysis showed that K value, whiteness value, TBA value, sulfhydryl content, Ca2+-ATPase activity, total protein secondary structure content of the samples of the two groups were significantly correlated (P<0.05) or highly significantly correlated (P<0.01) with the frozen storage time and each other, indicating that those indexes could be used as effective indexes to evaluate the quality change of T. japonicus during frozen storage. This study provided a theoretical reference for the further studying of the quality change mechanism and the shelf life prediction of T. japonicus.
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Nutrition and Healthcare
Effect of Rosa roxburghii Tratt Powder on Alleviating Oxidative Stress Injury of Skeletal Muscle in Overtrained Rat
ZHANG Shuaijun, TANG Yuemei, ZHANG Dading, ZHANG Jin
2022, 43(12): 338-346. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021090352
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Objective: To explore the effects of different concentrations of Rosa roxburghii Tratt powder on antioxidant stress injury of skeletal muscle in overtrained rats. Methods: The rats were divided into the control group (C group), exercise group (HT group), low concentration Rosa roxburghii Tratt powder exercise group (L-HT group) and high concentration Rosa roxburghii Tratt powder exercise group (H-HT group). HT, L-HT and H-HT groups underwent treadmill training with increasing load for 6 weeks, respectively. During the training, L-HT group and H-HT group were intragastrically administered with 20 and 50 mg/mL Rosa roxburghii Tratt powder solution at the dose of 20 mL·kg−1·d−1, respectively. Group C and HT were given the same dose of saline. The samples collected 24 hours after last training were used to measure serum creatine kinase (CK), interleukin -1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in skeletal muscle were determined. The expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), B cell lymphoma factor-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-related X protein(Bax) in skeletal muscle was detected. Results: Compared with the HT group, the activity of CK decreased (P<0.05), the activity of SOD increased (P<0.05), the contents of IL-1β, TNF-α and MDA decreased (P<0.05), the concentration of GSH increased (P<0.05), the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and Bcl-2 proteins increased (P<0.05), and the expression of Bax protein decreased in L-HT group (P<0.05). The activity of CK decreased (P<0.01), the activity of SOD increased (P<0.01), the contents of IL-1β, TNF-α and MDA decreased (P<0.01), the concentration of GSH increased (P<0.01), the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and Bcl-2 proteins increased (P<0.01), and the expression of Bax protein decreased in H-HT group (P<0.01). Compared with the L-HT group, the activity of CK decreased (P<0.05), the activity of SOD increased (P<0.05), the contents of IL-1β, TNF-α and MDA decreased (P<0.05), the expression of Nrf-2, HO-1 and Bcl-2 protein increased (P<0.05), and the expression of Bax protein decreased in H-HT group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Rosa roxburghii Tratt powder had a good protective effect on oxidative stress injury induced by overtraining in rats, and there was a dose-response relationship between the dosage of Rosa roxburghii Tratt powder and antioxidative stress injury in a certain range.
Assessment of Compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus Tea on Hypoglycaemic Activity
LI Xin, CHEN Mei, XI Yi, WANG Xin, SHAN Yuanyuan, LÜ Xin
2022, 43(12): 347-353. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100113
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This study aimed to explore the hypoglycaemic effects of the compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea. In this study, the compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea was administered to normal mice. Moreover, a mouse model of hyperglycemia was established, and high (3.0 g/kg BW), medium (2.0 g/kg BW), and low (1.0 g/kg BW) doses of compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea were administered to mice with hyperglycemia. The body weight, blood glucose and glucose tolerance indexes of the mice were detected. In addition, the control group was given placebo and the experimental group was given compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea twice a day, 3 g each time for 60 days in hyperglycemic people. The changes in glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose and clinical symptoms were observed. The results showed that compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea had no effect on the body weight and blood glucose in normal mice, but the 2 h blood glucose of hyperglycemic model mice in high and medium dose groups were decreased significantly and extremely significantly, respectively (P<0.05, P<0.01). The area under the blood glucose curve of hyperglycemic model mice in the high dose group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The results of clinical trials showed compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose and 2 h blood glucose in hyperglycemic people (P<0.01). The effective rate of blood glucose reduction was 70.91%, and the effective rate of improving the symptoms of thirst, polyuria, polydipsia, hunger, fatigue was more than 44.90%. In conclusion, the compound Pueraria lobate and Ophiopogon japonicus tea had hypoglycaemic activity. The study had important significance and value for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.
Analysis of Active Constituents, Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Epimedium sagittatum Extract
WANG Qinjun, WANG Cuiping, LIU Jianxin, CHEN Chen
2022, 43(12): 354-360. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100171
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Objective: To study and evaluate the active components, contents and in vitro biological activities of Epimedium sagittatum extract. Methods: Contents of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides and proanthocyanidins in the extract of Epimedium sagittatum were determined by spectrophotometry, the contents of five flavonoids in the extract were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the antioxidant activity of Epimedium sagittatum extract was evaluated by scavenging DPPH, OH, ABTS+ free radical method, and the inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were determined. Results: The contents of total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides and proanthocyanidins in the extract of Epimedium sagittatum were 105.60±0.92, 70.09±0.75, 18.45±1.27, 8.79±0.13 mg/g, respectively. HPLC detected five kinds of flavonoids in the extract. Among them, Icariin and epimedin C contained the highest content, which were 266.16±4.22 and 43.35±0.67 mg/g, respectively. Baohuoside I contained the least, which was 2.54±0.07 mg/g. Epimedium sagittatum extracts had certain free radical scavenging ability. The half-clearing concentrations (IC50) of Epimedium sagittatum extracts on DPPH·, ·OH, and ABTS+· were 4.43±0.40, 2.83±0.09 and 2.04±0.08 mg/mL, respectively. The scavenging ability was concentration-dependent. Meanwhile, The IC50 of Epimedium sagittatum extract on lipase, tyrosinase and acetyl/butyrylcholinesterase were 5.97±0.04, 2.27±0.23, 9.27±0.07 and 7.41±0.26 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Epimedium sagittatum extracts was rich in active substances, had a good scavenging effect on DPPH, OH, ABTS+ free radicals, and had certain inhibition on pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase effect.
Rosa roxburghii Fruit Wine Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Type 2 Diabetic Rats
AN Yuhong, ZHOU Jing, ZHU Dexing
2022, 43(12): 361-368. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021100316
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of Rosa roxburghii fruit wine on glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in type 2 diabetic rats and its possible mechanisms. The model of type 2 diabetic mice was established by high fat and high sugar diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ). The rats were divided into high (8 mL/kg), medium (4 mL/kg), low (2 mL/kg) dose groups and model group, blank group. Fasting blood glucose was measured every two weeks for 28 d. After the experiment, the contents of High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fructosamine (FMN), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and hepatic glycogen were measured in serum and liver. The relative mRNA expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPK), Acetyl-CoA carboxylases alpha (ACACA), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), Glucose Transporter 2 (GLUT2) and Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in liver were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that compared with the model group, Rosa roxburghii fruit wine alleviated the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia and polyphagia in type 2 diabetic rats. High and medium dose Rosa roxburghii fruit wine significantly reduced fasting blood glucose and fructosamine content in experimental rats (P<0.05). The contents of TC, TG and LDL-C in plasma and liver were decreased and the content of HDL-C was increased in each dose group. Among them, the high and medium dose showed significant effects (P<0.05). Each dose group significantly increased the relative expression of AMPK, GLUT2 and ACACA mRNA (P<0.05). High, medium and low dose increased the relative expression of FASN mRNA, and the high and medium dose had significant effects (P<0.05). High and medium dose also significantly decreased the relative expression of G6Pase, PEPCK, HMG-COA and CYP7A1 mRNA (P<0.05). Conclusion: The mechanisms of Rosa roxburghii fruit wine to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in type 2 diabetic rats may be related to the inhibition of endogenous cholesterol, the increase of lipid de novo synthesis and the increase of glucose transmembrane rotational speed.
Study on Protective Effects of Glycyrrhiza and Pueraria Fermentation Composition on Rats with Chronic Liver Injury
WANG Jing, LI Fengjuan, ZHANG Huapeng, LIU Jinglan, WU Like
2022, 43(12): 369-376. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021110140
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Objective: To study the protective effect and potential mechanism of glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition on chronic liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Methods: SD rats were intragastric with normal saline, Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate Capsules (GLX) and glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition, respectively, and treated with carbon tetrachloride to establish chronic liver injury model. The contents of liver function indexes (ALT, AST, TBIL, TP), liver fiber indexes (PLD, TGF-β1, HA), endotoxin and inflammatory factors (LPS, TNF-α, IL-6) in serum of mice were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of liver tissue were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. At the same time, the intestinal flora of different treatment groups was quantitatively analyzed. Results: Compared with normal saline treatment group, treatment group glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition mice serum AST, ALT level decreased extremely significant (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in serum TBIL and TP levels in glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition treatment group before and after modeling. The results of liver fibrosis index showed that TGF-β1 (P<0.01), PLD (P<0.01) and HA (P<0.05) in glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition protected group were significantly lower than those in normal saline control group. Compared with normal saline treatment group, there were no significant differences in serum IL-6 and LPS levels before and after modeling in glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition treatment group, while TNF-α level extremely significant decreased in glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition treatment group (P<0.01). Pathological observation showed that there were no obvious pathological changes in liver tissues in glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition and GLX treatment groups. The number of EMB, EC, KV and CD in glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition protection group decreased, while TPY and MRS increased. Conclusion: Glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition and GLX had certain protective effects on chronic liver injury induced by CCl4 in rats, and glycyrrhiza and pueraria fermentation composition had more significant effects on liver fibrosis, reducing inflammation and endotoxin levels, and regulating intestinal flora during chronic liver injury.
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Teaching and Research
Exploration and Practice of the National Top-class Undergraduate Course “Food Nutriology” Construction
YANG Ruili, SHEN Xing, XU Zhenlin, LIU Chunhong, LEI Hongtao, LI Meiying, SUN Yuanming, WANG Hong
2022, 43(12): 377-382. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022020238
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Food Nutriology is one of the main course for students of Food Science in South China Agricultural University. The teaching group is devoted to reforming and innovation of teaching theory and practice, constantly improving the teaching resource, and applying the technical means of intelligent and information to teaching. The “learning-thinking-distinguishing-applying combination” teaching model is gradually formed. The course is awarded the national top-class undergraduate courses by the Ministry of Education in November 2020. The construction and development process of course, course positioning and objectives, construction of teaching group, course content and resources construction, teaching mode and characteristic innovation are introduced in this paper, to provide some useful references for advancing the construction and teaching reform of food science courses.
Exploration and Practice of Ideological and Political Construction of Food Science and Engineering under the Background of New Engineering
XU Chunya, LIU Ru
2022, 43(12): 383-388. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022030145
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New engineering construction is a major strategic action to actively deal with a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial change. Ideological and political education in courses is an important way to deepen the reform of engineering education and cultivate excellent engineering talents with virtue plus ability. This paper analyzes the realistic predicament of the ideological and political construction of food science and engineering specialty courses under the background of new engineering. Meanwhile, the reform practice of the ideological and political education in food science and engineering major of Huazhong Agricultural University is summarized. Finally, this paper proposes five practical paths of ideological and political education in food science and engineering, in order to promote and improve training quality of scientific and technological talents in food engineering. The five practical paths of ideological and political education are the construction of teachers, the construction of courses, the reform of classroom instruction, the students' self-study and the top-level design of college party committee.
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Reviews
Application Progress of Fluorescent Nanomaterials as Mimic Enzymes in Biochemical Analysis
GUAN Huanan, WANG Dandan, SUN Bingyu, WU Yongcun, ZHANG Yue
2022, 43(12): 389-397. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021030338
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Fluorescent nanomaterials mainly include fluorescent carbon nanomaterials, fluorescent metal nanomaterials, multifunctional composite nanomaterials and metal frames. The materials not only have unique fluorescence intensity and high photostability, but also have unique quantum effect, small size and other properties of nanomaterials. In recent years, due to its high stability, low cost, easy preparation and other characteristics, it has gradually become the preferred material for mimic enzyme, which has brought new development opportunities for food, medical and biochemical fields. In this paper, the application of fluorescent nanomaterials as mimetic enzymes in biochemical analysis in recent years and the latest research progress are briefly summarized, and the future challenges and prospects of fluorescent nanomaterials as mimetic enzymes are prospected.
Research Progress on Anti-tumor Effects of Theaflavins
CHEN Xiaojing, ZHU Jinwei, ZHANG Chen, ZHOU Zhengjiang, YU Lihui, FANG Chongye
2022, 43(12): 398-406. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060134
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Theaflavins (TFs) are benzopropenoids containing multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups with broad-spectrum pharmacological activities, which can control and regulate the expression of tumour-initiating enzymes or related factors or promote apoptosis, inhibit tumour cell proliferation and metastasis, thus efficiently participating in both pre-cancer prevention and post-cancer treatment. This review summarizes the available in vitro and in vivo evidence, using various tumour cell lines and animal models, to demonstrate that theophyllin inhibits tumour cell proliferation, growth and metastasis mainly by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and identifies the targets of action of theophyllin in some tumours, with far-reaching implications for the prevention and treatment of some tumours.
Recent Advances in Polygonatum Polysaccharides: Extraction, Isolation, Purification and Bioactivities
YANG Maohui, ZHOU Xin, QIAO Zhengwen, ZHAO Chao, GONG Xiaojian, DENG Qingfang, CHEN Huaguo
2022, 43(12): 407-416. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060142
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Polygonatum is a herbaceous plant of Polygonatum in Liliaceae., which has the functions of tonifying Qi, nourishing Yin, strengthening spleen, moistening lung and benefiting kidney. Polygonatum polysaccharide is one of the main components of Polygonatum and Polygonatum is rich in polysaccharides. Polygonatum polysaccharide is a kind of natural product resource used as medicine and food, in which complex structure and rich biological activity have become one of the hot spots in the development and research of food, medicine and other fields. In this paper, the extraction, purification, structure analysis and bioactivities of Polygonatum polysaccharides are reviewed. The research direction and application prospect of Polygonatum polysaccharides are prospected in order to provide theoretical reference for further development and utilization of Polygonatum polysaccharides.
Advances in the Application of Cold Plasma Technology in Food Sterilization
ZHANG Guantao, ZHANG Dongjie, LI Juan, WANG Hongjiang, JIN Luda, GUAN Yuhang, XU Minlin
2022, 43(12): 417-426. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060170
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Cold plasma technology is a new non-thermal processing technology, which has been applied in many fields in the food industry at present. The technology uses the media around food to produce active substances such as photoelectrons, ions and free radicals, playing a unique role in the inhibition of microorganisms in food and the degradation of chemical pesticides. In this paper, fresh fruits and vegetables, fresh seafood, meat and poultry products, as the research and analysis object, systematically discusses the formation mechanism and technical characteristics of cold plasma, analyzes the factors that affect its sterilization efficiency and the technical conditions for improving the sterilization efficiency. On this basis, the research progress of the application of cold plasma technology in fresh fruits and vegetables, fresh seafood, meat and poultry products are summarized from the perspective of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and maintaining the freshness of food, and the development trend of the application of cold plasma technology is prospected, which would provide reference for the application research of cold plasma technology in food industry.
Advances in Traceability Typing and Identification of Foodborne Pathogens
LIU Yao, WEI Yuanmiao, LI Ling, YI Lunzhao, ZHAO Weiwei, SHANG Ying, CAO Jianxin
2022, 43(12): 427-437. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060191
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Foodborne pathogens are the main factors affecting food quality and safety. Timely and accurate strain typing data enable rapid detection of outbreak clusters, informing ongoing infection control and public health responses, which are important for preventing the outbreak of foodborne disease. In recent years, great progress has been made in various bacterial typing methods. This paper reviews typing techniques against foodborn bacterial pathogens, including serotyping, phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Repetitive-element PCR (Rep-PCR), infrequent restriction site PCR (IRS-PCR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST), single nucleotide polymorphism, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The principles of the different techniques are described with the condition in which they are applicable, and a comparative analysis of the traceability typing ability is discussed to provide epidemiological surveillance programmers for foodborne pathogens.
Research Progress on Oat Nutrients, Functional Properties and Related Products
REN Changzhong, YAN Jinting, DONG Rui, HU Xinzhong
2022, 43(12): 438-446. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021060196
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Oats are important international and domestic specialty crops which contain high level of macronutrients including protein, fat and soluble dietary fiber as well as micronutrients such as polyphenol compounds, minerals, and vitamins. Oat products can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is manifested in the effects of lowering blood pressure, improving atherosclerosis, lowering postprandial blood sugar levels and insulin response, anti-tumor, immune regulation, regulating intestinal flora, preventing and treating skin inflammation, losing weight, balancing mentality, relieving anxiety, etc. In China, series of oatmeal products have been produced, which can be divided into popular traditional foods, high value-added products and low GI special dietary products. According to the studies of oats, the functions of oats and their processed products are summarized as follows: Protecting blood vessel, lowering blood lipid, anti-aging, anti-fatigue, eliminating constipation and relieving anxiety.
Research Progress of Edible Fungal Polysaccharides
JIANG Hao, SUN Tao, YAO Haoyu, LI Xingkai, WANG Yanling, LEI Peng, WANG Rui, XU Hong, LI Sha, SUN Dafeng
2022, 43(12): 447-456. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070006
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Abstract:
Polysaccharide is one of the most important active ingredients of edible fungi, which is composed of diverse monosaccharide. Polysaccharide has various biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor and immune regulation. Therefore, it has been widely used as additive in functional foods. In recent years, more and more researches have been conducted on edible fungal polysaccharides, including the structure analysis, extraction process, conventional fermentation process, biosynthesis and biological activity. In this paper, the monosaccharide composition, molecular weight and glycosidic bond connection methods of several common edible fungal polysaccharides are reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of traditional and new extraction methods are discussed. Afterwards, the current status of edible fungal polysaccharides produced by fermentation in shake flasks and small bioreactor is summarized, and finally the biosynthetic mechanism of polysaccharides and its current research status are summarized. Sorting out, this review could provide a theoretical basis for the research and industrial utilization of fungal polysaccharides.
Advances on Nutritional Functional Components and Comprehensive Utilization of Wheat Germ
LIU Yue, CHOU Jiandong, CHEN Yuezhang, ZENG Hui, ZHANG Bolin, SONG Hao
2022, 43(12): 457-467. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070110
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Abstract:
Wheat germ is a precious by-product deriving from the milling industry, as it is a natural concentrated source of essential amino and fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, and functional active components. However, due to its high endogenous enzyme activity and rich content of unsaturated fatty acids, it tends to get acidificated and deteriorated rapidly, which seriously limits its development in deep processing industry. Therefore, the paper presents several separation and stabilization techniques that wheat germ went through, and summarizes the comprehensive utilization of wheat germ. Besides, the limitations and low comprehensive utilization rate of nutrition are being analyzed and discussed, and their further research and potential application prospect are prospected, aiming to provide a reference for reasonable utilization of wheat germ resources.
Current Research Status of Open-ended Questions in Food Research and Development
SHAN Bingqi, LIU Songyu, WANG Chunguang, YOU Ruihan, SONG Hao, ZHONG Kui, SHI Bolin, ZHU Baoqing
2022, 43(12): 468-474. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021070201
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Open-ended questions can be used in food sensory analysis. Generally, evaluators are required to describe the sensory features of a set of products in their own words, in order to understand how consumers’ perception of the main features of products. It can also be combined with preference surveys to explore the factors that drive product preferences and purchase decisions of consumers. This article introduces the definition of open-ended questions, implementation, data pre-processing, data analysis, application in food research, advantages and limitations of this method and its comparison with other rapid descriptive analysis methods, and looking ahead to the development prospect of this method with a view to providing reference for companies or scientific researchers in related fields who need product sensory analysis.
Research Progress on Structure-activity Relationship and Application of α-Amylase Inhibitors
LI Mengyang, CHANG Yuan, FENG Guojun, SUN Qingshen
2022, 43(12): 475-485. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021080293
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Abstract:
: α-amylase inhibitors (α-AI) are a kind of active substances which show inhibitory activities to human, insect pancreas and saliva. α-AI can reduce blood glucose index in human body and kill insects, thus widely used in medicine and agriculture. This review summarizes the source, structure and action mechanisms of protein and non-protein-based α-AI, focuses on the mechanisms from the view of structure-function relationship. The applications of α-AI in disease prevention, agricultural production and plant protection are also summarized. This review may provide new insights into the comprehensive exploitation and application of α-AI from different sources.
Characteristics of Phospholipase D and Application in the Synthesis of Phosphatidylserine
GUO Bishan, ZHANG Mengxue, WANG Juntan, DU Rui, ZHU Haihua, XU Jun, WANG Fayun, WANG Hui
2022, 43(12): 486-492. doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2021120005
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Abstract:
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a new resource food, which has less content in nature and the difficulty of extraction. Phospholipase D (PLD) is the critical synthetase in enzymatic preparation of PS. This paper mainly introduces the characteristics of molecular structure of PLD and the catalytic mechanism and enzyme activity, and summarizes the current preparation methods of PS, focusing on the research progress and reaction system of enzymatic synthesis, and analyzes and prospects the selection of the reaction system for PS preparation. It is expected to provide reference for deepening the research of enzymatic preparation of PS, so as to promote the industrial production and application of new resource food PS.
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